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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781645/sex-differences-in-emotion-recognition-evidence-for-a-small-overall-female-superiority-on-facial-disgust
#1
Hannah L Connolly, Carmen E Lefevre, Andrew W Young, Gary J Lewis
Although it is widely believed that females outperform males in the ability to recognize other people's emotions, this conclusion is not well supported by the extant literature. The current study sought to provide a strong test of the female superiority hypothesis by investigating sex differences in emotion recognition for five basic emotions using stimuli well-calibrated for individual differences assessment, across two expressive domains (face and body), and in a large sample (N = 1,022: Study 1). We also assessed the stability and generalizability of our findings with two independent replication samples (N = 303: Study 2, N = 634: Study 3)...
May 21, 2018: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781449/the-role-of-moral-disgust-and-disgust-regulation-deficits-in-skin-picking-disorder
#2
Anne Schienle
BACKGROUND: Relative to other body-focused repetitive behaviors, skin-picking has received little investigation. In particular, its association with disgust has hardly been studied. This is surprising because one etiological model of skin-picking disorder (SPD) suggests that the excessive picking is a form of disgust-motivated grooming that aims at the removal of pathogens from the skin. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This questionnaire study explored whether SPD patients (n=46) and healthy controls (n=36) differ in different facets of trait disgust (tendency to experience pathogen disgust, moral disgust, self-disgust, and disgust regulation ability)...
April 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780877/disgust-and-the-rubber-hand-illusion-a-registered-replication-report-of-jalal-krishnakumar-and-ramachandran-2015
#3
Hiroshi Nitta, Haruto Tomita, Yi Zhang, Xinxin Zhou, Yuki Yamada
Heightened experience of disgust is a feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), particularly contamination-related OCD (C-OCD). Previous studies of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) reported that the sense of body ownership is related to the interaction between vision, touch, and proprioception. One recent study demonstrated a link between the RHI and disgust, suggesting that there is an interaction between these three perceptual modalities and disgust (Jalal et al., PLOS ONE 10:e0139159, 2015). However, there have been no direct replications of this initial study...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774788/emotions-as-guardians-of-group-norms-expressions-of-anger-and-disgust-drive-inferences-about-autonomy-and-purity-violations
#4
Marc W Heerdink, Lukas F Koning, Evert A van Doorn, Gerben A van Kleef
Other people's emotional reactions to a third person's behaviour are potentially informative about what is appropriate within a given situation. We investigated whether and how observers' inferences of such injunctive norms are shaped by expressions of anger and disgust. Building on the moral emotions literature, we hypothesised that angry and disgusted expressions produce relative differences in the strength of autonomy-based versus purity-based norm inferences. We report three studies (plus three supplementary studies) using different types of stimuli (vignette-based, video clips) to investigate how emotional reactions shape norms about potential norm violations (eating snacks, drinking alcohol), and contexts (groups of friends, a university, a company)...
May 18, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768426/the-ryerson-audio-visual-database-of-emotional-speech-and-song-ravdess-a-dynamic-multimodal-set-of-facial-and-vocal-expressions-in-north-american-english
#5
Steven R Livingstone, Frank A Russo
The RAVDESS is a validated multimodal database of emotional speech and song. The database is gender balanced consisting of 24 professional actors, vocalizing lexically-matched statements in a neutral North American accent. Speech includes calm, happy, sad, angry, fearful, surprise, and disgust expressions, and song contains calm, happy, sad, angry, and fearful emotions. Each expression is produced at two levels of emotional intensity, with an additional neutral expression. All conditions are available in face-and-voice, face-only, and voice-only formats...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767821/formative-research-on-knowledge-and-preferences-for-stool-based-tests-compared-to-colonoscopy-what-patients-and-providers-think
#6
John S Luque, Kristin Wallace, Bridgette F Blankenship, Lydia G Roos, Frank G Berger, Nancy R LaPelle, Cathy L Melvin
The rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in the U.S. remain below national targets, so many people at risk are not being screened. The objective of this qualitative research project was to assess patient and provider knowledge and preferences about CRC screening modalities and specifically the use of the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) as a first line screening choice. Nine focus groups were conducted with a medically underserved patient population and qualitative interviews were administered to their medical providers...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766462/disgust-and-fear-common-emotions-between-eating-and-phobic-disorders
#7
Rami Bou Khalil, Ibrahim R Bou-Orm, Yara Tabet, Lama Souaiby, Hayat Azouri
Eating disorders (ED) are prevalent mental illnesses composed mainly of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorders. Anxiety disorders are another set of mental illnesses, with phobic disorder (PD) being the most prevalent disorder. ED and PD are highly comorbid. The aim of this study is to assess, in 131 individuals attending an outpatient clinic for different health issues, the level of fear related to situations generating avoidance such as in social anxiety and specific phobias according to the fear questionnaire (FQ), the level of disgust according to the disgust scale (DS-R) and the vulnerability towards ED according to the SCOFF scale to demonstrate that high levels of both fear and disgust increase the vulnerability towards ED...
May 15, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758391/the-impact-bias-in-self-and-others-affective-and-empathic-forecasting-in-individuals-with-social-anxiety
#8
Kimberly A Arditte Hall, Jutta Joormann, Matthias Siemer, Kiara R Timpano
People tend to overestimate the intensity and duration of affect (i.e., impact bias) when making predictions about their own and others' responding, termed affective and empathic forecasting, respectively. Research links impact biases to clinical symptoms of affective disorders, but little work has been done to examine how social anxiety is related to affective and empathic forecasting biases. The current investigation included two studies examining these associations in independent samples of young adults with dimensionally distributed social anxiety symptoms...
May 7, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735197/effect-of-parkinson-disease-on-emotion-perception-using-the-persian-affective-voices-test
#9
Arezoo Saffarian, Yunes Amiri Shavaki, Gholam Ali Shahidi, Zahra Jafari
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Emotion perception plays a major role in proper communication with people in different social interactions. Nonverbal affect bursts can be used to evaluate vocal emotion perception. The present study was a preliminary step to establishing the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Montreal Affective Voices (MAV) test, as well as to investigate the effect of Parkinson disease (PD) on vocal emotion perception. METHODS: The short, emotional sound made by pronouncing the vowel "a" in Persian was recorded by 22 actors and actresses to develop the Persian version of the MAV, the Persian Affective Voices (PAV), for emotions of happiness, sadness, pleasure, pain, anger, disgust, fear, surprise, and neutrality...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735053/correlation-between-hedonic-liking-and-facial-expression-measurement-using-dynamic-affective-response-representation
#10
Ruicong Zhi, Jingwei Wan, Dezheng Zhang, Weiping Li
Emotional reactions towards products play an essential role in consumers' decision making, and are more important than rational evaluation of sensory attributes. It is crucial to understand consumers' emotion, and the relationship between sensory properties, human liking and choice. There are many inconsistencies between Asian and Western consumers in the usage of hedonic scale, as well as the intensity of facial reactions, due to different culture and consuming habits. However, very few studies discussed the facial responses characteristics of Asian consumers during food consumption...
June 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720344/-the-sense-of-taste-in-a-clinical-setting
#11
Alexander Fjaeldstad, Henrique Fernandes, Jens Randel Nyengaard, Therese Ovesen
As a gatekeeper, taste buds forage chemicals to identify both nutrition and toxins. This can be the decisive difference between initiating the swallow reflex or spitting out the oral contents. In addition to this simple function the sense of taste takes part in more complex relations such as reflexes vs learning, perception vs expectation, and pleasure vs disgust. All relations, which can be perturbed into unbalance, create great discomfort in patients suffering from a dysfunctional sense of taste. This review discusses the most important mechanisms of taste function and dysfunction as well as the possible avenues for treatment of the disorders...
April 30, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720112/emotional-predictors-of-bowel-screening-the-avoidance-promoting-role-of-fear-embarrassment-and-disgust
#12
Lisa M Reynolds, Ian P Bissett, Nathan S Consedine
BACKGROUND: Despite considerable efforts to address practical barriers, colorectal cancer screening numbers are often low. People do not always act rationally, and investigating emotions may offer insight into the avoidance of screening. The current work assessed whether fear, embarrassment, and disgust predicted colorectal cancer screening avoidance. METHODS: A community sample (N = 306) aged 45+ completed a questionnaire assessing colorectal cancer screening history and the extent that perceptions of cancer risk, colorectal cancer knowledge, doctor discussions, and a specifically developed scale, the Emotional Barriers to Bowel Screening (EBBS), were associated with previous screening behaviours and anticipated bowel health decision-making...
May 3, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710812/electrocardiographic-and-electrooculographic-responses-to-external-emotions-and-their-transitions-in-bipolar-i-and-ii-disorders
#13
Guorong Ma, Chu Wang, Yanli Jia, Jiawei Wang, Bingren Zhang, Chanchan Shen, Hongying Fan, Bing Pan, Wei Wang
Bipolar disorder has two main types, bipolar I (BD I) and II (BD II), which present different affective states and personality characteristics, they might present different modes of emotional regulation. We hypothesized that the electrocardiogram and electrooculogram to external emotions are different in BD I and BD II. We asked 69 BD I and 54 BD II patients, and 139 healthy volunteers to undergo these tests in response to disgust, erotica, fear, happiness, neutral, and sadness, and their transitions. Their affective states were also measured...
April 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709789/high-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-left-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-restores-attention-bias-to-negative-information-in-methamphetamine-addicts
#14
Ling Zhang, Xinyu Cao, Qiongdan Liang, Xiang Li, Jiemin Yang, Jiajin Yuan
Methamphetamine (hereafter, meth) addiction results in various emotional problems linked to structural impairments in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In this paper, we investigated whether high-frequency (10 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) can improve emotional attention. Thirty-one meth addicts were randomly assigned to a 10 Hz or sham rTMS group; additionally, 31 healthy participants were enrolled, who were required to respond as correctly and quickly as possible to a yellow arrow embedded in an image depicting emotional content (neutral, fear, sadness, or disgust)...
April 21, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709719/cerebral-processing-of-facial-emotions-in-bipolar-i-and-ii-disorders-an-event-related-potential-study
#15
Bingren Zhang, Chu Wang, Guorong Ma, Hongying Fan, Jiawei Wang, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: Behavioral results have shown that bipolar disorder patients have impaired recognition of facial emotions, but the detailed information processing of facial emotions in patients with bipolar I (BD I) and II (BD II) disorders remain unknown. METHODS: We tested the cerebral event-related potentials to the static facial expressions of Neutral, Happiness, Anger and Sadness in 39 adult patients with BD I, 22 BD II, and 54 healthy volunteers. Participants' affective states were measured with the Mood Disorder Questionnaire, the Hypomania Checklist-32, and the Plutchik-van Praag Depression Inventory...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704965/changes-in-problematic-anger-shame-and-disgust-in-anxious-and-depressed-adults-undergoing-treatment-for-emotion-dysregulation
#16
Andrada D Neacsiu, Joscelyn Rompogren, Jeremy W Eberle, Kibby McMahon
Emotion dysregulation, the pervasive difficulty managing negative emotions, is a core problem across mood and anxiety disorders. Anger, shame, and disgust are particularly problematic emotions, impacting both disorder severity and treatment outcome. We previously found that a 16-week dialectical behavior therapy skills training group (DBT-ST) was superior to an activities-based support group (ASG) in decreasing emotion dysregulation in 44 adults with high emotion dysregulation who met diagnostic criteria for an anxiety or depressive disorder...
May 2018: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683406/influence-of-anxiety-and-alexithymia-on-brain-activations-associated-with-the-perception-of-others-pain-in-autism
#17
Amandine Lassalle, Nicole R Zürcher, Carlo A Porro, Francesca Benuzzi, Loyse Hippolyte, Eric Lemonnier, Jakob Åsberg Johnels, Nouchine Hadjikhani
The circumstances under which empathy is altered in ASD remain unclear, as previous studies did not systematically find differences in brain activation between ASD and controls in empathy-eliciting paradigms, and did not always monitor whether differences were primarily due to ASD "per se", or to conditions overlapping with ASD, such as alexithymia and anxiety. Here, we collected fMRI data from 47 participants (22 ASD) viewing pictures depicting hands and feet of unknown others in painful, disgusting, or neutral situations...
April 23, 2018: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681806/temporal-processing-of-joyful-and-disgusting-food-pictures-by-women-with-an-eating-disorder
#18
Caroline Gagnon, Catherine Bégin, Vincent Laflamme, Simon Grondin
The present study used the presentation of food pictures and judgements about their duration to assess the emotions elicited by food in women suffering from an eating disorder (ED). Twenty-three women diagnosed with an ED, namely anorexia (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), and 23 healthy controls (HC) completed a temporal bisection task and a duration discrimination task. Intervals were marked with emotionally pre-rated pictures of joyful and disgusting food, and pictures of neutral objects. The results showed that, in the bisection task, AN women overestimated the duration of food pictures in comparison to neutral ones...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680195/how-people-s-food-disgust-sensitivity-shapes-their-eating-and-food-behaviour
#19
Aisha Egolf, Michael Siegrist, Christina Hartmann
Although research regarding disgust has increased enormously in the last decades, to date there is a lack of published research about the influence of food disgust on various food-related behaviours. Our study aimed to provide an understanding about the relationships between food disgust sensitivity and eating preferences (texture-based food rejection), habits (variety seeking), and behaviours (picky eating) as well as food waste frequency. Additionally, sociodemographic characteristics associated with food disgust sensitivity were examined...
April 19, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672103/affective-and-cognitive-validation-of-thoughts-an-appraisal-perspective-on-anger-disgust-surprise-and-awe
#20
Pablo Briñol, Richard E Petty, Maria Stavraki, Grigorios Lamprinakos, Benjamin Wagner, Darío Díaz
Anger, disgust, surprise, and awe are multifaceted emotions. Both anger and disgust are associated with feeling unpleasant as well as experiencing a sense of confidence, whereas surprise and awe tend to be more pleasant emotions that are associated with doubt. Most prior work has examined how appraisals (confidence, pleasantness) lead people to experience different emotions or to experience different levels of intensity within the same emotion. Instead, the current research focused on the consequences (rather the antecedents) of appraisals of emotion, and it focuses specifically on the consequences for thought usage rather than the consequences for generating many or few thoughts...
May 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
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