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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928237/microtubule-structures-underlying-the-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-support-peripheral-coupling-sites-to-regulate-smooth-muscle-contractility
#1
Harry A T Pritchard, Albert L Gonzales, Paulo W Pires, Bernard T Drumm, Eun A Ko, Kenton M Sanders, Grant W Hennig, Scott Earley
Junctional membrane complexes facilitate excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells by forming subcellular invaginations that maintain close (≤20 nm) proximity of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) with voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels in the plasma membrane. In fully differentiated smooth muscle cells, junctional membrane complexes occur as distributed sites of peripheral coupling. We investigated the role of the cytoskeleton in maintaining peripheral coupling and associated Ca(2+) signaling networks within native smooth muscle cells of mouse and rat cerebral arteries...
September 19, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913625/calcium-release-dependent-inactivation-precedes-formation-of-the-tubular-system-in-developing-rat-cardiac-myocytes
#2
Katarina Macková, Alexandra Zahradníková, Matej Hoťka, Barbora Hoffmannová, Ivan Zahradník, Alexandra Zahradníková
Developing cardiac myocytes undergo substantial structural and functional changes transforming the mechanism of excitation-contraction coupling from the embryonic form, based on calcium influx through sarcolemmal DHPR calcium channels, to the adult form, relying on local calcium release through RYR calcium channels of sarcoplasmic reticulum stimulated by calcium influx. We characterized day-by-day the postnatal development of the structure of sarcolemma, using techniques of confocal fluorescence microscopy, and the development of the calcium current, measured by the whole-cell patch-clamp in isolated rat ventricular myocytes...
September 14, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912111/crispr-cas9-mediated-g4946e-substitution-in-the-ryanodine-receptor-of-spodoptera-exigua-confers-high-levels-of-resistance-to-diamide-insecticides
#3
Yayun Zuo, Hui Wang, Yanjun Xu, Jianlei Huang, Shuwen Wu, Yidong Wu, Yihua Yang
Diamide insecticides selectively activate insect ryanodine receptors (RyRs), inducing uncontrolled release of calcium ions, and causing muscle contraction, paralysis and eventually death. The RyR(G4946E) substitution associated with diamide resistance has been identified in three lepidopteran pests, Plutella xylostella, Tuta absoluta and Chilo suppressalis. Recently, the T. absoluta RyR(G4946V) mutation was knocked into the model insect Drosophila melanogaster by CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome editing and provided in vivo functional confirmation for its role in diamide resistance...
September 12, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899787/differential-expression-of-ryanodine-receptor-isoforms-after-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Nicolas Pelisch, Cynthia Gomes, Jacqueline M Nally, Jeffrey C Petruska, David P Stirling
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are highly conductive intracellular Ca(2+) release channels and are widely expressed in many tissues, including the central nervous system. RyRs have been implicated in intracellular Ca(2+) overload which can drive secondary damage following traumatic injury to the spinal cord (SCI), but the spatiotemporal expression of the three isoforms of RyRs (RyR1-3) after SCI remains unknown. Here, we analyzed the gene and protein expression of RyR isoforms in the murine lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and the spinal cord lesion site at 1, 2 and 7 d after a mild contusion SCI...
September 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861889/red-yeast-rice-prevents-atherosclerosis-through-regulating-inflammatory-signaling-pathways
#5
Min Wu, Wen-Gao Zhang, Long-Tao Liu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of red yeast rice (RYR) on blood lipid levels, aortic atherosclerosis (AS), and plaque stability in apolipoprotein E gene knockout (ApoE-/-) mice. METHODS: Twenty-four ApoE-/- mice were fed with a high-fat diet starting from 6 weeks of age. Mice were randomized into three groups (n = 8 in each group): model group (ApoE-/- group), RYR group (ApoE-/- + RYR group), and simvastatin group (ApoE-/- + simvastatin group). Eight 6-week-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned as the control group and fed with a basic diet...
September 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851804/fkbp-association-with-ryr-channels-effect-of-clic2-binding-on-sub-conductance-opening-and-fkbp-binding
#6
Spencer J Richardson, Gregory A Steele, Esther M Gallant, Alexander Lam, Charles E Schwartz, Philip G Board, Marco G Casarotto, Nicole A Beard, Angela F Dulhunty
Ryanodine receptor (RyR) calcium channels are central to striated muscle function and influence signalling in neurones and other cell types. Beneficially low RyR activity and maximum conductance opening may be stabilised when RyRs bind to FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs) and destabilised by FKBP dissociation, with submaximal opening during RyR hyperactivity associated with myopathies and neurological disorders. However this is debated and quantitative evidence is lacking. Here we have measured altered FKBP binding to RyRs and submaximal activity with addition of wild-type (WT) CLIC2, an inhibitory RyR ligand, or its H101Q mutant that hyperactivates RyRs, likely causing cardiac and intellectual abnormalities...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838128/hypoxia-sensing-in-plants-on-a-quest-for-ion-channels-as-putative-oxygen-sensors
#7
Feifei Wang, Zhong-Hua Chen, Sergey Shabala
Over 17 million km2 of land is affected by soil flooding every year, resulting in substantial yield losses and jeopardizing food security across the globe. A key step in resolving this problem and creating stress-tolerant cultivars is an understanding of the mechanisms by which plants sense low-oxygen stress. In this work, we review the current knowledge about the oxygen-sensing and signaling pathway in mammalian and plant systems and postulate the potential role of ion channels as putative oxygen sensors in plant roots...
July 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811460/prevention-of-atrial-fibrillation-by-using-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-calcium-atpase-pump-overexpression-in-a-rabbit-model-of-rapid-atrial-pacing
#8
Hong Li Wang, Xian Hui Zhou, Zhi Qiang Li, Ping Fan, Qi Na Zhou, Yao Dong Li, Yue Mei Hou, Bao Peng Tang
BACKGROUND Recent research suggests that abnormal Ca2+ handling plays a role in the occurrence and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). Therefore, Ca2+ release and ingestion depend on properties of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ATPase2a (SERCA2a). This study aimed to detect whether SERCA2a gene overexpression has a preventive effect on atrial fibrillation caused by rapid pacing right atrium. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty-eight New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into a control group, AF group, AAV9/GFP group, and AAV9/SERCA2a group...
August 16, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807150/two-ef-hand-motifs-in-ryanodine-receptor-calcium-release-channels-contribute-to-isoform-specific-regulation-by-calmodulin
#9
Le Xu, Angela C Gomez, Daniel A Pasek, Gerhard Meissner, Naohiro Yamaguchi
The mammalian ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) release channel (RyR) has a single conserved high affinity calmodulin (CaM) binding domain. However, the skeletal muscle RyR1 is activated and cardiac muscle RyR2 is inhibited by CaM at submicromolar Ca(2+). This suggests isoform-specific domains are involved in RyR regulation by CaM. To gain insight into the differential regulation of cardiac and skeletal muscle RyRs by CaM, RyR1/RyR2 chimeras and mutants were expressed in HEK293 cells, and their single channel activities were measured using a lipid bilayer method...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766256/synthesis-insecticidal-activities-and-structure-activity-relationship-study-of-dual-chiral-sulfilimines
#10
Sha Zhou, Xiangde Meng, Ruyi Jin, Yi Ma, Yongtao Xie, Yu Zhao, Hongjian Song, Lixia Xiong, Zhengming Li
To investigate the "methyl" impact on bioactivity of sulfiliminyl dicarboxamides, a total of 16 novel N-cyano and N-trifluoroacetyl sulfiliminyl dicarboxamides containing m-heptafluoroisopropylated aromatic amino moiety were studied. Two series of sulfiliminyl substituents were designed, synthesized and evaluated against oriental armyworm (Pseudaletia separata Walker) for their insecticidal activities. Their chemical structures were established by corresponding [Formula: see text] NMR, HRMS and optical polarimetry...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765908/serca1-attenuates-diaphragm-relaxation-and-uptake-rate-of-serca-in-rats-with-acute-sepsis
#11
Jianyou Zhang, Hui Liu, Shitong Li, Jin Wu, Jianhong Sun
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of acute sepsis on diaphragm contractility and relaxation, via examining the Ca2+‑uptake function of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ adenosine triphosphatase (SERCA), and the protein levels of SERCA1, SERCA2 and the ryanodine receptor (RyR) of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). A sepsis rat model was established through cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). A total of 6 and 12 h following CLP, the isometric contractile and relaxation parameters of the diaphragm were measured...
October 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753475/presenilin-1-mutation-decreases-both-calcium-and-contractile-responses-in-cerebral-arteries
#12
Xavier Toussay, Jean-Luc Morel, Nathalie Biendon, Lolita Rotureau, François-Pierre Legeron, Marie-Charlotte Boutonnet, Yoon H Cho, Nathalie Macrez
Mutations or upregulation in presenilin 1 (PS1) gene are found in familial early-onset Alzheimer's disease or sporadic late-onset Alzheimer's disease, respectively. PS1 has been essentially studied in neurons and its mutation was shown to alter intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) signals. Here, we showed that PS1 is expressed in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of mouse cerebral arteries, and we assessed the effects of the deletion of exon 9 of PS1 (PS1dE9) on Ca(2+) signals and contractile responses of vascular SMC. Agonist-induced contraction of cerebral vessels was significantly decreased in PS1dE9 both in vivo and ex vivo...
June 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749884/original-research-the-effects-of-red-yeast-rice-supplementation-on-cholesterol-levels-in-adults
#13
REVIEW
Diane Peng, Amy Fong, Amanda van Pelt
: Purpose: Red yeast rice (RYR) supplementation has become a popular alternative to statin therapy in treating hypercholesterolemia. This state-of-the-science review seeks to explore the most recent evidence on the effectiveness and safety of RYR supplementation in treating dyslipidemic adults. METHODS: This review extends the time frame of a meta-analysis performed by Li and colleagues in 2014; specifically, we looked at the literature published between September 2013 and April 2016...
August 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738573/stable-isotope-ratio-analysis-for-authentication-of-red-yeast-rice
#14
Matteo Perini, Gianfranco Carbone, Federica Camin
Red yeast rice (RYR) is a dietary supplement obtained from rice fermented with the mould Monascus purpureus. It contains Monacolin K which is a hypocholesterolemic statin used to prevent cardiovascular diseases. The homologous prescription biosynthetic statin, lovastatin, is not chemically distinguishable from monacolin K. In this work we investigated whether δ(13)C and δ(2)H can distinguish monacolin K from lovastatin and can detect the presence of lovastatin in RYR. 18 samples of red yeast rice powder and 18 samples of lovastatin were collected...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731505/calcium-calmodulin-dependent-kinase-2-mediates-epac-induced-spontaneous-transient-outward-currents-in-rat-vascular-smooth-muscle
#15
Edward S A Humphries, Tomoko Kamishima, John M Quayle, Caroline Dart
KEY POINTS: The Ca(2+) and redox-sensing enzyme Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent kinase 2 (CaMKII) is a crucial and well-established signalling molecule in the heart and brain. In vascular smooth muscle, which controls blood flow by contracting and relaxing in response to complex Ca(2+) signals and oxidative stress, surprisingly little is known about the role of CaMKII. The vasodilator-induced second messenger cAMP can relax vascular smooth muscle via its effector, exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), by activating spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) that hyperpolarize the cell membrane and reduce voltage-dependent Ca(2+) influx...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716970/prolonged-force-depression-after-mechanically-demanding-contractions-is-largely-independent-of-ca-2-and-reactive-oxygen-species
#16
Sigitas Kamandulis, Felipe de Souza Leite, Andres Hernández, Abram Katz, Marius Brazaitis, Joseph D Bruton, Tomas Venckunas, Nerijus Masiulis, Dalia Mickeviciene, Nerijus Eimantas, Andrejus Subocius, Dilson E Rassier, Albertas Skurvydas, Niklas Ivarsson, Håkan Westerblad
Increased production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS) and impaired cellular Ca(2+) handling are implicated in the prolonged low-frequency force depression (PLFFD) observed in skeletal muscle after both metabolically and mechanically demanding exercise. Metabolically demanding high-intensity exercise can induce PLFFD accompanied by ROS-dependent fragmentation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release channels, the ryanodine receptor (RyR)-1. We tested whether similar changes occur after mechanically demanding eccentric contractions...
July 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713161/functional-expression-of-the-ca-2-signaling-machinery-in-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#17
Ji-Jun Huang, Yi-Jie Wang, Min Zhang, Peng Zhang, He Liang, Hua-Jun Bai, Xiu-Jian Yu, Huang-Tian Yang
Emerging evidence suggests that Ca(2+) signals are important for the self-renewal and differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). However, little is known about the physiological and pharmacological properties of the Ca(2+)-handling machinery in hESCs. In this study we used RT-PCR and Western blotting to analyze the expression profiles of genes encoding Ca(2+)-handling proteins; we also used confocal Ca(2+) imaging and pharmacological approaches to determine the contribution of the Ca(2+)-handling machinery to the regulation of Ca(2+) signaling in hESCs...
July 17, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709993/intracellular-calcium-release-through-ip3r-or-ryr-contributes-to-secondary-axonal-degeneration
#18
Ben C Orem, Nicolas Pelisch, Joshua Williams, Jacqueline M Nally, David P Stirling
Severed CNS axons often retract or dieback away from the injury site and fail to regenerate. The precise mechanisms underlying acute axonal dieback and secondary axonal degeneration remain poorly understood. Here we investigate the role of Ca(2+) store mediated intra-axonal Ca(2+) release in acute axonal dieback and secondary axonal degeneration. To differentiate between primary (directly transected) and "bystander" axonal injury (axons spared by the initial injury but then succumb to secondary degeneration) in real-time we use our previously published highly focal laser-induced spinal cord injury (LiSCI) ex vivo model...
July 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687594/reduced-threshold-for-store-overload-induced-ca-2-release-is-a-common-defect-of-ryr1-mutations-associated-with-malignant-hyperthermia-and-central-core-disease
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Wenqian Chen, Andrea Koop, Yingjie Liu, Wenting Guo, Jinhong Wei, Ruiwu Wang, David H MacLennan, Robert T Dirksen, Sui Rong Wayne Chen
Mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1) cause malignant hyperthermia (MH) and central core disease (CCD), whereas mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) lead to catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). Most disease-associated RyR1 and RyR2 mutations are located in the N-terminal, central, and C-terminal regions of the corresponding ryanodine receptor (RyR) isoform. An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that CPVT-associated RyR2 mutations enhance the propensity for spontaneous Ca(2+) release during store Ca(2+) overload, a process known as store overload-induced Ca(2+) release (SOICR)...
August 7, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673363/a-red-yeast-rice-olive-extract-supplement-reduces-biomarkers-of-oxidative-stress-oxldl-and-lp-pla2-in-subjects-with-metabolic-syndrome-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#20
Nina Hermans, Anastasia Van der Auwera, Annelies Breynaert, Annelies Verlaet, Tess De Bruyne, Luc Van Gaal, Luc Pieters, Veronique Verhoeven
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to clustered cardiovascular risk factors (abdominal obesity, pre-diabetes, high blood pressure, dyslipidaemia). Therapies targeting oxidative stress may delay progression to atherosclerosis and diabetes. We investigated the anti-oxidative effect of a supplement combining red yeast rice and olive extract in patients with MetS. METHODS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial was conducted with 50 patients with MetS as defined by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria...
July 3, 2017: Trials
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