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Margaret Addabbo, Elena Longhi, Ioana Cristina Marchis, Paolo Tagliabue, Chiara Turati
The ability to discriminate between different facial expressions is fundamental since the first stages of postnatal life. The aim of this study is to investigate whether 2-days-old newborns are capable to discriminate facial expressions of emotions as they naturally take place in everyday interactions, that is in motion. When two dynamic displays depicting a happy and a disgusted facial expression were simultaneously presented (i.e., visual preference paradigm), newborns did not manifest any visual preference (Experiment 1)...
2018: PloS One
Ning Zhuang, Ying Zeng, Kai Yang, Chi Zhang, Li Tong, Bin Yan
Most current approaches to emotion recognition are based on neural signals elicited by affective materials such as images, sounds and videos. However, the application of neural patterns in the recognition of self-induced emotions remains uninvestigated. In this study we inferred the patterns and neural signatures of self-induced emotions from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The EEG signals of 30 participants were recorded while they watched 18 Chinese movie clips which were intended to elicit six discrete emotions, including joy, neutrality, sadness, disgust, anger and fear...
March 12, 2018: Sensors
Gadi Zerach, Yossi Levi-Belz
OBJECTIVES: We aim to examine the link between exposure to potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS). We also aim to explore the mediating roles of depressive attributions, trauma-related guilt and shame, and self-disgust in the relationship between PMIEs and PTSS among combat veterans. METHOD: A volunteers' sample of 191 Israeli combat veterans responded to self-report questionnaires in a cross-sectional design study...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Lisa R Jewett, Stephanie T Gumuchian, Mia Pepin, Danielle B Rice, Franziska Kolorz, Pamela Harrison, Brett D Thombs
People with visible differences are often confronted with negative observer responses, including stares, disgust, and avoidance. Characteristics of negative observer responses are well-documented, but less is known about associated factors. We conducted a scoping review to map what is known about factors associated with negative observer responses. Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases were searched, and 16 articles met inclusion criteria. Two general categories of factors were identified: (1) observer characteristics, including age, sex, and socioeconomic status, experiences with disfigurements, and personal beliefs or attitudes related to visible differences; and (2) evolved internal mechanisms, including threat-detection, disgust, and disease avoidance...
March 8, 2018: Body Image
Kari N Duerksen, Karen L Lawson
OBJECTIVE: The present study explores the content of abortion provider stigma. BACKGROUND: Abortion stigma extends beyond women who have abortions to abortion providers. Previous analyses of anti-abortion bills and rhetoric have revealed stereotypes of abortion providers as dangerous and less trustworthy than other health professionals. METHODS: We present a thematic analysis of one-on-one interviews about attitudes toward abortion providers with Canadian individuals (N = 21) holding an anti-abortion stance...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Marco Tullio Liuzza, Torun Lindholm, Caitlin B Hawley, Marie Gustafsson Sendén, Ingrid Ekström, Mats J Olsson, Jonas K Olofsson
Authoritarianism has resurfaced as a research topic in political psychology, as it appears relevant to explain current political trends. Authoritarian attitudes have been consistently linked to feelings of disgust, an emotion that is thought to have evolved to protect the organism from contamination. We hypothesized that body odour disgust sensitivity (BODS) might be associated with authoritarianism, as chemo-signalling is a primitive system for regulating interpersonal contact and disease avoidance, which are key features also in authoritarianism...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Jeanine Ammann, Christina Hartmann, Michael Siegrist
The present set of studies developed and tested the Food Disgust Picture Scale (FDPS). This is a tool for the assessment of food disgust sensitivity that will measure disgust and predict possible reactions. This eight-picture tool can be used in complement to or as a replacement for currently available text-based measures. In an exploratory Study 1 (N = 57), we constructed a scale consisting of eight pictures. Most of them were taken from validated picture databases. They proved powerful in the assessment of food disgust sensitivity...
February 26, 2018: Appetite
Manuela Gander, Cathrin Schiestl, Rainer Dahlbender, Joram Ronel, Anna Buchheim
The present study investigated differences in various aspects of facial behavior among female patients with complicated grief (CG; n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 18) during the assessment of their attachment representation using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System. All patients were classified with an unresolved attachment status. On a behavioral level, they demonstrated longer gazing behavior away from the interviewer and the picture stimuli, more speech pauses, less smiling toward the interviewer, and more crying, especially in response to stimuli portraying the theme of loss...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Dolichan Kollareth, James A Russell
Disgust has been hypothesized to be uniquely linked to violations of a distinct moral domain (called divinity, purity, or sacred) aimed at preserving one's body from contamination with pathogens and preserving one's soul from violations of what is sacred. Here we examined whether the same emotion-core disgust-occurs when witnessing both types of violation, and we proposed a specific method for doing so. In two studies (N = 160; 240), American and Indian participants indicated their emotional reaction to (stories depicting) sacred or nonsacred violations, each either with or without pathogens...
March 1, 2018: Emotion
Petr Veselý, Barbora Ernestová, Oldřich Nedvěd, Roman Fuchs
Growing evidence exists that aposematic and toxic prey may be included in a predator's diet when the predator experiences physiological stress. The tree sparrow Passer montanus is known to have a significant portion of aposematic and toxic ladybirds in its natural diet. Here, we present experiments testing the attack and eating rate of the tree sparrow toward the invasive aposematic harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis . We wondered whether the sparrow's ability to prey on native ladybirds predisposes them to also prey on harlequin ladybirds...
June 2017: Current Zoology
Vicky Tsang
The eye-tracking experiment was carried out to assess fixation duration and scan paths that individuals with and without high-functioning autism spectrum disorders employed when identifying simple and complex emotions. Participants viewed human photos of facial expressions and decided on the identification of emotion, the negative-positive emotion orientation, and the degree of emotion intensity. Results showed that there was an atypical emotional processing in the high-functioning autism spectrum disorder group to identify facial emotions when eye-tracking data were compared between groups...
February 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Lisa M Anderson, Erin E Reilly, Jennifer J Thomas, Kamryn T Eddy, Debra L Franko, Julia M Hormes, Drew A Anderson
Fear and disgust are distinct emotions that have been independently linked with EDs and may motivate avoidance behaviors that may be relevant targets for ED interventions (e.g., food rejection). Despite similar motivational function, it is possible that one emotion is more strongly associated with ED symptoms, relative to the other. Given that emerging evidence suggests that disgust-based behavior may be more difficult to change than fear-based behaviors, research is needed to evaluate whether each emotion differentially relates to ED symptoms...
February 23, 2018: Appetite
Aire Mill, Liisi Kööts-Ausmees, Jüri Allik, Anu Realo
The main aim of the current study was to examine the role of co-occurring emotions and their interactive effects with the Big Five personality traits in anger expression. Everyday anger expression ("anger-in" and "anger-out" behavior) was studied with the experience-sampling method in a group of 110 participants for 14 consecutive days on 7 random occasions per day. Our results showed that the simultaneously co-occurring emotions that buffer against anger expression are sadness, surprise, disgust, disappointment, and irritation for anger-in behavior, and fear, sadness and disappointment for anger-out reactions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Juan Carlos Martínez-Aguayo, Renzo C Lanfranco, Marcelo Arancibia, Elisa Sepúlveda, Eva Madrid
In this article, we describe the case of a girl who suffers from a phobia to repetitive patterns, known as trypophobia. This condition has not yet been recognised by diagnostic taxonomies such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Trypophobia usually involves an intense and disproportionate fear towards holes, repetitive patterns, protrusions, etc., and, in general, images that present high-contrast energy at low and midrange spatial frequencies. It is commonly accompanied by neurovegetative symptoms...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Terence H W Ching, Monnica T Williams, Jedidiah Siev, Bunmi O Olatunji
Disgust has been shown to perform a "disease-avoidance" function in contamination fears. However, no studies have examined the relevance of disgust to obsessive-compulsive (OC) concerns about sexual orientation (e.g., fear of one's sexual orientation transforming against one's will, and compulsive avoidance of same-sex and/or gay or lesbian individuals to prevent that from happening). Therefore, we investigated whether the specific domain of contamination-based disgust (i.e., evoked by the perceived threat of transmission of essences between individuals) predicted OC concerns about sexual orientation, and whether this effect was moderated/amplified by obsessive beliefs, in evaluation of a "sexual orientation transformation-avoidance" function...
February 23, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Andrew Mienaltowski, Elizabeth A Lemerise, Kaitlyn Greer, Lindsey Burke
Multi-label tasks confound age differences in perceptual and cognitive processes. We examined age differences in emotion perception with a technique that did not require verbal labels. Participants matched the emotion expressed by a target to two comparison stimuli, one neutral and one emotional. Angry, disgusted, fearful, happy, and sad facial expressions of varying intensity were used. Although older adults took longer to respond than younger adults, younger adults only outmatched older adults for the lowest intensity disgust and fear expressions...
February 22, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Francesco M Galassi, Nicole Bender, Michael E Habicht, Emanuele Armocida, Fabrizio Toscano, David A Menassa, Matteo Cerri
St. Catherine of Siena suffered from an extreme form of holy fasting, a condition classified as anorexia mirabilis (also known as inedia prodigiosa). Historical and medical scholarships alike have drawn a comparison between this primaeval type of anorexia with a relatively common form of eating disorder among young women in the modern world, anorexia nervosa. St. Catherine's condition was characterised by a disgust for sweet taste, a condition also described in anorexia nervosa, and characterised by specific neurophysiological changes in the brain...
February 22, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Kosuke Motoki, Motoaki Sugiura
According to the affect-as-information framework, consumers base judgments on their feelings. Disgust is associated with two kinds of appraisal: one in which the consumer avoids and distances him/herself immediately from the object concerned, and another in which the consumer is disgusted due to contamination and impurities within the environment. The first instance indicates that disgust can decrease a consumer's preference for a product, regardless of its category. In contrast, the second case suggests that a product's degree of depreciation is greater in products vulnerable to contamination, such as foods...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
A J Quyn, C G Fraser, J Rodger, A Digan, A S Anderson, R J C Steele
BACKGROUND: Uptake of population-based screening for colorectal cancer in Scotland is around 55 per cent. Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) screening has recently been introduced for men aged 65 years and the reported uptake is 78 per cent. The aim was to determine the impact of a brief intervention on bowel screening in men who attended AAA screening, but previously failed to complete bowel screening. METHODS: Men invited for AAA screening between September 2015 and March 2016 within NHS Tayside were included...
February 21, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
Philip Gendall, Janet Hoek, Katherine Gendall
On-pack tobacco warnings typically feature long-term health risks, which many young adults rationalize or reject. We examined the emotions generated by more proximal warnings to see if we could identify common features among the most effective warnings. Respondents in a sample of 474 smokers and 476 susceptible non-smokers used a modified Geneva Emotion Wheel (GEW) to assess cigarette packs displaying 12 test warnings and one current warning. The strongest emotions aroused in smokers were disgust, disappointment, and regret...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
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