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mouse motor cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679647/a-new-micro-holder-device-for-local-drug-delivery-during-in-vivo-whole-cell-recordings
#1
María Sáez, Maya Ketzef, Javier Alegre-Cortés, Ramón Reig, Gilad Silberberg
Focal administration of pharmacological agents during in vivo recordings is a useful technique to study the functional properties of neural microcircuits. However, the lack of visual control makes this task difficult and inaccurate, especially when targeting small and deep regions where spillover to neighboring regions is likely to occur. An additional problem with recording stability arises when combining focal drug administration with in vivo intracellular recordings, which are highly sensitive to mechanical vibrations...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668904/a-whole-brain-longitudinal-study-in-the-yac128-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease-shows-distinct-trajectories-of-neurochemical-structural-connectivity-and-volumetric-changes
#2
Lorena I Petrella, João M Castelhano, Mario Ribeiro, José V Sereno, Sónia I Gonçalves, Mário N Laço, Michael R Hayden, Ana C Rego, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder causing cognitive and motor impairments, evolving to death within 15-20 years after symptom onset. We previously established a mouse model with the entire human HD gene containing 128 CAG repeats (YAC128) which accurately recapitulates the natural history of the human disease. Defined time points in this natural history enable the understanding of longitudinal trajectories from the neurochemical and structural points of view using non-invasive high-resolution multimodal imaging...
April 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659809/a-new-mouse-model-of-arx-dup24-recapitulates-the-patients-behavioural-and-fine-motor-alterations
#3
Aline Dubos, Hamid Meziane, Giovanni Iacono, Aurore Curie, Fabrice Riet, Christelle Martin, Nadège Loaëc, Marie-Christine Birling, Mohammed Selloum, Elisabeth Normand, Guillaume Pavlovic, Tania Sorg, Henk G Stunnenberg, Jamel Chelly, Yann Humeau, Gaëlle Friocourt, Yann Hérault
The Aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) transcription factor is involved in the development of GABAergic and cholinergic neurons in the forebrain. ARX mutations have been associated with a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders in humans, among which the most frequent, a 24bp duplication in the polyalanine tract 2 (c.428_451dup24), gives rise to intellectual disability, fine motor defects with or without epilepsy. To understand the functional consequences of this mutation, we generated a partially humanized mouse model carrying the c...
April 5, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624790/gene-therapy-for-glut1-deficient-mouse-using-an-adeno-associated-virus-vector-with-the-human-intrinsic-glut1-promoter
#4
Sachie Nakamura, Shin-Ichi Muramatsu, Naomi Takino, Mika Ito, Eriko F Jimbo, Kuniko Shimazaki, Tatsushi Onaka, Sumio Ohtsuki, Tetsuya Terasaki, Takanori Yamagata, Hitoshi Osaka
BACKGROUND: We generated an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector in which the human SLC2A1 gene, encoding glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1), was expressed under the human endogenous GLUT1 promoter (AAV-GLUT1). We examined whether AAV-GLUT1 administration could lead to functional improvement in GLUT1-deficient mice. METHODS: We extrapolated human endogenous GLUT1 promoter sequences from rat minimal Glut1 promoter sequences. We generated a tyrosine-mutant AAV9/3 vector in which human SLC2A1-myc-DDK was expressed under the human GLUT1 promoter (AAV-GLUT1)...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616982/a-fast-intracortical-brain-machine-interface-with-patterned-optogenetic-feedback
#5
Aamir Abbasi, Dorian Goueytes, Daniel E Shulz, Valerie Ego-Stengel, Luc Estebanez
OBJECTIVE: The development of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) brings a new perspective to patients with a loss of autonomy. By combining online recordings of brain activity with a decoding algorithm, patients can learn to control a robotic arm in order to perform simple actions. However, in contrast to the vast amounts of somatosensory information channeled by limbs to the brain, current BMIs are devoid of touch and force sensors. Patients must therefore rely solely on vision and audition, which are maladapted to the control of a prosthesis...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593054/low-dimensional-and-monotonic-preparatory-activity-in-mouse-anterior-lateral-motor-cortex
#6
Hidehiko K Inagaki, Miho Inagaki, Sandro Romani, Karel Svoboda
Neurons in multiple brain regions fire trains of action potentials anticipating specific movements, but this 'preparatory activity' has not been systematically compared across behavioral tasks. We compared preparatory activity in auditory and tactile delayed-response tasks in male mice. Skilled, directional licking was the motor output. The anterior lateral motor cortex (ALM) is necessary for motor planning in both tasks. Multiple features of ALM preparatory activity during the delay epoch were similar across tasks...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582587/disrupted-striatal-neuron-inputs-and-outputs-in-huntington-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Anton Reiner, Yun-Ping Deng
Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the gene coding for the protein huntingtin, resulting in a pathogenic expansion of the polyglutamine tract in the N-terminus of this protein. The HD pathology resulting from the mutation is most prominent in the striatal part of the basal ganglia, and progressive differential dysfunction and loss of striatal projection neurons and interneurons account for the progression of motor deficits seen in this disease...
April 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571668/odor-preference-and-olfactory-memory-are-impaired-in-olfaxin-deficient-mice
#8
Saiful Islam, Masashi Ueda, Emika Nishida, Miao-Xing Wang, Masatake Osawa, Dongsoo Lee, Masanori Itoh, Kiyomi Nakagawa, Tana, Toshiyuki Nakagawa
Olfaxin, which is a BNIP2 and Cdc42GAP homology (BCH) domain-containing protein, is predominantly expressed in mitral and tufted (M/T) cells in the olfactory bulb (OB). Olfaxin and Caytaxin, which share 56.3% amino acid identity, are similar in their glutamatergic terminal localization, kidney-type glutaminase (KGA) interaction, and caspase-3 substrate. Although the deletion of Caytaxin protein causes human Cayman ataxia and ataxia in the mutant mouse, the function of Olfaxin is largely unknown. In this study, we generated Prune2 gene mutant mice (Prune2Ex16-/- ; knock out [KO] mice) using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, during which the exon 16 containing start codon of Olfaxin mRNA was deleted...
March 20, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559891/layer-5-callosal-parvalbumin-expressing-neurons-a-distinct-functional-group-of-gabaergic-neurons
#9
Hector Zurita, Paul L C Feyen, Alfonso Junior Apicella
Previous studies have shown that parvalbumin-expressing neurons (CC-Parv neurons) connect the two hemispheres of motor and sensory areas via the corpus callosum, and are a functional part of the cortical circuit. Here we test the hypothesis that layer 5 CC-Parv neurons possess anatomical and molecular mechanisms which dampen excitability and modulate the gating of interhemispheric inhibition. In order to investigate this hypothesis we use viral tracing to determine the anatomical and electrophysiological properties of layer 5 CC-Parv and parvalbumin-expressing (Parv) neurons of the mouse auditory cortex (AC)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549647/increased-ros-level-in-spinal-cord-of-wobbler-mice-due-to-nmnat2-downregulation
#10
Pascal Röderer, Lara Klatt, Felix John, Verena Theis, Konstanze F Winklhofer, Carsten Theiss, Veronika Matschke
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a devastating motor neuron disease and to this day not curable. While 5-10% of patients inherit the disease (familiar ALS), up to 95% of patients are diagnosed with the sporadic form (sALS). ALS is characterized by the degeneration of upper motor neurons in the cerebral cortex and of lower motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord. The wobbler mouse resembles almost all phenotypical hallmarks of human sALS patients and is therefore an excellent motor neuron disease model...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534631/synaptic-properties-of-layer-vi-inverted-pyramidal-cells-in-the-rodent-somatosensory-cortex
#11
Robert Steger, Lauren Blachorsky, Qizong Yang, Joshua C Brumberg
The properties of specific cortical cell types enable greater understanding of how cortical microcircuits process and transmit sensory, motor, and cognitive information. Previous reports have characterized the intrinsic properties of the inverted pyramidal cell (IPC) where the most prominent dendrite is orientated towards the cortical white matter. Using whole cell patch clamp recordings from rat and mouse somatosensory cortex in conjunction with electric microstimulation of the white matter we characterized the synaptic inputs onto IPCs and the more common upright pyramidal cell (UPC) in the infragranular layers...
March 13, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528521/striatal-cholinergic-receptor-activation-causes-a-rapid-selective-state-dependent-rise-in-corticostriatal-%C3%AE-activity
#12
Benjamin R Pittman-Polletta, Allison Quach, Ali I Mohammed, Michael Romano, Krishnakanth Kondabolu, Nancy J Kopell, Xue Han, Michelle M McCarthy
Cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic (CBT) β oscillations (15-30 Hz) are ele- vated in Parkinson's disease and correlated with movement disability. To date, no experimental paradigm outside of loss of dopamine has been able to specifically elevate β oscillations in the CBT loop. Here, we show that activation of striatal cholinergic receptors selectively increased β oscillations in mouse striatum and motor cortex. In individuals showing simultaneous β increases in both striatum and M1, β partial directed coherence (PDC) increased from striatum to M1 (but not in the reverse direction)...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523880/widespread-transduction-of-astrocytes-and-neurons-in-the-mouse-central-nervous-system-after-systemic-delivery-of-a-self-complementary-aav-php-b-vector
#13
Melvin Y Rincon, Filip de Vin, Sandra I Duqué, Shelly Fripont, Stephanie A Castaldo, Jessica Bouhuijzen-Wenger, Matthew G Holt
Until recently, adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9) was considered the AAV serotype most effective in crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and transducing cells of the central nervous system (CNS), following systemic injection. However, a newly engineered capsid, AAV-PHP.B, is reported to cross the BBB at even higher efficiency. We investigated how much we could boost CNS transgene expression by using AAV-PHP.B carrying a self-complementary (sc) genome. To allow comparison, 6 weeks old C57BL/6 mice received intravenous injections of scAAV2/9-GFP or scAAV2/PHP...
March 9, 2018: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523700/total-rna-sequencing-of-rett-syndrome-autopsy-samples-identifies-the-m4-muscarinic-receptor-as-a-novel-therapeutic-target
#14
Rocco Gogliotti, Nicole Fisher, Branden Stansley, Carrie Jones, Craig Lindsley, Jeffrey Conn, Colleen Niswender
Mutations in the Methyl CpG Binding Protein 2 (MECP2) gene are responsible for the neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome (RTT). MeCP2 is a DNA-binding protein whose abundance and ability to complex with HDAC3 is linked to the regulation of chromatin structure. Consequently, loss-of-function mutations in MeCP2 are predicted to have broad effects on gene expression. However, to date, studies in mouse models of RTT have identified a limited number of gene or pathway-level disruptions, and even fewer genes have been identified that could be considered amenable to classical drug discovery approaches...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484648/architectonic-features-and-relative-locations-of-primary-sensory-and-related-areas-of-neocortex-in-mouse-lemurs
#15
Mansi P Saraf, Pooja Balaram, Fabien Pifferi, Răzvan Gămănuț, Henry Kennedy, Jon H Kaas
Mouse lemurs are the smallest of the living primates, and are members of the understudied radiation of strepsirrhine lemurs of Madagascar. They are thought to closely resemble the ancestral primates that gave rise to present day primates. Here we have used multiple histological and immunochemical methods to identify and characterize sensory areas of neocortex in four brains of adult lemurs obtained from a licensed breeding colony. We describe the laminar features for the primary visual area (V1), the secondary visual area (V2), the middle temporal visual area (MT) and area prostriata, somatosensory areas S1(3b), 3a, and area 1, the primary motor cortex (M1), and the primary auditory cortex (A1)...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480413/the-effects-of-acrobatic-exercise-on-brain-plasticity-a-systematic-review-of-animal-studies
#16
REVIEW
R M S Gutierrez, N A Ricci, Q R S Gomes, D L Oliveira, R S Pires
Acrobatic exercise is considered a complex motor activity and may promote motor learning and neuroplasticity. The objective of this systematic review was to verify possible plastic brain changes induced by acrobatic exercise in non-lesioned rat and mouse through the analysis of experimental studies. Manual and electronic searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science databases, without restriction to language or publication date. Synaptogenesis and neurogenesis were selected as the primary outcomes...
February 26, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458197/changes-in-motor-function-cognition-and-emotion-related-behavior-after-right-hemispheric-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-various-brain-regions-of-mouse
#17
Wei Zhu, Yufeng Gao, Jieru Wan, Xi Lan, Xiaoning Han, Shanshan Zhu, Weidong Zang, Xuemei Chen, Wendy Ziai, Daniel F Hanley, Scott J Russo, Ricardo E Jorge, Jian Wang
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a detrimental type of stroke. Mouse models of ICH, induced by collagenase or blood infusion, commonly target striatum, but not other brain sites such as ventricular system, cortex, and hippocampus. Few studies have systemically investigated brain damage and neurobehavioral deficits that develop in animal models of ICH in these areas of the right hemisphere. Therefore, we evaluated the brain damage and neurobehavioral dysfunction associated with right hemispheric ICH in ventricle, cortex, hippocampus, and striatum...
February 16, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456186/neurons-generated-by-mouse-escs-with-hippocampal-or-cortical-identity-display-distinct-projection-patterns-when-co-transplanted-in-the-adult-brain
#18
Marco Terrigno, Irene Busti, Claudia Alia, Marta Pietrasanta, Ivan Arisi, Mara D'Onofrio, Matteo Caleo, Federico Cremisi
The capability of generating neural precursor cells with distinct types of regional identity in vitro has recently opened new opportunities for cell replacement in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. By manipulating Wnt and BMP signaling, we steered the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) toward isocortical or hippocampal molecular identity. These two types of cells showed different degrees of axonal outgrowth and targeted different regions when co-transplanted in healthy or lesioned isocortex or in hippocampus...
March 13, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455576/central-infusion-of-igf-1-increases-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-improves-neurobehavioral-function-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Shaun W Carlson, Kathryn E Saatman
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces neuronal dysfunction and cellular loss that can culminate in lasting impairments in cognitive and motor abilities. Therapeutic agents that promote repair and replenish neurons after TBI hold promise in improving recovery of function. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a neurotrophic factor capable of mediating neuroprotective and neuroplasticity mechanisms. Targeted overexpression of IGF-1 enhances the generation of hippocampal newborn neurons in brain-injured mice; however, the translational neurogenic potential of exogenously administered IGF-1 after TBI remains unknown...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449528/als-related-human-cortical-and-motor-neurons-survival-is-differentially-affected-by-sema3a
#20
Anastasya Birger, Miri Ottolenghi, Liat Perez, Benjamin Reubinoff, Oded Behar
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by cell death of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs). The cause of MN cell loss is not completely understood but involves both cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous mechanisms. Numerous molecules have been implicated to be involved in the death of MNs. One such candidate is semaphorin 3A (Sema3A). In ALS patients, Sema3A was shown to be significantly upregulated in the motor cortex and downregulated in the spinal cord. In the mouse, Sema3A was shown to be an axon repellent molecule for MNs...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
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