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oral mucosal melanoma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190531/cutaneous-adverse-effects-of-the-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#1
REVIEW
Lindsey K Collins, M Shane Chapman, Joi B Carter, Faramarz H Samie
The immune checkpoint targeted agents, anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and anti-programed cell death 1 (PD-1) or anti-programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors are frequently associated with cutaneous side effects that are often dose limiting and can lead to discontinuation of therapy. Ipilimumab, a CTLA-4 inhibitor, is most commonly associated with a morbilliform eruption on the trunk and extremities and pruritus. More severe cutaneous toxicities reported include toxic epidermal necrolysis and severe drug rash with eosinophila and systemic symptoms...
December 14, 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134726/mutational-status-of-nras-and-braf-genes-and-protein-expression-analysis-in-a-series-of-primary-oral-mucosal-melanoma
#2
Ricardo Hsieh, Marcello M S Nico, Cláudia M C Camillo, Kátia K Oliveira, Martin Sangueza, Silvia V Lourenço
Primary oral mucosal melanoma is an extremely rare and aggressive tumor arising from melanocytes located in the mucosal epithelium of the oral cavity. Although malignant melanoma of oral mucosa shares some clinical features with its cutaneous counterpart, it has been associated with a worst prognosis; its etiopathogenesis are still only partially unraveled as there is no influence of UV radiation. It is known that the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway mediates cellular responses to growth signals and its activation is an important phenomenon in melanoma...
February 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128848/head-and-neck-cancers-major-changes-in-the-american-joint-committee-on-cancer-eighth-edition-cancer-staging-manual
#3
William M Lydiatt, Snehal G Patel, Brian O'Sullivan, Margaret S Brandwein, John A Ridge, Jocelyn C Migliacci, Ashley M Loomis, Jatin P Shah
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE The recently released eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Staging Manual, Head and Neck Section, introduces significant modifications from the prior seventh edition. This article details several of the most significant modifications, and the rationale for the revisions, to alert the reader to evolution of the field. The most significant update creates a separate staging algorithm for high-risk human papillomavirus-associated cancer of the oropharynx, distinguishing it from oropharyngeal cancer with other causes...
January 27, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103611/phase-ii-randomised-discontinuation-trial-of-the-met-vegf-receptor-inhibitor-cabozantinib-in-metastatic-melanoma
#4
Adil Daud, Harriet M Kluger, Razelle Kurzrock, Frauke Schimmoller, Aaron L Weitzman, Thomas A Samuel, Ali H Moussa, Michael S Gordon, Geoffrey I Shapiro
BACKGROUND: A phase II randomised discontinuation trial assessed cabozantinib (XL184), an orally bioavailable inhibitor of tyrosine kinases including VEGF receptors, MET, and AXL, in a cohort of patients with metastatic melanoma. METHODS: Patients received cabozantinib 100 mg daily during a 12-week lead-in. Patients with stable disease (SD) per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) at week 12 were randomised to cabozantinib or placebo. Primary endpoints were objective response rate (ORR) at week 12 and postrandomisation progression-free survival (PFS)...
February 14, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092667/oncogenic-braf-fusions-in-mucosal-melanomas-activate-the-mapk-pathway-and-are-sensitive-to-mek-pi3k-inhibition-or-mek-cdk4-6-inhibition
#5
H S Kim, M Jung, H N Kang, H Kim, C-W Park, S-M Kim, S J Shin, S H Kim, S G Kim, E K Kim, M R Yun, Z Zheng, K Y Chung, J Greenbowe, S M Ali, T-M Kim, B C Cho
Despite remarkable progress in cutaneous melanoma genomic profiling, the mutational landscape of primary mucosal melanomas (PMM) remains unclear. Forty-six PMMs underwent targeted exome sequencing of 111 cancer-associated genes. Seventy-six somatic nonsynonymous mutations in 42 genes were observed, and recurrent mutations were noted on eight genes, including TP53 (13%), NRAS (13%), SNX31 (9%), NF1 (9%), KIT (7%) and APC (7%). Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK; 37%), cell cycle (20%) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-mTOR (15%) pathways were frequently mutated...
January 16, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039178/the-natural-history-and-patterns-of-metastases-from-mucosal-melanoma-an-analysis-of-706-prospectively-followed-patients
#6
B Lian, C L Cui, L Zhou, X Song, X S Zhang, D Wu, L Si, Z H Chi, X N Sheng, L L Mao, X Wang, B X Tang, X Q Yan, Y Kong, J Dai, S M Li, X Bai, N Zheng, Charles M Balch, J Guo
BACKGROUND: We examined whether mucosal melanomas are different in their clinical course and patterns of metastases when arising from different anatomic sites. Our hypothesis was that metastatic behavior would differ from primary mucosal melanomas at different anatomical sites. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical and pathological data from 706 patients were compared for their stage distribution, patterns of metastases, CKIT/BRAF mutation status, and overall survival for different anatomical sites...
December 29, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028129/long-term-outcomes-after-carbon-ion-radiotherapy-for-oral-mucosal-malignant-melanoma
#7
Kensuke Naganawa, Masashi Koto, Ryo Takagi, Azusa Hasegawa, Hiroaki Ikawa, Kazuo Shimozato, Tadashi Kamada, Yoshitaka Okamoto
Oral mucosal malignant melanoma (OMM) is extremely rare and has a poor prognosis. Owing to its rarity, it has not yet been possible to establish an optimal treatment modality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy of carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) for OMM. Between 1997 and 2013, 19 patients with OMM were treated with C-ion RT alone. Patient ages ranged from 44 to 84 years (median, 69 years). Nine men and 10 women were included. OMMs were restaged in accordance with the seventh edition of the tumour/node/metastasis (TNM) Staging System of the International Union Against Cancer...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926613/optimal-multidisciplinary-treatment-of-oral-cavity-mucosal-melanoma-outcome-analysis-in-a-case-series
#8
Francesco Perri, Salvatore Pisconti, Matteo Favia, Giuseppina Della Vittoria Scarpati, Manuel Conson, Mario Giuliano, Franco Ionna, Francesco Longo, Bonamonte Domenico, Eugenio Maiorano, Gianfranco Favia
Oral cavity mucosal melanomas (OCMM) represent only 3% of all malignant melanomas. Surgery is the mainstay of treatments and it is often followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. The role of adjuvant immunotherapy and/or chemotherapy is still debated and to date neither treatment is routinely used. From January 1990 to January 2010, we have collected from our database data of 20 patients with a histologically proven diagnosis of OCMM. Upfront surgery, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy was performed in 16/20 (80%) patients...
March 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914687/braf-nras-kit-tert-gnaq-gna11-mutation-profile-analysis-of-head-and-neck-mucosal-melanomas-a-study-of-42-cases
#9
Şule Öztürk Sari, İsmaİl Yilmaz, Orhun Çiğ Taşkin, Gİzem Narli, Fatma Şen, Şenol Çomoğlu, Pinar Firat, Bİlge Bİlgİç, Dİlek Yilmazbayhan, Yasemİn Özlük, Nesİmİ Büyükbabanİ
Head and neck mucosal melanoma (HNMuM), which occurs mostly in the sinonasal and oral cavity, constitutes less than 1% of all malignant melanomas. Treatment options fail to improve the prognosis of this aggressive tumour that has low overall survival rates. Thus, development of new targeted therapies is essential. Unfortunately, limited data exist regarding their molecular profile. BRAF, NRAS, KIT, TERT and GNAQ/GNA11 oncogene mutations were investigated in 42 HNMuMs (28 sinonasal, 13 oral, 1 nasopharyngeal)...
January 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864904/an-update-on-the-current-management-of-head-and-neck-mucosal-melanoma
#10
REVIEW
Ben Green, Ahmed Elhamshary, Ricardo Gomez, Siavash Rahimi, Peter A Brennan
Primary mucosal melanomas of the head and neck are rare and aggressive tumours that arise in the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and more rarely in the oral cavity. The current treatment options include radical surgical resection with adjuvant external beam radiotherapy being offered in high-risk patients. Although the latter can improve regional control, it does not reduce overall survival. Elective neck dissection is recommended for nodular oral mucosal melanoma, but its role in the clinically node negative neck is controversial...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756356/oral-mucosal-melanoma-treated-with-carbon-ion-radiotherapy-a-case-report
#11
Atsushi Musha, Jun-Ichi Saitoh, Katsuyuki Shirai, Satoshi Yokoo, Tatsuya Ohno, Takashi Nakano
BACKGROUND: Oral mucosal melanoma is a rare disease with a relatively poor prognosis. Carbon ion radiotherapy has been shown to be effective against radiotherapy-resistant tumors owing to its excellent dose concentration and high biological effect. CASE PRESENTATION: Our patient was a 66-year-old Japanese man with oral mucosal melanoma of his right maxillary gingiva (T4aN0M0). He received carbon ion radiotherapy at 57.6 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) in 16 fractions for 4 weeks...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737700/mucosal-melanoma-of-the-head-and-neck-a-population-based-study-from-slovenia-1985-2013
#12
Gaber Plavc, Jasna But-Hadžić, Aleksandar Aničin, Boštjan Lanišnik, Vojislav Didanović, Primož Strojan
OBJECTIVES: To assess the incidence and to review experience with the treatment of mucosal melanoma of the head and neck (MMHN) in Slovenia between 1985 and 2013. METHODS: The National Cancer Registry database and clinical records with outcome data of identified patients treated during the period 1985-2013 in Slovenia were reviewed. RESULTS: In a 29-year period, 61 patients with MMHN were identified, representing 0.5 % of all head and neck malignant tumors and 42 % of all mucosal melanomas in Slovenia...
October 14, 2016: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720652/in%C3%A2-vivo-reflectance-confocal-microscopy-for-evaluating-melanoma-of-the-lip-and-its-differential-diagnoses
#13
Nigel G Maher, Annalisa Solinas, Richard A Scolyer, Pascale Guitera
OBJECTIVE: To improve prebiopsy diagnostic accuracy and surgical management of pigmented appearing lesions on the lips, particularly melanoma, using in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case series over a 12-month period between 2015 and 2016. The setting was two specialist dermatology referral centers with expertise in confocal microscopy. The study population was a consecutive sample of patients with pigmentation of the lip for which the cause was uncertain clinically, whose differential diagnosis included melanoma, and who had undergone both in vivo RCM and subsequent biopsy...
January 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682856/multiple-clear-cell-acanthomas-and-a-sebaceous-lymphadenoma-presenting-in-a-patient-with-cowden-syndrome%C3%A2-%C3%A2-a-case-report
#14
Silvia Potenziani, Danielle Applebaum, Bhuvaneswari Krishnan, Carolina Gutiérrez, A Hafeez Diwan
Cowden syndrome (CS) is an uncommon autosomal dominant multiorgan/system genodermatosis. It is characterized by the development of multiple hamartomas of endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal origin, an increased lifetime risk of breast, thyroid, endometrial and other cancers and an identifiable germline mutation. Mucocutaneous hamartomas are the most common lesions seen and mainly include facial trichilemmomas, oral mucosal papillomas and benign acral keratoses. Herein, we report a case of a 63-year-old Caucasian male with a long-established diagnosis of CS and history of thyroid cancer, colonic polyps, and innumerable trichilemmomas, seborrheic keratoses, squamous papillomas and non-melanoma skin cancers excised in the past...
January 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475897/laser-therapy-inhibits-tumor-growth-in-mice-by-promoting-immune-surveillance-and-vessel-normalization
#15
Giulia Ottaviani, Valentina Martinelli, Katia Rupel, Nicoletta Caronni, Asma Naseem, Lorenzo Zandonà, Giuseppe Perinetti, Margherita Gobbo, Roberto Di Lenarda, Rossana Bussani, Federica Benvenuti, Mauro Giacca, Matteo Biasotto, Serena Zacchigna
Laser therapy, recently renamed as photobiomodulation, stands as a promising supportive treatment for oral mucositis induced by oncological therapies. However, its mechanisms of action and, more importantly, its safety in cancer patients, are still unclear. Here we explored the anti-cancer effect of 3 laser protocols, set at the most commonly used wavelengths, in B16F10 melanoma and oral carcinogenesis mouse models. While laser light increased cell metabolism in cultured cells, the in vivo outcome was reduced tumor progression...
September 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461037/the-promise-of-molecularly-targeted-and-immunotherapy-for-advanced-melanoma
#16
REVIEW
Kim Margolin
Advanced melanoma, rarely diagnosed at the time of primary melanoma excision but most often occurring later via lymphatic or hematogenous dissemination, is the cause of death for approximately 10,000 people in the USA each year, with the rate of incidence and death increasing yearly. Its causes are multifactorial and depend in large part on solar ultraviolet damage to DNA as well as underlying genetic predisposition. Cutaneous melanoma is the most common, but other subsets of importance are mucosal and uveal primaries, with different biology and treatment considerations...
September 2016: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27223497/prognostic-significance-of-nestin-in-primary-malignant-melanoma-of-the-oral-cavity
#17
Su Kyung Kuk, Chong Hyun Won, Woo Jin Lee, Wui Jung Shin, Hye Jung Yoon, Seong Doo Hong, Sam Pyo Hong, Jae Lee
Several studies have examined the correlation between nestin expression and the degree of tumor invasion in cutaneous melanoma. However, no information has been reported on nestin in primary mucosal melanoma of the head and neck. The present study examined the expression and prognostic significance of nestin in patients with primary mucosal melanoma of the oral cavity. Nestin expression was examined immunohistochemically in 39 patients (six oral melanoma in-situ cases and 33 invasive oral melanoma cases) and analyzed for association with disease progression...
October 2016: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27192168/conjunctival-malignant-melanoma-in-denmark-epidemiology-treatment-and-prognosis-with-special-emphasis-on-tumorigenesis-and-genetic-profile
#18
Ann-Cathrine Larsen
Conjunctival malignant melanoma is a rare disease associated with considerable mortality. Most published data have been based on case reports or series of referred patients. In addition, very little is known about the genetic and epigenetic profile of conjunctival melanoma and the resemblance to uveal, cutaneous and mucosal melanoma. The aim was to determine the incidence rate of conjunctival melanoma, and to relate clinicopathological features and treatment to prognosis. A further aim was to determine the prevalence of BRAF mutations in conjunctival melanoma, to determine whether BRAF mutations are early events in pathogenesis, and relate clinicopathological features and prognosis to BRAF-mutation status...
May 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27177643/in-situ-melanoma-of-the-gingiva-associated-with-dense-inflammation-and-pigment-deposition-a-potential-diagnostic-pitfall-in-evaluating-stromal-invasion
#19
Bruno Tavares Sedassari, Nelise Alexandre da Silva Lascane, André Luis Santana de Freitas, Mário Cláudio Mautoni, Mirian Nacagami Sotto, Marina Helena Cury Gallottini, Suzana Cantanhede Orsini Machado de Sousa, Décio Dos Santos Pinto
Melanoma is a highly aggressive neoplasm in which the neoplastic cells display melanocytic differentiation. Less than 1 % of all melanomas arise in the mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity, with purely in situ lesions being exceedingly rare tumors, but with a favorable prognosis compared with invasive lesions. We describe the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in an uncommon case of in situ mucosal melanoma of the oral cavity with intense tumor-associated pigment deposition and inflammation complicating the morphological assessment of infiltrative areas...
December 2016: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27114959/oral-malignant-melanoma-an-aggressive-clinical-entity-report-of-a-rare-case-with-review-of-literature
#20
Shamimul Hasan, Sami Faisal Jamdar, Jogender Jangra, Sadun Mohammad Al Ageel Al Beaiji
Melanomais one of the most dreaded and aggressive neoplasms, being derived from epidermal melanocytes. The majority of melanomas are seen to involve the skin, and primary mucosal melanomas account for less than 1% of all melanomas. Oral malignant melanomas (OMM) are asymptomatic at the initial presentation, but later they become painful with growth and expansion. In the late stages, the patient may present with ulceration, bleeding, tooth mobility, paresthesia, ill-fitting prosthesis, and delayed healing of the extraction sockets...
March 2016: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
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