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Silvie Koval, Gregoire Krahenbuhl, Karryn Warren, Graham O'Brien
In urban environments airborne particulates (dust) must be managed to ensure that industry and community coexist in a mutually beneficial and sustainable manner. The composition of the dust is a function of the local environment and industry. In general, there is a view by many community members that a significant proportion of inhalable (PM10 ) and respirable (PM2.5 ) dust in these environments could be coal. Thus there is a need to have an analytical method that provides a quantitative analysis of the amount and size distribution of the different particulates that can be present in air samples...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Takahide Haku, Yasushi Motoyama, Yoshiaki Takamura, Shuichi Yamada, Ichiro Nakagawa, Young-Su Park, Hiroyuki Nakase
BACKGROUND: Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) often occurs in association with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia. Many cases with CSDH due to CSF hypovolemia and treated by burr-hole surgery have been reported to present with paradoxical deterioration. However, the mechanisms and pathology of deterioration after surgery for CSDH due to CSF hypovolemia remain obscure. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report herein a 62-year-old man with gait disturbance due to subdural fluid collection (SDFC) who underwent burr-hole irrigation and additional craniotomy, in which postoperative deterioration resulted from rapidly progressing central herniation with large amount of air accumulation...
June 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Yi Zhou, Wei-Cheng Wang, Xiao-Ming Zhang, Cui Yang, Jing Zheng, Lin Yang, Ling Dong, Xiao Hu, Tao Zhu, Ya-Li Wang, Yan Yang
Background: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in the current era has gained widespread acceptance as the modality of choice for the treatment of complicated aortic dissection (AD). However, reports on clinical results of TEVAR treatment of AD patients are mainly comparisons and analyses of results between patients in the acute and chronic phases, few reports have described the postoperative aortic remodelling of patients with subacute AD after TEVAR. The aim of this study was to investigate aortic remodelling after TEVAR in acute and subacute Stanford type B AD patients...
May 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Michael Kassirer, Jonathan Wiesen, Karine Atlan, Avital Avriel
Convex endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration (C-EBUS-TBNA) has become an essential modality for diagnosis and staging of hilar, mediastinal, and central pulmonary lesions. A Trans-thoracic pleural biopsy is the accepted practice for diagnosing pleural nodules. However, the diagnostic yield of a pleural biopsy is limited and surgical procedures pose a greater risk. We report a unique case of using a C- EBUS scope for the diagnosis of pleural nodules and mediastinal lymph node metastasis in a man with metastatic renal cell carcinoma...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Sona Saksena, Mahdi Alizadeh, Devon M Middleton, Chris J Conklin, Laura Krisa, Adam Flanders, M J Mulcahey, Feroze B Mohamed, Scott H Faro
Study design: Retrospective study. Objectives: To perform quantitative DTI measurements of the entire cervical and thoracic spinal cord (SC) in typically developing (TD) pediatric subjects with incidental findings of syringomyelia or hydromyelia on conventional MRI and in a TD population without any abnormalities. Setting: USA. Methods: 26 TD recruited as part of large SC DTI study, four of these had incidental findings...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
Eduardo J Mortani Barbosa, Sean Novak
PURPOSE: We have established an integrated thoracic radiology reading room within a multidisciplinary lung center clinic (LC). While our subjective experience has been positive, we sought to quantify how this model affects radiology workflow and whether the referring practitioners perceive value in having real-time access to a radiologist consultant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two diagnostic radiology workstations staffed by rotating thoracic radiologists and trainees were integrated within the LC...
July 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Sarah Ghulam Ali, Laura Fusini, Alessia Dalla Cia, Gloria Tamborini, Paola Gripari, Manuela Muratori, Maria E Mancini, Andrea Annoni, Alberto Formenti, Mauro Pepi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) transthoracic echocardiography (2DTTE, 3DTTE) versus multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in patients with ascending aortic (AA) dilation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients with AA dilation were evaluated by 2DTTE, X-plane (XP) 3DTTE, and MDCT. Aorta diameters were measured at aortic annulus, aortic root (SIN), sinotubular junction, AA, aortic arch before the prebrachiocephalic artery (PRE), and before left subclavian artery (INTRA)...
July 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Saba Pasha, Keith Baldwin
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the differences in sagittal spinopelvic parameters between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) Lenke types and non-scoliotic controls through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: AIS classification mainly focuses on frontal curve differences; however, the variations in the sagittal spinopelvic alignment in the current classification system is not fully established...
June 20, 2018: Spine
Sergio Harari, Paolo Spagnolo, Elisabetta Cocconcelli, Francesca Luisi, Vincent Cottin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare systemic disease that occurs almost exclusively in women. In the last few years, our understanding of disease pathobiology has improved substantially; in addition, a guideline document has recently been developed that provides recommendations for the diagnosis and clinical management of patients with LAM. Yet, significant gaps in knowledge remain. RECENT FINDINGS: Groundbreaking insights into the cellular biochemistry of LAM have led to the reclassification of the disease as a low-grade, destructive, metastasizing neoplasm...
June 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Rim Kammoun, Ines Ghannouchi, Sonia Rouatbi, Helmi Ben Saad
An obstructive ventilatory defect (OVD) is defined by a low forced expiratory volume/'forced/slow' vital capacity (FEV1 /FVC) (e.g. <lower limit of normal (LLN)). However, the LLN can be estimated either by the 90% confidence interval (or the 90th percentile) (American Thoracic and the European Respiratory Societies (ATS/ERS) method) or by the Z-score (global lung initiative (GLI) method). In 2014, a new alternative classification (GLI classification) for grading the OVD severity was proposed to replace the 2005-ATS/ERS one...
December 2018: Libyan Journal of Medicine
Jose Sergio Possomato-Vieira, Jessica Sabbatine Chimini, Maria Luiza Santos da Silva, Carlos A Dias-Junior
Dysregulation of hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) producing enzymes has been related to hypertensive pregnancy and H2 S donor, sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) exerts antihypertensive effects, modulates angiogenic factors production and acts as an antioxidant. Moreover, reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is related to hypertensive pregnancy and H2 S may interact with NO, modulating its production. We aimed to investigate the NaHS effects in hypertension-in-pregnancy and also in feto-placental parameters. Female Wistar rats (200-250 g) were mated and desoxycorticosterone acetate injections followed by replacement of water by 0...
June 21, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Yu N Rushkevich, I D Pashkouskaya, S A Likhachev
AIM: To determine concentrations of neurospecific enolase (NSE) and S100b protein in bloodserum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with different forms (onset) and duration of ALS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Concentrations of NSE and S100b in serum and CSF were studied in 86 patients with different forms and duration of ALS. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Concentrations of NSE and S100b protein in CSF were significantly higher in the group of patients with bulbar form and in the group with duration of disease less than 1 year compared to the control group...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Hui Zhang, WeiJian Zhang, DeFeng Peng, JinHai Zhu
BACKGROUND: The study was conducted to investigate the short-term complications and prognostic factors in patients with esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma (EGJA). METHODS: This retrospective study included 110 EGJA patients who underwent surgery from January 2010 to November 2012 at The First Affiliated Hospital of BengBu Medical College. The overall survival and short-term complications were analyzed according to the patients' clinical characteristics. RESULTS: The incidence of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications was significantly higher in patients with preoperative cardiopulmonary disease or elderly patients (P < 0...
June 21, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
B Bohnhorst, K Seidel, C Böhne, C Peter, S Pirr
AIM: This study compiled percentiles for cardiorespiratory parameters in healthy term neonates during quiet sleep. METHODS: We enrolled 215 healthy term neonates born at Hannover Medical School, Germany, between October 2011 and March 2013. They were prospectively observed on the maternity ward at a median age of two days using six-hour recordings of pulse oximeter plethysmography, oxygen saturation, thoracic breathing movements and electrocardiogram during sleep in a supine position...
June 21, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Ye-Yi Li, Man Shang, Kun-Wei Zhang, Su Wei, Chao Liu, Qian Zhu, Jun-Yu Zhao, Yan-Na Wu, Jun-Qiu Song, Yan-Xia Liu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of Astragaloside IV (AST) on diastolic function of rat thoracic aorta rings which was injured by microvesicles derived from hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and the mechanism of AST. METHODS: H/R-induced endothelial microvesicles (H/R-EMVs) were generated from cultured HUVECs in vitro under the condition of hypoxia for 12 hour/Reoxygenation for 4 hour, H/R-EMVs were stored in D-Hank's solution...
February 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
U N Tumanova, V M Lyapin, A A Burov, A I Shchegolev, G T Sukhikh
We explored the possibility of using postmortem MRI for the diagnostics of lung hypoplasia associated with innate diaphragmatic hernia in neonates. The main experimental group consisted of 17 newborns with innate diaphragmatic hernia including 10 non-operated newborns and 7 newborns died after surgery for innate diaphragmatic hernia. It was demonstrated that postmortem MRI allows objective quantitative assessment of the absolute and relative dimensions of the lungs in the thoracic cavity and thereby reveals their hypoplasia, which contributes to the determination of tanatogenesis...
June 20, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Alyssa Huff, Mitchell D Reed, Barbara K Smith, Edward H Brown, Alexander V Ovechkin, Teresa Pitts
PURPOSE: Airway protective behaviors, like cough and swallow, deteriorate in many populations suffering from neurologic disorders. While coordination of these behaviors has been investigated in an animal model, it has not been tested in humans. METHODS: We used a novel protocol, adapted from previous work in the cat, to assess cough and swallow independently and their coordination strategies in seven healthy males (26 ± 6 years). Surface electromyograms of the submental complex and external oblique complex, spirometry, and thoracic and abdominal wall kinematics, were used to evaluate the timing of swallow, cough, and breathing as well as lung volume (LV) during these behaviors...
June 20, 2018: Lung
Teresa Gabriele Nau, Kathrin Oelmeier de Murcia, Mareike Möllers, Janina Braun, Roxanna E Abhari, Johannes Steinhard, Matthias Borowski, Walter Klockenbusch, Ralf Schmitz
PURPOSE: The aim of our study was to compare thymus sizes in foetuses conceived using assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to those conceived naturally (control group). METHODS: Sonographic foetal thymus size was assessed retrospectively in 162 pregnancies conceived using ART and in 774 pregnancies conceived naturally. The anteroposterior thymic and the intrathoracic mediastinal diameter were measured to calculate the thymic-thoracic ratio (TT-ratio). The ART cases were subdivided into two groups: (1) intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI; n = 109) and (2) in vitro fertilisation (IVF; n = 53)...
June 20, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Jolin Wong, Serene Siu Tin Lim
INTRODUCTION: Paediatric epidurals can present technical challenges due to wide variations in age and weight among children, ranging from neonates to teenagers. This study evaluated the skin-to-epidural distance in the thoracic and lumbar regions to determine the relationship between age, weight and ethnicity and depth to the epidural space in our Singapore paediatric population. METHODS: Data from the Acute Pain Service was prospectively collected over 16 years...
June 21, 2018: Singapore Medical Journal
Stephanie E Wallace, Ellen S Regalado, Limin Gong, Alexandra L Janda, Dong-Chuan Guo, Claudio F Russo, Richard J Kulmacz, Nadine Hanna, Guillaume Jondeau, Catherine Boileau, Pauline Arnaud, Kwanghyuk Lee, Suzanne M Leal, Matias Hannuksela, Bo Carlberg, Tami Johnston, Christian Antolik, Ellen M Hostetler, Roberto Colombo, Dianna M Milewicz
PURPOSE: Heritable thoracic aortic disease can result from null variants in MYLK, which encodes myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK). Data on which MYLK missense variants are pathogenic and information to guide aortic disease management are limited. METHODS: Clinical data from 60 cases with MYLK pathogenic variants were analyzed (five null and two missense variants), and the effect of missense variants on kinase activity was assessed. RESULTS: Twenty-three individuals (39%) experienced an aortic event (defined as aneurysm repair or dissection); the majority of these events (87%) were aortic dissections...
June 20, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
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