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mouse motor cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020619/remarkable-stability-of-myelinating-oligodendrocytes-in-mice
#1
Richa B Tripathi, Martyna Jackiewicz, Ian A McKenzie, Eleni Kougioumtzidou, Matthew Grist, William D Richardson
New myelin-forming oligodendrocytes (OLs) are generated in the mouse central nervous system during adulthood. These adult-born OLs might augment the existing population, contributing to neural plasticity, or else replace OLs that die in use (turnover). To distinguish between these alternatives, we induced genetic labeling of mature myelinating OLs in young adult mice and tracked their subsequent survival. OL survival rates were region dependent, being higher in corpus callosum (∼90% survival over 20 months) and motor cortex (∼70% survival) than in corticospinal tract or optic nerve (50%-60% survival)...
October 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945191/two-photon-calcium-imaging-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampus-without-cortical-invasion
#2
Masashi Kondo, Kenta Kobayashi, Masamichi Ohkura, Junichi Nakai, Masanori Matsuzaki
In vivo two-photon calcium imaging currently allows us to observe the activity of multiple neurons up to ~900 µm below the cortical surface without cortical invasion. However, many important brain areas are located deeper than this. Here, we used an 1100 nm laser that underfilled the back aperture of the objective together with red genetically encoded calcium indicators to establish two-photon calcium imaging of the intact mouse brain and detect neural activity up to 1200 μm from the cortical surface. This imaging was obtained from the medial prefrontal cortex (the prelimbic area) and the hippocampal CA1 region...
September 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941811/reversible-induction-of-tdp-43-granules-in-cortical-neurons-after-traumatic-injury
#3
Diana Wiesner, Lilla Tar, Birgit Linkus, Akila Chandrasekar, Florian Olde Heuvel, Luc Dupuis, William Tsao, Philip C Wong, Albert Ludolph, Francesco Roselli
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been proposed as a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To determine whether TBI might trigger or exacerbate ALS-relevant pathology, we delivered a mild stab-wound injury to the motor cortex of three different ALS mouse models expressing mutations in SOD1, TDP-43 or FUS and scrutinized the effects on the formation of phospho-TDP-43 (pTDP-43) cytoplasmic granules. Stab-injury induced the formation of cytoplasmic TDP-43 granules in wt animals, peaking at 3dpi; a much larger response was seen in mutant TDP-43 mice, whose response peaked at 7dpi...
September 21, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936162/rna-sequencing-analysis-reveals-a-regulatory-role-for-transcription-factor-fezf2-in-the-mature-motor-cortex
#4
Alison J Clare, Hollie E Wicky, Ruth M Empson, Stephanie M Hughes
Forebrain embryonic zinc finger (Fezf2) encodes a transcription factor essential for the specification of layer 5 projection neurons (PNs) in the developing cerebral cortex. As with many developmental transcription factors, Fezf2 continues to be expressed into adulthood, suggesting it remains crucial to the maintenance of neuronal phenotypes. Despite the continued expression, a function has yet to be explored for Fezf2 in the PNs of the developed cortex. Here, we investigated the role of Fezf2 in mature neurons, using lentiviral-mediated delivery of a shRNA to conditionally knockdown the expression of Fezf2 in the mouse primary motor cortex (M1)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922852/magnesium-sulfate-prevents-neurochemical-and-long-term-behavioral-consequences-of-neonatal-excitotoxic-lesions-comparison-between-male-and-female-mice
#5
Ismaël Daher, Bérénice Le Dieu-Lugon, Nathalie Dourmap, Matthieu Lecuyer, Lauriane Ramet, Cathy Gomila, Jérôme Ausseil, Stéphane Marret, Philippe Leroux, Vincent Roy, Salah El Mestikawy, Stéphanie Daumas, Bruno Gonzalez, Isabelle Leroux-Nicollet, Carine Cleren
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) administration to mothers at risk of preterm delivery is proposed as a neuroprotective strategy against neurological alterations such as cerebral palsy in newborns. However, long-term beneficial or adverse effects of MgSO4 and sex-specific sensitivity remain to be investigated. We conducted behavioral and neurochemical studies of MgSO4 effects in males and females, from the perinatal period to adolescence in a mouse model of cerebral neonatal lesion. The lesion was produced in 5-day-old (P5) pups by ibotenate intracortical injection...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918262/circuit-changes-in-motor-cortex-during-motor-skill-learning
#6
Andrew E Papale, Bryan M Hooks
Motor cortex is important for motor skill learning, particularly the dexterous skills necessary for our favorite sports and careers. We are especially interested in understanding how plasticity in motor cortex contributes to skill learning. Although human studies have been helpful in understanding the importance of motor cortex in learning skilled tasks, animal models are necessary for achieving a detailed understanding of the circuitry underlying these behaviors and the changes that occur during training. We review data from these models to try to identify sites of plasticity in motor cortex, focusing on rodents asa model system...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916520/rubrocerebellar-feedback-loop-isolates-the-interposed-nucleus-as-an-independent-processor-of-corollary-discharge-information-in-mice
#7
Christy S Beitzel, Brenda D Houck, Samantha M Lewis, Abigail L Person
Understanding cerebellar contributions to motor coordination requires deeper insight into how the output structures of the cerebellum, the cerebellar nuclei, integrate their inputs and influence downstream motor pathways. The magnocellular red nucleus (RNm), a brainstem premotor structure, is a major target of the interposed nucleus (IN), and has also been described in previous studies to send feedback collaterals to the cerebellum. Because such a pathway is in a key position to provide motor efferent information to the cerebellum, satisfying predictions about the use of corollary discharge in cerebellar computations, we studied it in mice of both sexes...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912673/improving-the-delivery-of-sod1-antisense-oligonucleotides-to-motor-neurons-using-calcium-phosphate-lipid-nanoparticles
#8
Liyu Chen, Clare Watson, Marco Morsch, Nicholas J Cole, Roger S Chung, Darren N Saunders, Justin J Yerbury, Kara L Vine
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting the upper and lower motor neurons in the motor cortex and spinal cord. Abnormal accumulation of mutant superoxide dismutase I (SOD1) in motor neurons is a pathological hallmark of some forms of the disease. We have shown that the orderly progression of the disease may be explained by misfolded SOD1 cell-to-cell propagation, which is reliant upon its active endogenous synthesis. Reducing the levels of SOD1 is therefore a promising therapeutic approach...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910624/a-sensorimotor-circuit-in-mouse-cortex-for-visual-flow-predictions
#9
Marcus Leinweber, Daniel R Ward, Jan M Sobczak, Alexander Attinger, Georg B Keller
The cortex is organized as a hierarchical processing structure. Feedback from higher levels of the hierarchy, known as top-down signals, have been shown to be involved in attentional and contextual modulation of sensory responses. Here we argue that top-down input to the primary visual cortex (V1) from A24b and the adjacent secondary motor cortex (M2) signals a prediction of visual flow based on motor output. A24b/M2 sends a dense and topographically organized projection to V1 that targets most neurons in layer 2/3...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895461/skeletal-muscle-atrophy-and-degeneration-in-a-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Bahar Shahidi, Sameer B Shah, Mary Esparza, Brian Patrick Head, Sam Ward
Atrophy is thought to be a primary mode of muscle loss in neuromuscular injuries. The differential effects of central and peripheral injuries on atrophy and degeneration/regeneration in skeletal muscle tissue have not been well described. This study investigated skeletal muscle atrophy and degeneration/regeneration in an animal model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Eight 8-month old wild type C57BL6 mice underwent either a sham craniotomy or TBI targeting the motor cortex. Atrophy (Fiber Area; FA) and degeneration/regeneration (Centralized Nuclei proportions; CN) of the Soleus and Tibialis Anterior (TA) muscles were measured 2 months post injury...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882062/remodeling-of-sensorimotor-brain-connectivity-in-gpr88-deficient-mice
#11
Tanzil Arefin, Anna E Mechling, Carole Aura Meirsman, Thomas Bienert, Neele Saskia Huebner, Hsu-Lei Lee, Sami Ben Hamida, Aliza Ehrlich, Daniel Roquet, Juergen Hennig, Dominik von Elverfeldt, Brigitte Lina Kieffer, Laura-Adela Harsan
Recent studies have demonstrated that orchestrated gene activity and expression supports synchronous activity of brain networks. However, there is a paucity of information on the consequences of single gene function on overall brain functional organization and connectivity, and how this translates at behavioral level. Here we combined mouse mutagenesis with functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine whether targeted inactivation of a single gene would modify whole brain connectivity in live animals...
September 7, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878631/a-laminar-organization-for-selective-cortico-cortical-communication
#12
REVIEW
Rinaldo D D'Souza, Andreas Burkhalter
The neocortex is central to mammalian cognitive ability, playing critical roles in sensory perception, motor skills and executive function. This thin, layered structure comprises distinct, functionally specialized areas that communicate with each other through the axons of pyramidal neurons. For the hundreds of such cortico-cortical pathways to underlie diverse functions, their cellular and synaptic architectures must differ so that they result in distinct computations at the target projection neurons. In what ways do these pathways differ? By originating and terminating in different laminae, and by selectively targeting specific populations of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, these "interareal" pathways can differentially control the timing and strength of synaptic inputs onto individual neurons, resulting in layer-specific computations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878629/higher-arc-nucleus-to-cytoplasm-ratio-during-sleep-in-the-superficial-layers-of-the-mouse-cortex
#13
Sakiko Honjoh, Luisa de Vivo, Hiroyuki Okuno, Haruhiko Bito, Giulio Tononi, Chiara Cirelli
The activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein Arc is strongly and quickly upregulated by neuronal activity, synaptic potentiation and learning. Arc entry in the synapse is followed by the endocytosis of glutamatergic AMPA receptors (AMPARs), and its nuclear accumulation has been shown in vitro to result in a small decline in the transcription of the GluA1 subunit of AMPARs. Since these effects result in a decline in synaptic strength, we asked whether a change in Arc dynamics may temporally correlate with sleep-dependent GluA1 down-regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877102/treadmill-exercise-modifies-dopamine-receptor-expression-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-the-1-methyl-4-phenyl-1-2-3-6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Natalie Kintz, Giselle M Petzinger, Michael W Jakowec
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder for which there is no cure. PD is a dopamine (DA)-deficit disorder marked by progressive motor and nonmotor disturbances, including cognitive impairment. Executive function (EF) is the most common subtype of cognitive impairment in PD and consists of deficits in number of processes including behavioral flexibility. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is an important brain region subserving EF. Furthermore, DA plays a key neuromodulatory role in the PFC and altered DA neurotransmission is believed to contribute toward EF deficits in PD...
September 4, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826501/electrical-activity-controls-area-specific-expression-of-neuronal-apoptosis-in-the-mouse-developing-cerebral-cortex
#15
Oriane Blanquie, Jenq-Wei Yang, Werner Kilb, Salim Sharopov, Anne Sinning, Heiko J Luhmann
Programmed cell death widely but heterogeneously affects the developing brain, causing the loss of up to 50% of neurons in rodents. However, whether this heterogeneity originates from neuronal identity and/or network-dependent processes is unknown. Here, we report that the primary motor cortex (M1) and primary somatosensory cortex (S1), two adjacent but functionally distinct areas, display striking differences in density of apoptotic neurons during the early postnatal period. These differences in rate of apoptosis negatively correlate with region-dependent levels of activity...
August 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821666/gabaergic-interneuron-differentiation-in-the-basal-forebrain-is-mediated-through-direct-regulation-of-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-isoforms-by-dlx-homeobox-transcription-factors
#16
Trung N Le, Qing-Ping Zhou, Inma Cobos, Shunzhen Zhang, Jamie Zagozewski, Sara Japoni, Jerry Vriend, Tracie Parkinson, Guoyan Du, John L Rubenstein, David D Eisenstat
GABA is the key inhibitory neurotransmitter in the cortex but regulation of its synthesis during forebrain development is poorly understood. In the telencephalon, members of the distal-less (Dlx) homeobox gene family are expressed in, and regulate the development of, the basal ganglia primodia from which many GABAergic neurons originate and migrate to other forebrain regions. The Dlx1/Dlx2 double knock-out mice die at birth with abnormal cortical development, including loss of tangential migration of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons to the neocortex (Anderson et al...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821643/changes-in-the-excitability-of-neocortical-neurons-in-a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-are-not-specific-to-corticospinal-neurons-and-are-modulated-by-advancing-disease
#17
Juhyun Kim, Ethan G Hughes, Ashwin S Shetty, Paola Arlotta, Loyal A Goff, Dwight E Bergles, Solange P Brown
Cell type-specific changes in neuronal excitability have been proposed to contribute to the selective degeneration of corticospinal neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to neocortical hyperexcitability, a prominent feature of both inherited and sporadic variants of the disease, but the mechanisms underlying selective loss of specific cell types in ALS are not known. We analyzed the physiological properties of distinct classes of cortical neurons in the motor cortex of hSOD1(G93A) mice of both sexes and found that they all exhibit increases in intrinsic excitability that depend on disease stage...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807673/gpr55-a-therapeutic-target-for-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Marta Celorrio, Estefanía Rojo-Bustamante, Diana Fernández-Suárez, Elena Sáez, Ander Estella-Hermoso de Mendoza, Christa E Müller, María J Ramírez, Julen Oyarzábal, Rafael Franco, María S Aymerich
The GPR55 receptor is expressed abundantly in the brain, especially in the striatum, suggesting it might fulfill a role in motor function. Indeed, motor behavior is impaired in mice lacking GPR55, which also display dampened inflammatory responses. Abnormal-cannabidiol (Abn-CBD), a synthetic cannabidiol (CBD) isomer, is a GPR55 agonist that may serve as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we explored whether modulating GPR55 could also represent a therapeutic approach for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD)...
August 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755208/persistent-microglial-activation-and-synaptic-loss-with-behavioral-abnormalities-in-mouse-offspring-exposed-to-caspr2-antibodies-in-utero
#19
Ester Coutinho, David A Menassa, Leslie Jacobson, Steven J West, Joana Domingos, Teresa C Moloney, Bethan Lang, Paul J Harrison, David L H Bennett, David Bannerman, Angela Vincent
Gestational transfer of maternal antibodies against fetal neuronal proteins may be relevant to some neurodevelopmental disorders, but until recently there were no proteins identified. We recently reported a fivefold increase in CASPR2-antibodies in mid-gestation sera from mothers of children with intellectual and motor disabilities. Here, we exposed mice in utero to purified IgG from patients with CASPR2-antibodies (CASPR2-IgGs) or from healthy controls (HC-IgGs). CASPR2-IgG but not HC-IgG bound to fetal brain parenchyma, from which CASPR2-antibodies could be eluted...
July 28, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745630/subpial-adeno-associated-virus-9-aav9-vector-delivery-in-adult-mice
#20
Takahiro Tadokoro, Atsushi Miyanohara, Michael Navarro, Kota Kamizato, Stefan Juhas, Jana Juhasova, Silvia Marsala, Oleksandr Platoshyn, Erik Curtis, Brandon Gabel, Joseph Ciacci, Nada Lukacova, Katarina Bimbova, Martin Marsala
The successful development of a subpial adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9) vector delivery technique in adult rats and pigs has been reported on previously. Using subpially-placed polyethylene catheters (PE-10 or PE-5) for AAV9 delivery, potent transgene expression through the spinal parenchyma (white and gray matter) in subpially-injected spinal segments has been demonstrated. Because of the wide range of transgenic mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases, there is a strong desire for the development of a potent central nervous system (CNS)-targeted vector delivery technique in adult mice...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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