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Encephalomyelitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331869/dietary-naringenin-supplementation-attenuates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-modulating-autoimmune-inflammatory-responses-in-mice
#1
Junpeng Wang, Ying Qi, Xinli Niu, Hua Tang, Simin Nikbin Meydani, Dayong Wu
Autoimmune disease is highly prevalent in humans. Since conventional therapies have limited efficacy and often come with significant side effects, nutrition may provide an alternative and complementary approach to improving autoimmune disorders. Naringenin, a flavonoid found in citrus fruits, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a rodent model of human multiple sclerosis, we determined the effect of dietary naringenin (0...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331024/combination-therapy-of-lovastatin-and-ampk-activator-improves-mitochondrial-and-peroxisomal-functions-and-clinical-disease-in-eae-model
#2
Inderjit Singh, Devadoss J Samuvel, Seungho Choi, Nishant Saxena, Avtar K Singh, Jeseong Won
Recent studies report that loss and dysfunction of mitochondria and peroxisomes contribute to the myelin and axonal damage in multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we investigated the efficacy of lovastatin and AMPK activator (AICAR) combination on the loss and dysfunction of mitochondria and peroxisomes and myelin and axonal damage in the spinal cords, relative to the clinical disease symptoms, using a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a model for MS). We observed that lovastatin and AICAR treatments individually provided partial protection of mitochondria/peroxisomes, myelin/axons, and thus partial attenuation of clinical disease in EAE mice...
January 13, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330324/betaine-ameliorates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-inhibiting-dendritic-cell-derived-il-6-production-and-th17-differentiation
#3
Cuixia Yang, Weiming Lai, Jinfeng Zhou, Xinyuan Zheng, Yingying Cai, Wanjie Yang, Sirong Xie, Yuan Gao, Changsheng Du
IL-17-secreting T cells (Th17 cells) play a pathogenic role in multiple autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), and dendritic cell (DC)-derived cytokines play pivotal roles in promoting the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into Th cell subsets (Th1 and Th17). Therefore, small molecules blocking the key cytokines produced by DCs will be beneficial in MS. In this article, we report that betaine treatment ameliorates MS pathogenesis by inhibiting DC-derived IL-6 production and Th17 differentiation...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329699/soluble-cd40-ligand-disrupts-the-blood-brain-barrier-and-exacerbates-inflammation-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#4
Hiroki Masuda, Masahiro Mori, Kenta Umehara, Tomomi Furihata, Tomohiko Uchida, Akiyuki Uzawa, Satoshi Kuwabara
Serum soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) has been reported to positively correlate with the albumin quotient, a marker of blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). To clarify the mechanisms of sCD40L in MS pathophysiology, sCD40L was administered to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice and a human brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBMEC)-based BBB model. The high-dose sCD40L group showed a worse EAE score than the low-dose and control groups. BBB permeability was increased by administering sCD40L in a HBMEC-based BBB model...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328415/role-of-catalpol-in-ameliorating-the-pathogenesis-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-increasing-the-level-of-noradrenaline-in-the-locus-coeruleus
#5
Qian Li, Tao Yang, An-Chen Guo, Yong-Ping Fan
The endogenous neurotransmitter, noradrenaline, exerts anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in vivo and in vitro. Reduced noradrenaline levels results in increased inflammation and neuronal damage. The primary source of noradrenaline in the central nervous system is tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)‑positive neurons, located in the locus coeruleus (LC). TH is the rate‑limiting enzyme for noradrenaline synthesis; therefore, regulation of TH protein expression and intrinsic enzyme activity represents the central means for controlling the synthesis of noradrenaline...
January 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325869/microglial-activation-and-the-nitric-oxide-cgmp-pkg-pathway-underlie-enhanced-neuronal-vulnerability-to-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-experimental-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Andrea Mancini, Michela Tantucci, Petra Mazzocchetti, Antonio de Iure, Valentina Durante, Lara Macchioni, Carmela Giampà, Alessandra Alvino, Lorenzo Gaetani, Cinzia Costa, Alessandro Tozzi, Paolo Calabresi, Massimiliano Di Filippo
During multiple sclerosis (MS), a close link has been demonstrated to occur between inflammation and neuro-axonal degeneration, leading to the hypothesis that immune mechanisms may promote neurodegeneration, leading to irreversible disease progression. Energy deficits and inflammation-driven mitochondrial dysfunction seem to be involved in this process. In this work we investigated, by the use of striatal electrophysiological field-potential recordings, if the inflammatory process associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is able to influence neuronal vulnerability to the blockade of mitochondrial complex IV, a crucial component for mitochondrial activity responsible of about 90% of total cellular oxygen consumption...
January 8, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322653/viruses-associated-with-congenital-tremor-and-high-lethality-in-piglets
#7
F Possatti, S A Headley, R A Leme, A M Dall Agnol, E Zotti, T E S de Oliveira, A F Alfieri, A A Alfieri
The recently described atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) has been associated with congenital tremor (CT) type A-II in piglets in different countries. Another important neurological pathogen of pigs is porcine teschovirus (PTV), which has been associated with non-suppurative encephalomyelitis in pigs with severe or mild neurological disorders. There have been no reports of APPV and/or PTV coinfection associated with CT or encephalomyelitis in Brazilian pig herds. The aim of this study was to describe the pathological and molecular findings associated with simultaneous infection of APPV and PTV in piglets with clinical manifestations of CT that were derived from a herd with high rates of CT-associated lethality...
January 10, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322422/optimization-techniques-for-mirna-expression-in-low-frequency-immune-cell-populations
#8
Victoria G Lyons, Natalie L Payne, Claire E McCoy
In this chapter we outline a RNA extraction method for very low immune cell populations isolated from the central nervous system of mice undergoing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We compare various normalization and quantification techniques to examine miRNA expression. Our data highlight that employing a mean normalization procedure using a number of well-selected housekeeping miRNA genes, followed by absolute quantification with a standard curve generated from a commercial miRNA oligo, gave the most robust and reproducible miRNA expression results...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321652/innate-ifn-%C3%AE-ameliorates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-promotes-myeloid-expansion-and-pdl-1-expression
#9
Madeleine P J White, Gill Webster, Faith Leonard, Anne Camille La Flamme
The innate immune system plays a central role in the immune-mediated pathology of multiple sclerosis, and is a therapeutic target for progressive disease. Recently, it has been demonstrated that MIS416, a novel immunomodulatory microparticle that activates NOD-2 and TLR-9-signaling, has disease-modifying activity in multiple sclerosis models. This activity is dependent on innate IFN-γ; however, the precise immune regulatory mechanisms amplified by MIS416 have not previously been determined. Using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model, MIS416 treatment was associated with IFN-γ-dependant expansion of Treg number and increased suppressive function; however, these cells did not account for disease reduction...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321331/germline-igm-is-sufficient-but-not-required-for-antibody-mediated-alphavirus-clearance-from-the-central-nervous-system
#10
Voraphoj Nilaratanakul, Jie Chen, Oanh Tran, Victoria K Baxter, Elizabeth M Troisi, Jane X Yeh, Diane E Griffin
Sindbis virus (SINV) infection of neurons in the brain and spinal cord in mice provides a model system for investigating recovery from encephalomyelitis and antibody-mediated clearance of virus from the central nervous system (CNS). To determine the roles of IgM and IgG in recovery, we compared the responses of immunoglobulin-deficient activation-induced adenosine deaminase (AID)-/-, secretory IgM (sIgM)-/- and AID-/- sIgM-/- double knock out (DKO) mice with wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice for disease, clearance of infectious virus and viral RNA from brain and spinal cord, antibody responses and B cell infiltration into the CNS...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317565/neuromelioidosis-masquerading-as-acute-demyelinating-encephalomyelitis
#11
Alok Shimee Ekka, Mohamed Mohideen, Sajith Kesavan
BACKGROUND: Neuromelioidosis is a rare conduction, which is difficult to diagnose and treat. CASE CHARACTERISTICS: Preadolescent girl presenting with prolonged fever, acute ascending paralysis and encephalopathy. OUTCOME: Neuromelioidiosis was confirmed on brain biopsy culture. Patient improved with an intensive antibiotic regimen. MESSAGE: Neuromelioidosis can mimic acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis clinically and radiologically...
December 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315585/ndrg2-deficiency-ameliorates-neurodegeneration-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#12
Thuong Manh Le, Mika Takarada-Iemata, Hieu Minh Ta, Jureepon Roboon, Hiroshi Ishii, Takashi Tamatani, Yasuko Kitao, Tsuyoshi Hattori, Osamu Hori
N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is a differentiation- and stress-associated molecule that is predominantly expressed in astrocytes in the central nervous system. In this study, we examined the expression and role of NDRG2 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the expression of NDRG2 was observed in astrocytes of spinal cord, and was enhanced after EAE induction. A comparative analysis of wild-type (WT) and Ndrg2-/- mice revealed that deletion of Ndrg2 ameliorated the clinical symptoms of EAE...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311122/experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-eae-as-animal-models-of-multiple-sclerosis-ms
#13
Simon Glatigny, Estelle Bettelli
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifocal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) leading to the progressive destruction of the myelin sheath surrounding axons. It can present with variable clinical and pathological manifestations, which might reflect the involvement of distinct pathogenic processes. Although the mechanisms leading to the development of the disease are not fully understood, numerous evidences indicate that MS is an autoimmune disease, the initiation and progression of which are dependent on an autoimmune response against myelin antigens...
January 8, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308618/co-transplantation-of-human-neurotrophic-factor-secreting-cells-and-adipose-derived-stem-cells-in-rat-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Shahnaz Razavi, Nazem Ghasemi, Mohammad Mardani, Hossein Salehi
OBJECTIVES: The presence of neurotrophic factors is critical for regeneration of neural lesions. Here, we transplanted combination of neurotrophic factor secreting cells (NTF-SCs) and human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) into a lysolecithin model of multiple sclerosis (MS) and determined the myelinization efficiency of these cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, 50 adult rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, lysolecithin, vehicle, hADSCs transplantation and NTF-SCs/ hADSCs co-transplantation group...
April 2018: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307297/sex-chromosome-contributions-to-sex-differences-in-multiple-sclerosis-susceptibility-and-progression
#15
Rhonda R Voskuhl, Amr H Sawalha, Yuichiro Itoh
BACKGROUND: Why are women more susceptible to multiple sclerosis, but men have worse disability progression? Sex differences in disease may be due to sex hormones, sex chromosomes, or both. OBJECTIVE: Determine whether differences in sex chromosomes can contribute to sex differences in multiple sclerosis using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. METHODS: Sex chromosome transgenic mice, which permit the study of sex chromosomes not confounded by differences in sex hormones, were used to examine an effect of sex chromosomes on autoimmunity and neurodegeneration, focusing on X chromosome genes...
January 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307283/modulation-of-the-ogf-ogfr-pathway-alters-cytokine-profiles-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Michael D Ludwig, Ian S Zagon, Patricia J McLaughlin
The endogenous neuropeptide opioid growth factor, chemically termed [Met5]-enkephalin, has growth inhibitory and immunomodulatory properties. Opioid growth factor is distributed widely throughout most tissues, is autocrine and paracrine produced, and interacts at the nuclear-associated receptor, OGFr. Serum levels of opioid growth factor are decreased in patients with multiple sclerosis and in animals with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis suggesting that the OGF-OGFr pathway becomes dysregulated in this disease...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305608/disease-course-and-treatment-responses-in-children-with-relapsing-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibody-associated-disease
#17
Yael Hacohen, Yu Yi Wong, Christian Lechner, Maciej Jurynczyk, Sukhvir Wright, Bahadir Konuskan, Judith Kalser, Anne Lise Poulat, Helene Maurey, Esther Ganelin-Cohen, Evangeline Wassmer, Chery Hemingway, Rob Forsyth, Eva Maria Hennes, M Isabel Leite, Olga Ciccarelli, Banu Anlar, Rogier Hintzen, Romain Marignier, Jacqueline Palace, Matthias Baumann, Kevin Rostásy, Rinze Neuteboom, Kumaran Deiva, Ming Lim
Importance: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Abs) are consistently identified in a range of demyelinating disorders in adults and children. Current therapeutic strategies are largely center specific, and no treatments have been formally evaluated. Objective: To examine the clinical phenotypes, treatment responses, and outcomes of children with relapsing MOG-Ab-associated disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study prospectively collected demographic, clinical, and radiologic data from 102 patients from 8 countries of the EU Paediatric Demyelinating Disease Consortium from January 1, 2014, through December 31, 2016...
January 5, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304807/laquinimod-ameliorates-excitotoxic-damage-by-regulating-glutamate-re-uptake
#18
Antonietta Gentile, Alessandra Musella, Francesca De Vito, Diego Fresegna, Silvia Bullitta, Francesca Romana Rizzo, Diego Centonze, Georgia Mandolesi
BACKGROUND: Laquinimod is an immunomodulatory drug under clinical investigation for the treatment of the progressive form of multiple sclerosis (MS) with both anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Excitotoxicity, a prominent pathophysiological feature of MS and of its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), involves glutamate transporter (GluT) dysfunction in glial cells. The aim of this study was to assess whether laquinimod might exert direct neuroprotective effects by interfering with the mechanisms of excitotoxicity linked to GluT function impairments in EAE...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301568/surfen-a-proteoglycan-binding-agent-reduces-inflammation-but-inhibits-remyelination-in-murine-models-of-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Jordan R Warford, Anna-Claire Lamport, Derek R Clements, Alicia Malone, Barry E Kennedy, Youra Kim, Shashi A Gujar, David W Hoskin, Alexander S Easton
Proteoglycans are promising therapeutic targets in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), because they regulate many aspects of the immune response. This was studied using surfen, an agent that binds both heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Initial cell culture work on bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) found that surfen reduced concentrations of the chemokines CCL2, CCL4 and CCL5, with reduced messenger (m)RNA expression for Tumor Necrosis Factor, IL-6, IL-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase...
January 4, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296708/kruppel-like-factor-4-regulates-neutrophil-activation
#20
Yuyan Shen, Hong Hong, Panjamaporn Sangwung, Stephanie Lapping, Lalitha Nayak, Lilei Zhang, Mukesh K Jain, Xudong Liao
Neutrophils are the most abundant white blood cells in circulation and are key components of the innate immune response. Clinical and experimental studies support an important role for the neutrophils in a broad spectrum of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. However, our understanding of nodal points that control neutrophil activation remains incompletely understood. Over the past decade, studies have linked members of the Kruppel-like family of transcription factors (KLFs) to myeloid cell differentiation and function...
April 25, 2017: Blood Advances
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