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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122020/from-disgust-to-contempt-speech-the-nature-of-contempt-on-the-map-of-prejudicial-emotions
#1
Michal Bilewicz, Olga Katarzyna Kamińska, Mikołaj Winiewski, Wiktor Soral
Analyzing the contempt as an intergroup emotion, we suggest that contempt and anger are not built upon each other, whereas disgust seems to be the most elementary and specific basic-emotional antecedent of contempt. Concurring with Gervais & Fessler, we suggest that many instances of "hate speech" are in fact instances of "contempt speech" - being based on disgust-driven contempt rather than hate.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118158/dental-hygienists-attitudes-toward-the-obese-population
#2
Gwen Essex, Keiko Miyahara, Dorothy J Rowe
Purpose: To explore dental hygienists' attitudes toward the obese population and to determine whether there are differences in attitudes among those with different self-reported body images.Methods: The study population was dental hygienists whose email addresses were in the database of the California Dental Hygienists' Association (CDHA). CDHA distributed the electronic message containing study information, informed consent, and a link to the survey. The survey consisted of 14 items from the Fat Phobia Scale, 13 items from the Anti-fat Attitudes Questionnaire (AFAQ), 3 demographic questions, and 1 question on body image...
December 2016: Journal of Dental Hygiene: JDH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116437/morality-and-soap-in-engineers-and-social-scientists-the-macbeth-effect-interacts-with-professions
#3
Michael Schaefer
Several studies demonstrate that physical cleansing is actually efficacious to cope with threatened morality, thus demonstrating that physical and moral purity are psychologically interwoven. This so-called Macbeth effect has been explained, for example, by the conceptual metaphor theory that suggests an embodiment of the moral purity metaphor. Recent research draws attention to individual differences when using conceptual metaphors. The present study shows that the moral purity link interacts with different professions...
November 7, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112288/a-preliminary-study-of-momentary-naturalistic-indicators-of-binge-eating-episodes-in-adults-with-obesity
#4
Andrea B Goldschmidt, Ross D Crosby, Li Cao, Stephen A Wonderlich, James E Mitchell, Scott G Engel, Carol B Peterson
OBJECTIVES: Binge eating is common in adults with obesity. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Psychiatric Disorders describes five indicators of binge eating (eating more rapidly than usual; eating until uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating alone because of embarrassment over how much one is eating; and feeling disgusted with oneself, depressed, or very guilty after overeating), but their validity is unclear. METHOD: We examined preliminary associations between the five indicators and binge versus nonbinge episodes among 50 adults with obesity via ecological momentary assessment...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108463/td-the-case-of-diogenes-syndrome-deficit-or-denial
#5
Fiona Ashworth, Anita Rose, Barbara A Wilson
Diogenes Syndrome (DS) is characterised by extreme self-neglect, domestic squalor, hoarding, social withdrawal, and lack of concern and shame for the individual's residential situation. This paper describes TD who was unable to identify emotional expressions of disgust and was borderline-impaired for facial recognition associated with perceptual difficulties. Problems interpreting expressions of disgust were interesting as TD was living in squalor, neglecting himself, and lacked concern for his circumstances...
November 6, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102455/postsurgical-disfigurement-influences-disgust-recognition-a-case-control-study
#6
Quentin Lisan, Nathalie George, Stephane Hans, Ollivier Laccourreye, Cédric Lemogne
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how emotion recognition may be modified in individuals prone to elicit disgust. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if subjects with total laryngectomy would present a modified recognition of facial expressions of disgust. METHODS: A total of 29 patients presenting with a history of advanced-stage laryngeal cancer were recruited, 17 being surgically treated (total laryngectomy) and 12 treated with chemoradiation therapy only...
September 21, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096946/path-analysis-of-warning-label-effects-on-negative-emotions-and-quit-attempts-a-longitudinal-study-of-smokers-in-australia-canada-mexico-and-the-us
#7
Yoo Jin Cho, James F Thrasher, Hua-Hie Yong, André Salem Szklo, Richard J O'Connor, Maansi Bansal-Travers, David Hammond, Geoffrey T Fong, James Hardin, Ron Borland
BACKGROUND: Cigarette pack health warning labels can elicit negative emotions among smokers, yet little is known about how these negative emotions influence behavior change. OBJECTIVE: Guided by psychological theories emphasizing the role of emotions on risk concern and behavior change, we investigated whether smokers who reported stronger negative emotional responses when viewing warnings reported stronger responses to warnings in daily life and were more likely to try to quit at follow-up...
October 12, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093674/an-emotion-enriched-context-influences-the-effect-of-action-observation-on-cortical-excitability
#8
Giovanna Lagravinese, Ambra Bisio, Alessia Raffo De Ferrari, Elisa Pelosin, Piero Ruggeri, Marco Bove, Laura Avanzino
Observing other people in action activates the "mirror neuron system" that serves for action comprehension and prediction. Recent evidence suggests that this function requires a high level codification triggered not only by components of motor behavior, but also by the environment where the action is embedded. An overlooked component of action perceiving is the one related to the emotional information provided by the context where the observed action takes place. Indeed, whether valence and arousal associated to an emotion might exert an influence on motor system activation during action observation has not been assessed so far...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089874/mistakes-too-few-to-mention-impaired-self-conscious-emotional-processing-of-errors-in-the-behavioral-variant-of-frontotemporal-dementia
#9
Carole S Scherling, Jessica Zakrzewski, Samir Datta, Robert W Levenson, Arthur P Shimamura, Virginia E Sturm, Bruce L Miller, Howard J Rosen
Anosognosia, or lack of awareness of one's deficits, is a core feature of the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). We hypothesized that this deficit has its origins in failed emotional processing of errors. We studied autonomic and facial emotional reactivity to errors in patients with bvFTD (n = 17), Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 20), and healthy controls (HC, n = 35) during performance of a timed two-alternative-choice button press task. Performance-related behavioral responses to errors were quantified using rates of error correction and post-error slowing of reaction times...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072188/body-dysmorphic-disorder-latest-neuroanatomical-and-neuropsychological-findings
#10
K Tasios, I Michopoulos
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by a preoccupation with a perceived defect or flaw in physical appearance that is not observable or appears slight to others. It leads to severe distress and functional impairment. Cognitive-behavioural and neurobiological similarities to obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have led to its newly conceived classification as an obsessive compulsive related disorder (OCRD). In the process of investigating the neurobiology of BDD, neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have been conducted...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068935/orthognathic-surgery-has-a-significant-effect-on-perceived-personality-traits-and-emotional-expressions
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Daniel M Mazzaferro, Ari M Wes, Sanjay Naran, Rebecca Pearl, Scott P Bartlett, Jesse A Taylor
BACKGROUND: The effects of orthognathic surgery go beyond objective cephalometric correction of facial and dental disproportion and malocclusion, respectively. The authors hypothesized that there is tangible improvement following surgery that alters publicly perceived personality traits and emotions. METHODS: The authors used Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a crowdsourcing tool, to determine how preoperative and postoperative images of orthognathic surgery patients were perceived on six personality traits and six emotional expressions based on posteroanterior and lateral photographs...
November 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067859/enhanced-recall-of-disgusting-relative-to-frightening-photographs-is-not-due-to-organisation
#12
Hanah A Chapman
Previous research has shown that disgusting photographs are better remembered than frightening photographs, even when the two image types have equivalent valence and arousal. However, this work did not control for potential differences in organisation between the disgusting and frightening stimuli that could account for enhanced memory for disgusting photographs. The current research therefore tested whether differences in recall between disgusting and frightening photographs persist when differences in organisation are eliminated...
October 25, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065198/disgust-but-not-health-anxiety-graphic-warning-labels-reduce-motivated-attention-in-smokers-a-study-of-p300-and-late-positive-potential-responses
#13
Justinn R Cochran, Robert R Kydd, John M J Lee, Natalie Walker, Nathan S Consedine
Background: Graphic health warning labels (GHWLs) on tobacco products attempt to leverage avoidance-promoting emotions, such as anxiety and disgust, to encourage cessation. Prior studies have relied on self-report or attentional metrics that may not accurately illuminate GHWLs' ability to motivate change. This report evaluates the impact of disgust- and anxiety-based GHWLs on electroencephalograph (EEG) measures of motivated attention among two groups of smokers-those that report higher versus lower cigarette dependence...
July 7, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061602/cognitive-bias-modification-for-social-anxiety-in-adults-who-stutter-a-feasibility-study-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Jan McAllister, Sally Gascoine, Amy Carroll, Kate Humby, Mary Kingston, Lee Shepstone, Helen Risebro, Bundy Mackintosh, Tammy Davidson Thompson, Jo Hodgekins
OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and acceptability of a computerised treatment for social anxiety disorder for adults who stutter including identification of recruitment, retention and completion rates, large cost drivers and selection of most appropriate outcome measure(s) to inform the design of a future definitive trial. DESIGN: Two-group parallel design (treatment vs placebo), double-blinded feasibility study. PARTICIPANTS: 31 adults who stutter...
October 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060889/single-trial-detection-of-event-related-fields-in-meg-from-the-presentation-of-happy-faces-results-of-the-biomag-2016-data-challenge
#15
H Cecotti, A Barachant, J R King, J Sanchez Bornot, G Prasad
The recognition of brain evoked responses at the single-trial level is a challenging task. Typical non-invasive brain-computer interfaces based on event-related brain responses use eletroencephalograhy. In this study, we consider brain signals recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG), and we expect to take advantage of the high spatial and temporal resolution for the detection of targets in a series of images. This study was used for the data analysis competition held in the 20th International Conference on Biomagnetism (Biomag) 2016, wherein the goal was to provide a method for single-trial detection of even-related fields corresponding to the presentation of happy faces during the rapid presentation of images of faces with six different facial expressions (anger, disgust, fear, neutrality, sadness, and happiness)...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048304/trustworthiness-of-a-smile-as-a-function-of-changes-in-the-eye-expression
#16
Andrés Fernández-Martín, Patricia Álvarez-Plaza, Laura Carqué, Manuel G Calvo
BACKGROUND: Trusting other people is necessary for satisfactory and successful social interaction. A person’s perceived trustworthiness is related to perceived facial happiness. We investigated how trustworthy someone with a smiling face looks depending on changes in eye expression. METHOD: Video-clips of dynamic expressions were presented, with different combinations of the mouth (smiling vs. neutral) and the eyes (happy, neutral, surprised, sad, fearful, disgusted, or angry)...
November 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045812/facial-emotion-perception-in-patients-with-epilepsy-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Michelle Edwards, Elizabeth Stewart, Romina Palermo, Suncica Lah
Facial emotion perception is a fundamental social competency relying on a specialised, yet distributed, neural network. This review aimed to determine whether patients with epilepsy have facial emotion perception accuracy impairments overall, or for a subset of emotions (anger, disgust, happiness, sadness, fear, and surprise), and the relationship to epilepsy type, demographic/treatment variables, and brain organisation. Database searches used PRISMA guidelines with strict inclusion/exclusion criteria. Thirty included studies assessed patients with temporal lobe (TLE; n=709), frontocentral (FCE; n=22), and genetic generalised (GGE; n=48) epilepsy...
October 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043915/corrigendum-beyond-purity-moral-disgust-toward-bad-character
#18
(no author information available yet)
Original article: Giner-Sorolla, R., & Chapman, H. A. (2017). Beyond purity: Moral disgust toward bad character. Psychological Science, 28, 80-91. doi:10.1177/0956797616673193 In this article, some effect sizes in the Results section for Study 1 were reported incorrectly and are now being corrected. In the section titled Manipulation Checks: Act and Character Ratings, we reported a d value of 0.32 for the one-sample t test comparing participants' act ratings with the midpoint of the scale; the correct value is 0...
October 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042636/dysfunctional-early-processing-of-facial-expressions-in-hazardous-drinkers-evidence-from-an-erp-study
#19
Hui Zhang, Yi Jin, John S Y Chan, Feng-Chi Yang, Fang Cui
Chronic alcohol intoxication impairs multiple cognitive functions. According to the dual system model (DSM), the development of alcohol dependence (AD) involves the imbalance between the automatic-affective system and the reflective system. However, the cognitive functions of non-AD hazardous drinkers (HDs) remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore how the HDs process facial expressions differently from the healthy subjects. Sixteen HDs and seventeen control subjects (CSs) completed an emotional working memory (WM) task while the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041941/disentangling-the-effects-of-a-multiple-behaviour-change-intervention-for-diarrhoea-control-in-zambia-a-theory-based-process-evaluation
#20
Katie Greenland, Jenala Chipungu, Joyce Chilekwa, Roma Chilengi, Val Curtis
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is a leading cause of child death in Zambia. As elsewhere, the disease burden could be greatly reduced through caregiver uptake of existing prevention and treatment strategies. We recently reported the results of the Komboni Housewives intervention which tested a novel strategy employing motives including affiliation and disgust to improve caregiver practice of four diarrhoea control behaviours: exclusive breastfeeding; handwashing with soap; and correct preparation and use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc...
October 17, 2017: Globalization and Health
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