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Disgust

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924969/norms-for-10-491-spanish-words-for-five-discrete-emotions-happiness-disgust-anger-fear-and-sadness
#1
Hans Stadthagen-González, Pilar Ferré, Miguel A Pérez-Sánchez, Constance Imbault, José Antonio Hinojosa
The discrete emotion theory proposes that affective experiences can be reduced to a limited set of universal "basic" emotions, most commonly identified as happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust. Here we present norms for 10,491 Spanish words for those five discrete emotions collected from a total of 2,010 native speakers, making it the largest set of norms for discrete emotions in any language to date. When used in conjunction with the norms from Hinojosa, Martínez-García et al. (Behavior Research Methods, 48, 272-284, 2016) and Ferré, Guasch, Martínez-García, Fraga, & Hinojosa (Behavior Research Methods, 49, 1082-1094, 2017), researchers now have access to ratings of discrete emotions for 13,633 Spanish words...
September 18, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920091/selecting-pure-emotion-materials-from-the-international-affective-picture-system-iaps-by-chinese-university-students-a-study-based-on-intensity-ratings-only
#2
Zhicha Xu, Rongsheng Zhu, Chanchan Shen, Bingren Zhang, Qianqian Gao, You Xu, Wei Wang
There is a need to use selected pictures with pure emotion as stimulation or treatment media for basic and clinical research. Pictures from the widely-used International Affective Picture System (IAPS) contain rich emotions, but no study has clearly stated that an emotion is exclusively expressed in its putative IAPS picture to date. We hypothesize that the IAPS images contain at least pure vectors of disgust, erotism (or erotica), fear, happiness, sadness and neutral emotions. Accordingly, we have selected 108 IAPS images, each with a specific emotion, and invited 219 male and 274 female university students to rate only the intensity of the emotion conveyed in each picture...
August 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917441/recognition-of-peer-emotions-in-children-with-adhd-evidence-from-an-animated-facial-expressions-task
#3
Aiste Jusyte, Marco Daniel Gulewitsch, Michael Schönenberg
A growing body of literature suggests that ADHD is associated with emotion recognition impairments that may be linked to deficient interpersonal functioning. However, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these recognition impairments is extremely limited. Here, we used dynamic stimuli to investigate whether impaired emotion recognition in children with ADHD may be associated with impairments in perceptual sensitivity. Participants (ADHD: N = 26; Controls: N = 26) viewed video sequences of neutral faces slowly developing into one of the six basic emotional expressions (angry, happy, fearful, sad, disgusted and surprised) and were instructed to indicate via a button press the precise moment at which they were able to correctly recognize the emotional expression...
August 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910317/the-influence-of-threatening-visual-warnings-on-tobacco-packaging-measuring-the-impact-of-threat-level-image-size-and-type-of-pack-through-psychophysiological-and-self-report-methods
#4
Olivier Droulers, Karine Gallopel-Morvan, Sophie Lacoste-Badie, Mathieu Lajante
The first aim of this research was to assess the effectiveness, in terms of emotional and behavioral reactions, of moderately vs. highly TVWs (Threatening Visual Warnings) displayed on tobacco packs. Given the key role that emotional reactions play in explaining the effect of TVWs on behaviors, psychophysiological and self-report methods were used-for the first time in this context-to measure the emotions provoked by TVWs. The second aim of this research was to determine whether increasing the size of warnings, and their display on plain packaging (compared with branded packaging) would improve their effectiveness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904591/representations-of-death-among-italian-vegetarians-an-ethnographic-research-on-environment-disgust-and-transcendence
#5
Ines Testoni, Tommaso Ghellar, Maddalena Rodelli, Loriana De Cataldo, Adriano Zamperini
This paper focuses on the motives for vegetarian choices in contemporary Italian food culture, with specific reference to the role of the representations of death. The study adopts a qualitative research design aimed at an in-depth exploration of the reasons for avoiding meat, following an ethnographic method. Twenty-two participants (55% women, 45% men) aged 19-74, all vegetarians or vegans, mainly from Northern and Central Italy, were involved. Data from the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis were examined according to the qualitative thematic analysis: the results show the role of death in the construction of disgust towards meat, running parallel with an emphasis on spirituality, ethical treatment of animals and the environment as reasons for avoiding meat, in particular, the concern-generating disgust and its relationship with the representation of death as a contaminating essence...
August 2017: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903674/social-traces-of-generic-humans-increase-the-value-of-everyday-objects
#6
Veronika Job, Jana Nikitin, Sophia X Zhang, Priyanka B Carr, Gregory M Walton
Past research finds that people behave as though the particular qualities of specific, strongly valenced individuals "rub off" on objects. People thus value a sweater worn by George Clooney but are disgusted by one worn by Hitler. We hypothesized that social traces of generic humans can also adhere to objects, increasing their value. Experiments 1 and 2 found that simply marking that consumer products (mugs, giftwrap) were made by generic strangers (e.g., "by people using machines" vs. "by machines run by people") increased their perceived value...
June 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891526/facial-expressions-triggered-by-imagining-the-future
#7
Mohamad El Haj, Pascal Antoine, Jean Louis Nandrino
A body of research has investigated the cognitive and affective features of imagining the future. Our study aimed at extending this research by evaluating expressions that are triggered by future thinking. Participants were asked to remember and to imagine personal events. Both past and future thinking were video-recorded and the recording was later analyzed by a software for facial analysis that detects and classifies basic emotional expressions (i.e., happy, sad, angry, surprised, scared, disgusted and neutral)...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889805/interferon-%C3%AE-induces-negative-biases-in-emotional-processing-in-patients-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-preliminary-study
#8
C M Cooper, B Godlewska, A L Sharpley, E Barnes, P J Cowen, C J Harmer
BACKGROUND: Treatment of medical patients with the inflammatory cytokine, interferon-α (IFN-α), is frequently associated with the development of clinical depressive symptomatology. Several important biological correlates of the effect of IFN-α on mood have been described, but the neuropsychological changes associated with IFN-α treatment are largely unexplored. The aim of the present preliminary study was to assess the effect of IFN-α on measures of emotional processing. METHOD: We measured changes in emotional processing over 6-8 weeks in 17 patients receiving IFN-α as part of their treatment for hepatitis C virus infection...
September 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887795/social-anxiety-and-attentional-biases-a-top-down-contribution
#9
Hannah L Boal, B K Christensen, S C Goodhew
Selective attention toward threatening facial expressions has been found to precipitate and maintain symptoms of social anxiety. However, the automaticity of this bias is under debate. In the present study, we aimed to test whether top-down (controlled) engagement and disengagement of attention toward threatening faces is associated with social anxiety. This was examined by testing the impact of a secondary working memory (WM) load on attentional biases. In a variation of the dot-probe task, participants' attention was initially cued to the left or right of fixation before an upright face paired with an inverted face was presented (displaying a disgust or neutral expression), and participants responded to a subsequently presented probe...
September 8, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887269/which-physicians-behaviors-on-death-pronouncement-affect-family-perceived-physician-compassion-a-randomized-scripted-video-vignette-study
#10
Masanori Mori, Maiko Fujimori, Jun Hamano, Akemi Shirado Naito, Tatsuya Morita
CONTEXT: Although the death of a loved one is a devastating family event, little is known about which behaviors positively affect families' perceptions on death pronouncements. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a compassionate death pronouncement on participant-perceived physician compassion, trust in physicians, and emotions. METHODS: In this randomized, video-vignette study, 92 people (≥50 years) in Tokyo metropolitan area viewed two videos of death pronouncements by an on-call physician with or without compassion-enhanced behaviors, including 5 components: waiting until the families calm themselves down; explaining that the physician has received a sign-out about information of the patient's condition; performing examination respectfully; ascertaining the time of death with a wristwatch (vs...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886572/myristic-acid-in-amniotic-fluid-produces-appetitive-responses-in-human-newborns
#11
Ana G Gutiérrez-García, Carlos M Contreras, Cynthia Díaz-Marte
BACKGROUND: A mixture of eight fatty acids (lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, elaidic acid, and linoleic acid) that are contained in human amniotic fluid, colostrum, and milk produces appetitive responses in newborns, suggesting the existence of a transition of sensorial cues that guide newborns to the maternal breast. OBJECTIVE: To explore the ability of each of these eight fatty acids individually to produce appetitive responses in newborns...
September 5, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883626/moral-judgment-modulation-by-disgust-priming-via-altered-fronto-temporal-functional-connectivity
#12
Julian Lim, Yoanna A Kurnianingsih, How Hwee Ong, O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman
Moral judgments are not just the product of conscious reasoning, but also involve the integration of social and emotional information. Irrelevant disgust stimuli modulate moral judgments, with individual sensitivity determining the direction and size of effects across both hypothetical and incentive-compatible experimental designs. We investigated the neural circuitry underlying this modulation using fMRI in 19 individuals performing a moral judgment task with subliminal priming of disgust facial expressions...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882691/is-that-disgust-i-see-political-ideology-and-biased-visual-attention
#13
Benjamin Oosterhoff, Natalie J Shook, Cameron Ford
Considerable evidence suggests that political liberals and conservatives vary in the way they process and respond to valenced (i.e., negative versus positive) information, with conservatives generally displaying greater negativity biases than liberals. Less is known about whether liberals and conservatives differentially prioritize certain forms of negative information over others. Across two studies using eye-tracking methodology, we examined differences in visual attention to negative scenes and facial expressions based on self-reported political ideology...
September 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880097/constructing-emotion-categorization-insights-from-developmental-psychology-applied-to-a-young-adult-sample
#14
Ashley L Ruba, Makeba Parramore Wilbourn, Devin M Ulrich, Lasana T Harris
Previous research has found that the categorization of emotional facial expressions is influenced by a variety of factors, such as processing time, facial mimicry, emotion labels, and perceptual cues. However, past research has frequently confounded these factors, making it impossible to ascertain how adults use this varied information to categorize emotions. The current study is the first to explore the magnitude of impact for each of these factors on emotion categorization in the same paradigm. Participants (N = 102) categorized anger and disgust emotional facial expressions in a novel computerized task, modeled on similar tasks in the developmental literature with preverbal infants...
September 7, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877218/role-of-interoceptive-accuracy-in-topographical-changes-in-emotion-induced-bodily-sensations
#15
Won-Mo Jung, Yeonhee Ryu, Ye-Seul Lee, Christian Wallraven, Younbyoung Chae
The emotion-associated bodily sensation map is composed of a specific topographical distribution of bodily sensations to categorical emotions. The present study investigated whether or not interoceptive accuracy was associated with topographical changes in this map following emotion-induced bodily sensations. This study included 31 participants who observed short video clips containing emotional stimuli and then reported their sensations on the body map. Interoceptive accuracy was evaluated with a heartbeat detection task and the spatial patterns of bodily sensations to specific emotions, including anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness, and neutral, were visualized using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) analyses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874542/self-report-captures-27-distinct-categories-of-emotion-bridged-by-continuous-gradients
#16
Alan S Cowen, Dacher Keltner
Emotions are centered in subjective experiences that people represent, in part, with hundreds, if not thousands, of semantic terms. Claims about the distribution of reported emotional states and the boundaries between emotion categories-that is, the geometric organization of the semantic space of emotion-have sparked intense debate. Here we introduce a conceptual framework to analyze reported emotional states elicited by 2,185 short videos, examining the richest array of reported emotional experiences studied to date and the extent to which reported experiences of emotion are structured by discrete and dimensional geometries...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872339/beyond-personality-traits-which-facial-expressions-imply-dominance-in-two-person-interaction-scenes
#17
Yoshiyuki Ueda, Sakiko Yoshikawa
The ability to perceive a person's dominance plays an important role in survival and pro-social behavior. Perceived dominance has been investigated via assessments of facial expressions in 1-on-1 interaction situations, with expressions of anger and disgust judged to be more dominant. Given that human social interactions are complex, and multiple individuals interact at the same time, we investigated perceptions of trait dominance (an individual's competence and tendency to engage in dominant behavior) and relative dominance (an individual's social dominance within a social group)...
September 4, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872334/disgust-sensitivity-is-primarily-associated-with-purity-based-moral-judgments
#18
Fieke M A Wagemans, Mark J Brandt, Marcel Zeelenberg
Individual differences in disgust sensitivity are associated with a range of judgments and attitudes related to the moral domain. Some perspectives suggest that the association between disgust sensitivity and moral judgments will be equally strong across all moral domains (i.e., purity, authority, loyalty, care, fairness, and liberty). Other perspectives predict that disgust sensitivity is primarily associated with judgments of specific moral domains (e.g., primarily purity). However, no study has systematically tested if disgust sensitivity is associated with moral judgments of the purity domain specifically, more generally to moral judgments of the binding moral domains, or to moral judgments of all of the moral domains equally...
September 4, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872331/how-do-people-think-about-interdependence-a-multidimensional-model-of-subjective-outcome-interdependence
#19
Fabiola H Gerpott, Daniel Balliet, Simon Columbus, Catherine Molho, Reinout E de Vries
Interdependence is a fundamental characteristic of social interactions. Interdependence Theory states that 6 dimensions describe differences between social situations. Here we examine if these 6 dimensions describe how people think about their interdependence with others in a situation. We find that people (in situ and ex situ) can reliably differentiate situations according to 5, but not 6, dimensions of interdependence: (a) mutual dependence, (b) power, (c) conflict, (d) future interdependence, and (e) information certainty...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872044/insular-cognitive-impairment-at-the-early-stage-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-a-preliminary-study
#20
Nathalie Philippi, Jennifer Kemp, Morgane Constans-Erbs, Malik Hamdaoui, Laetitia Monjoin, Emmanuelle Ehrhard, Timothée Albasser, Anne Botzung, Catherine Demuynck, Géraldine Heim, Catherine Martin-Hunyadi, Mathias Bilger, Laetitia Berly, David Soulier, Benjamin Cretin, Olivier Després, Frédéric Blanc
BACKGROUND: The anterior part of the insula appears atrophied in the early stage of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) whereas it is not the case in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop neuropsychological markers supposed to reflect insular dysfunction, which would facilitate early diagnosis of DLB, namely in comparison to AD. METHODS: Twelve patients with DLB, 12 patients with AD, all at the stage of Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia, as well as 10 Controls subjects (CS) participated in the study...
September 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
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