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mouse motor cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821666/gabaergic-interneuron-differentiation-in-the-basal-forebrain-is-mediated-through-direct-regulation-of-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-isoforms-by-dlx-homeobox-transcription-factors
#1
Trung N Le, Qing-Ping Zhou, Inma Cobos, Shunzhen Zhang, Jamie Zagozewski, Sara Japoni, Jerry Vriend, Tracie Parkinson, Guoyan Du, John L Rubenstein, David D Eisenstat
γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) is the key inhibitory neurotransmitter in the cortex but regulation of its synthesis during forebrain development is poorly understood. In the telencephalon, members of the distal-less (Dlx) homeobox gene family are expressed in, and regulate the development of, the basal ganglia primodia from which many GABAergic neurons originate and migrate to other forebrain regions. The Dlx1/Dlx2 double knockout mice die at birth with abnormal cortical development, including loss of tangential migration of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons to the neocortex (Anderson et al...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821643/changes-in-the-excitability-of-neocortical-neurons-in-a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-are-not-specific-to-corticospinal-neurons-and-are-modulated-by-advancing-disease
#2
Juhyun Kim, Ethan G Hughes, Ashwin S Shetty, Paola Arlotta, Loyal A Goff, Dwight E Bergles, Solange P Brown
Cell-type specific changes in neuronal excitability have been proposed to contribute to the selective degeneration of corticospinal neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to neocortical hyperexcitability, a prominent feature of both inherited and sporadic variants of the disease, but the mechanisms underlying selective loss of specific cell types in ALS are not known. We analyzed the physiological properties of distinct classes of cortical neurons in the motor cortex of hSOD1(G93A) mice of both sexes and found that they all exhibit increases in intrinsic excitability that depend on disease stage...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807673/gpr55-a-therapeutic-target-for-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Marta Celorrio, Estefanía Rojo-Bustamante, Diana Fernández-Suárez, Elena Sáez, Ander Estella-Hermoso de Mendoza, Christa E Müller, María J Ramírez, Julen Oyarzábal, Rafael Franco, María S Aymerich
The GPR55 receptor is expressed abundantly in the brain, especially in the striatum, suggesting it might fulfill a role in motor function. Indeed, motor behavior is impaired in mice lacking GPR55, which also display dampened inflammatory responses. Abnormal-cannabidiol (Abn-CBD), a synthetic cannabidiol (CBD) isomer, is a GPR55 agonist that may serve as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we explored whether modulating GPR55 could also represent a therapeutic approach for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD)...
August 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755208/persistent-microglial-activation-and-synaptic-loss-with-behavioral-abnormalities-in-mouse-offspring-exposed-to-caspr2-antibodies-in-utero
#4
Ester Coutinho, David A Menassa, Leslie Jacobson, Steven J West, Joana Domingos, Teresa C Moloney, Bethan Lang, Paul J Harrison, David L H Bennett, David Bannerman, Angela Vincent
Gestational transfer of maternal antibodies against fetal neuronal proteins may be relevant to some neurodevelopmental disorders, but until recently there were no proteins identified. We recently reported a fivefold increase in CASPR2-antibodies in mid-gestation sera from mothers of children with intellectual and motor disabilities. Here, we exposed mice in utero to purified IgG from patients with CASPR2-antibodies (CASPR2-IgGs) or from healthy controls (HC-IgGs). CASPR2-IgG but not HC-IgG bound to fetal brain parenchyma, from which CASPR2-antibodies could be eluted...
July 28, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745630/subpial-adeno-associated-virus-9-aav9-vector-delivery-in-adult-mice
#5
Takahiro Tadokoro, Atsushi Miyanohara, Michael Navarro, Kota Kamizato, Stefan Juhas, Jana Juhasova, Silvia Marsala, Oleksandr Platoshyn, Erik Curtis, Brandon Gabel, Joseph Ciacci, Nada Lukacova, Katarina Bimbova, Martin Marsala
The successful development of a subpial adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9) vector delivery technique in adult rats and pigs has been reported on previously. Using subpially-placed polyethylene catheters (PE-10 or PE-5) for AAV9 delivery, potent transgene expression through the spinal parenchyma (white and gray matter) in subpially-injected spinal segments has been demonstrated. Because of the wide range of transgenic mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases, there is a strong desire for the development of a potent central nervous system (CNS)-targeted vector delivery technique in adult mice...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711564/role-of-estrogen-and-levodopa-in-1-methyl-4-pheny-l-1-2-3-6-tetrahydropyridine-mptp-induced-cognitive-deficit-in-parkinsonian-ovariectomized-mice-model-a-comparative-study
#6
Satyndra Kumar Yadav, Shivani Pandey, Babita Singh
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disease found in the aging population. Currently, many studies are being conducted to find a suitable and effective cure for PD, with an emphasis on the use of herbal plants. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of estrogen was evaluated in the 1-methyl-4-phe-nyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD with cognitive deficit and compared to Levodopa (LD), a well reported neuroprotective agent used for treating PD. Twenty-four Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control, MPTP, MPTP+LD and MPTP+estrogen...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701108/repetitive-mild-closed-head-injury-alters-protein-expression-and-dendritic-complexity-in-a-mouse-model
#7
Jessica Nicole Saykally, Whitney A Ratliff, Kristen Keeley, Chaim G Pick, Ronald F Mervis, Bruce A Citron
World-wide head injuries are a growing problem. In the United States alone, 1.7 million people suffer a head injury each year. While most of these injuries are mild, head injury sufferers still sustain symptoms that can have major medical and economical impacts. Moreover, repetitive mild head injuries, like those observed in active military personnel and athletes, have demonstrated a more severe and long-term set of consequences. In an effort to better understand the delayed pathological changes following multiple mild head injuries, we used a mouse model of mild closed head injury (with no motor deficits observed by rotarod testing) and measured dendritic complexity at 30 days after injury and potentially related factors up to 60 days post injury...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700934/parvalbumin-expressing-gabaergic-neurons-in-primary-motor-cortex-signal-reaching
#8
Luc Estebanez, Diana Hoffmann, Birgit C Voigt, James F A Poulet
The control of targeted reaching is thought to be shaped by distinct subtypes of local GABAergic inhibitory neurons in primary forelimb motor cortex (M1). However, little is known about their action potential firing dynamics during reaching. To address this, we recorded the activity of parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) GABAergic neurons identified from a larger population of fast-spiking units and putative excitatory regular-spiking units in layer 5 of the mouse forelimb M1 during an M1-dependent, sensory-triggered reaching task...
July 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694434/laquinimod-treatment-in-the-r6-2-mouse-model
#9
Gisa Ellrichmann, Alina Blusch, Oluwaseun Fatoba, Janine Brunner, Liat Hayardeny, Michael Hayden, Dominik Sehr, Konstanze F Winklhofer, Carsten Saft, Ralf Gold
The transgenic mouse model R6/2 exhibits Huntington's disease (HD)-like deficits and basic pathophysiological similarities. We also used the pheochromocytoma-12 (PC12)-cell-line-model to investigate the effect of laquinimod on metabolic activity. Laquinimod is an orally administered immunomodulatory substance currently under development for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) and HD. As an essential effect, increased levels of BDNF were observed. Therefore, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of laquinimod in the R6/2 model, focusing on its neuroprotective capacity...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684399/loss-of-the-canonical-spindle-orientation-function-in-the-pins-lgn-homolog-ags3
#10
Mehdi Saadaoui, Daijiro Konno, Karine Loulier, Rosette Goiame, Vaibhav Jadhav, Marina Mapelli, Fumio Matsuzaki, Xavier Morin
In many cell types, mitotic spindle orientation relies on the canonical "LGN complex" composed of Pins/LGN, Mud/NuMA, and Gαi subunits. Membrane localization of this complex recruits motor force generators that pull on astral microtubules to orient the spindle. Drosophila Pins shares highly conserved functional domains with its two vertebrate homologs LGN and AGS3. Whereas the role of Pins and LGN in oriented divisions is extensively documented, involvement of AGS3 remains controversial. Here, we show that AGS3 is not required for planar divisions of neural progenitors in the mouse neocortex...
July 6, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682229/-epigenetic-mechanisms-and-alcohol-use-disorders-a-potential-therapeutic-target
#11
Rémi Legastelois, Jérôme Jeanblanc, Catherine Vilpoux, Erika Bourguet, Mickael Naassila
Alcohol use disorder is a devastating illness with a profound health impact, and its development is dependent on both genetic and environmental factors. This disease occurs over time and requires changes in brain gene expression. There is converging evidence suggesting that the epigenetic processes may play a role in the alcohol-induced gene regulations and behavior such as the intervention of DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Histone acetylation, like histone methylation, is a highly dynamic process regulated by two classes of enzymes: histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs)...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676756/inhibition-of-pirb-activity-by-tat-pep-improves-mouse-motor-ability-and-cognitive-behavior
#12
Ya-Jing Mi, Hai Chen, Na Guo, Meng-Yi Sun, Zhao-Hua Zhao, Xing-Chun Gao, Xiao-Long Wang, Rui-San Zhang, Jiang-Bing Zhou, Xing-Chun Gou
Paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB), a functional receptor for myelin-associated inhibitory proteins, plays an important role in axon regeneration in injured brains. However, its role in normal brain function with age has not been previously investigated. Therefore in this study, we examined the expression level of PirB in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of mice at 1 month, 3 months and 18 months of age. The results showed that the expression of PirB increased with age. We further demonstrated that overexpression of PirB inhibited neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, and this inhibitory activity of PirB could be reversed by TAT-PEP, which is a recombinant soluble PirB ectodomain fused with TAT domain for blood-brain barrier penetration...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674487/pyramidal-neurons-in-different-cortical-layers-exhibit-distinct-dynamics-and-plasticity-of-apical-dendritic-spines
#13
Michelle Tjia, Xinzhu Yu, Lavpreet S Jammu, Ju Lu, Yi Zuo
The mammalian cerebral cortex is typically organized in six layers containing multiple types of neurons, with pyramidal neurons (PNs) being the most abundant. PNs in different cortical layers have distinct morphology, physiology and functional roles in neural circuits. Therefore, their development and synaptic plasticity may also differ. Using in vivo transcranial two-photon microscopy, we followed the structural dynamics of dendritic spines on apical dendrites of layer (L) 2/3 and L5 PNs at different developmental stages...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674167/mesoscale-mapping-of-mouse-cortex-reveals-frequency-dependent-cycling-between-distinct-macroscale-functional-modules
#14
Matthieu P Vanni, Allen W Chan, Matilde Balbi, Gergely Silasi, Timothy H Murphy
Connectivity mapping based on resting state activity in mice has revealed functional motifs of correlated activity. However, the rules by which motifs organize into larger functional modules that lead to hemisphere wide spatial-temporal activity sequences is not clear. We explore cortical activity parcellation in head-fixed, quiet awake GCaMP6 mice from both sexes by using mesoscopic calcium imaging. Spectral decomposition of spontaneous cortical activity revealed the presence of two dominant frequency modes (<1Hz and ∼3Hz), each of them associated with a unique spatial signature of cortical macro-parcellation not predicted by classical cytoarchitectonic definitions of cortical areas...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673740/forebrain-knock-out-of-torsina-reduces-striatal-free-water-and-impairs-whole-brain-functional-connectivity-in-a-symptomatic-mouse-model-of-dyt1-dystonia
#15
Jesse C DeSimone, Samuel S Pappas, Marcelo Febo, Roxana G Burciu, Priyank Shukla, Luis M Colon-Perez, William T Dauer, David E Vaillancourt
Multiple lines of evidence implicate striatal dysfunction in the pathogenesis of dystonia, including in DYT1, a common inherited form of the disease. The impact of striatal dysfunction on connected motor circuits and their interaction with other brain regions is poorly understood. Conditional knock-out (cKO) of the DYT1 protein torsinA from forebrain cholinergic and GABAergic neurons creates a symptomatic model that recapitulates many characteristics of DYT1 dystonia, including the developmental onset of overt twisting movements that are responsive to antimuscarinic drugs...
October 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673385/exophilin-8-assembles-secretory-granules-for-exocytosis-in-the-actin-cortex-via-interaction-with-rim-bp2-and-myosin-viia
#16
Fushun Fan, Kohichi Matsunaga, Hao Wang, Ray Ishizaki, Eri Kobayashi, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Yoshiko Mukumoto, Katsuhide Okunishi, Tetsuro Izumi
Exophilin-8 has been reported to play a role in anchoring secretory granules within the actin cortex, due to its direct binding activities to Rab27 on the granule membrane and to F-actin and its motor protein, myosin-Va. Here, we show that exophilin-8 accumulates granules in the cortical F-actin network not by direct interaction with myosin-Va, but by indirect interaction with a specific form of myosin-VIIa through its previously unknown binding partner, RIM-BP2. RIM-BP2 also associates with exocytic machinery, Cav1...
July 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663199/behavioral-consequences-of-a-bifacial-map-in-the-mouse-somatosensory-cortex
#17
Vassiliy Tsytsarev, Hiroyuki Arakawa, Shuxin Zhao, Alain Chédotal, Reha S Erzurumlu
The whisker system is an important sensory organ with extensive neural representations in the brain of the mouse. Patterned neural modules (barrelettes) in the ipsilateral principal sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (PrV) correspond to the whiskers. Axons of the PrV barrelette neurons cross the midline and confer the whisker-related patterning to the contralateral ventroposteromedial nucleus of the thalamus, and subsequently to the cortex. In this way, specific neural modules called barreloids and barrels in the contralateral thalamus and cortex represent each whisker...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659764/associative-memory-extinction-is-accompanied-by-decayed-plasticity-at-motor-cortical-neurons-and-persistent-plasticity-at-sensory-cortical-neurons
#18
Rui Guo, Rongjing Ge, Shidi Zhao, Yulong Liu, Xin Zhao, Li Huang, Sodong Guan, Wei Lu, Shan Cui, Shirlene Wang, Jin-Hui Wang
Associative memory is essential for cognition, in which associative memory cells and their plasticity presumably play important roles. The mechanism underlying associative memory extinction vs. maintenance remains unclear, which we have studied in a mouse model of cross-modal associative learning. Paired whisker and olfaction stimulations lead to a full establishment of odorant-induced whisker motion in training day 10, which almost disappears if paired stimulations are not given in a week, and then recovers after paired stimulation for an additional day...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658323/using-c-kit-to-genetically-target-cerebellar-molecular-layer-interneurons-in-adult-mice
#19
Samantha B Amat, Matthew J M Rowan, Michael A Gaffield, Audrey Bonnan, Chikako Kikuchi, Hiroki Taniguchi, Jason M Christie
The cerebellar system helps modulate and fine-tune motor action. Purkinje cells (PCs) provide the sole output of the cerebellar cortex, therefore, any cerebellar involvement in motor activity must be driven by changes in PC firing rates. Several different cell types influence PC activity including excitatory input from parallel fibers and inhibition from molecular layer interneurons (MLIs). Similar to PCs, MLI activity is driven by parallel fibers, therefore, MLIs provide feed-forward inhibition onto PCs. To aid in the experimental assessment of how molecular layer inhibition contributes to cerebellar function and motor behavior, we characterized a new knock-in mouse line with Cre recombinase expression under control of endogenous c-kit transcriptional machinery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616718/effect-of-intrastriatal-6-ohda-lesions-on-extrastriatal-brain-structures-in-the-mouse
#20
Birte Becker, Melek Demirbas, Sonja Johann, Adib Zendedel, Cordian Beyer, Hans Clusmann, Stefan Jean-Pierre Haas, Andreas Wree, Sonny Kian Hwie Tan, Markus Kipp
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, resulting in motor and non-motor symptoms. The underlying pathology of non-motor symptoms is poorly understood. Discussed are pathological changes of extrastriatal brain structures. In this study, we characterized histopathological alterations of extrastriatal brain structures in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) PD animal model. Lesions were induced by unilateral stereotactic injections of 6-OHDA into the striatum or medial forebrain bundle of adult male mice...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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