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Encephalomyelitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108857/erratum-to-matrine-treatment-blocks-nogoa-induced-neural-inhibitory-signaling-pathway-in-ongoing-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#1
Quan-Cheng Kan, Hui-Jun Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Xing Li, Yu-Ming Xu, Rodolfo Thome, Ming-Liang Zhang, Nan Liu, Yao-Juan Chu, Guang-Xian Zhang, Lin Zhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108255/regular-exercise-promotes-memory-function-and-enhances-hippocampal-neuroplasticity-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-mice
#2
Tae-Woon Kim, Yun-Hee Sung
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive condition affecting the central nervous system (CNS), and is characterized by the development of demyelinated lesions and plaques in the brain and spinal cord. Exercise is beneficial against dementia in elderly patients, so we investigated the effects of exercise on memory in relation to hippocampal demyelination and neuroplasticity in a mouse model of MS (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis [EAE]). Mice were randomly divided into three groups: Sham, EAE, and EAE and exercise (EAE+EX)...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104625/natural-course-of-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-in-adolescents
#3
Tom Norris, Simon M Collin, Kate Tilling, Roberto Nuevo, Stephen A Stansfeld, Jonathan Ac Sterne, Jon Heron, Esther Crawley
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about persistence of or recovery from chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) in adolescents. Previous studies have small sample sizes, short follow-up or have focused on fatigue rather than CFS/ME or, equivalently, chronic fatigue, which is disabling. This work aimed to describe the epidemiology and natural course of CFS/ME in adolescents aged 13-18 years. DESIGN: Longitudinal follow-up of adolescents enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children...
January 19, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104252/novel-zebrafish-eae-model-a-quick-in-vivo-screen-for-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Pushkar Kulkarni, Swapna Yellanki, Raghavender Medishetti, Dharmarajan Sriram, Uday Saxena, Perumal Yogeeswari
INTRODUCTION: Pre-clinical drug discovery for multiple sclerosis (MS) is a labor intensive activity to perform in rodent models. This is owing to the long duration of disease induction and observation of treatment effects in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. We propose a novel adult zebrafish based model which offers a quick and simple protocol that can used to screen candidates as a step between in vitro experiments and rodent studies. The experiments conducted for this manuscript were to standardize a suitable model of EAE in adult zebrafish and validate it using known modulators...
January 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102541/tgf-%C3%AE-regulation-of-encephalitogenic-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-multiple-sclerosis
#5
REVIEW
Priscilla W Lee, Mary E Severin, Amy E Lovett-Racke
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has been shown to influence the differentiation and function of T cells. The role that TGF-β plays in immune-mediated disease, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), has become a major area of investigation since CD4(+) T cells appear to be a major mediator of autoimmunity. This review provides an analysis of the literature on the role that TGF-β plays in the generation and regulation of encephalitogenic and regulatory T cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, as well as in T cells of MS patients...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100738/mir-142-3p-is-a-key-regulator-of-il-1%C3%AE-dependent-synaptopathy-in-neuroinflammation
#6
Georgia Mandolesi, Francesca De Vito, Alessandra Musella, Antonietta Gentile, Silvia Bullitta, Diego Fresegna, Helena Sepman, Claudio Di Sanza, Nabila Haji, Francesco Mori, Fabio Buttari, Emerald Perlas, Maria Teresa Ciotti, Eran Hornstein, Irene Bozzoni, Carlo Presutti, Diego Centonze
: MicroRNAs (miRNA) play an important role in post-transcriptional gene regulation of several physiological and pathological processes. In multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory and degenerative disease of the CNS, and in its mouse model, the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), miRNA dysregulation has been mainly related to immune system dysfunction and white matter (WM) pathology. However, little is known about their role in gray matter pathology. Here, we explored miRNA involvement in the inflammation-driven alterations of synaptic structure and function, collectively known as synaptopathy, a neuropathological process contributing to excitotoxic neurodegeneration in MS/EAE...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098002/-at-our-lowest-points-emma-was-always-there-to-comfort-us
#7
(no author information available yet)
Our daughter Annabelle was rushed to Evelina Children's Hospital in London. She was seriously ill with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, a rare disease marked by a sudden, widespread attack of inflammation in the brain and spinal cord.
January 18, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095433/bj-3105-a-6-alkoxypyridin-3-ol-analog-impairs-t-cell-differentiation-and-prevents-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-disease-progression
#8
Maheshwor Timilshina, Youra Kang, Ishmit Dahal, Zhiwei You, Tae-Gyu Nam, Keuk-Jun Kim, Byeong-Seon Jeong, Jae-Hoon Chang
CD4+ T cells are essential in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secreting T helper (Th1) and IL-17 secreting T helper (Th17) cells are critical for several autoimmune diseases. To assess the inhibitory effect of a given compound on autoimmune disease, we screened many compounds with an in vitro Th differentiation assay. BJ-3105, a 6-alkoxypyridin-3-ol analog, inhibited IFN-γ and IL-17 production from polyclonal CD4+ T cells and ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD4+ T cells which were activated by T cell receptor (TCR) engagement...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095319/autophagy-and-autoimmunity
#9
REVIEW
Dennis J Wu, Iannis E Adamopoulos
Autophagy is a highly conserved protein degradation pathway from yeasts to humans that is essential for removing protein aggregates and misfolded proteins in healthy cells. Recently, autophagy-related genes polymorphisms have been implicated in several autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and multiple sclerosis. Numerous studies reveal autophagy and autophagy-related proteins also participate in immune regulation. Conditional deletions of autophagy-related proteins in mice have rendered protection from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and TNF-mediated joint destruction in animal models of multiple sclerosis and experimental arthritis respectively...
January 14, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094319/helminth-induced-ly6c-hi-monocyte-derived-alternatively-activated-macrophages-suppress-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#10
Cesar Terrazas, Juan de Dios Ruiz-Rosado, Stephanie A Amici, Kyle A Jablonski, Diana Martinez-Saucedo, Lindsay M Webb, Hanna Cortado, Frank Robledo-Avila, Steve Oghumu, Abhay R Satoskar, Miriam Rodriguez-Sosa, Luis I Terrazas, Mireia Guerau-de-Arellano, Santiago Partida-Sánchez
Helminths cause chronic infections and affect the immune response to unrelated inflammatory diseases. Although helminths have been used therapeutically to ameliorate inflammatory conditions, their anti-inflammatory properties are poorly understood. Alternatively activated macrophages (AAMϕs) have been suggested as the anti-inflammatory effector cells during helminth infections. Here, we define the origin of AAMϕs during infection with Taenia crassiceps, and their disease-modulating activity on the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087667/prmt5-selective-inhibitors-suppress-inflammatory-t-cell-responses-and-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#11
Lindsay M Webb, Stephanie A Amici, Kyle A Jablonski, Himanshu Savardekar, Amanda R Panfil, Linsen Li, Wei Zhou, Kevin Peine, Vrajesh Karkhanis, Eric M Bachelder, Kristy M Ainslie, Patrick L Green, Chenglong Li, Robert A Baiocchi, Mireia Guerau-de-Arellano
In the autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), expansion of pathogenic, myelin-specific Th1 cell populations drives active disease; selectively targeting this process may be the basis for a new therapeutic approach. Previous studies have hinted at a role for protein arginine methylation in immune responses, including T cell-mediated autoimmunity and EAE. However, a conclusive role for the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) enzymes that catalyze these reactions has been lacking...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087544/children-s-experiences-of-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-cfs-me-a-systematic-review-and-meta-ethnography-of-qualitative-studies
#12
Roxanne M Parslow, Sarah Harris, Jessica Broughton, Adla Alattas, Esther Crawley, Kirstie Haywood, Alison Shaw
OBJECTIVE: To synthesis the qualitative studies of children's experiences of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-ethnography. BACKGROUND: CFS/ME is an important disabling illness, with uncertain cause and prognosis. As a result, children with CFS/ME can find themselves living with greater uncertainty and stigma, exacerbating the impact of the condition. There is a growing body of qualitative research in CFS/ME, yet there has been no attempt to systematically synthesis the studies involving children...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087238/lymphocyte-circadian-clocks-control-lymph-node-trafficking-and-adaptive-immune-responses
#13
David Druzd, Olga Matveeva, Louise Ince, Ute Harrison, Wenyan He, Christoph Schmal, Hanspeter Herzel, Anthony H Tsang, Naoto Kawakami, Alexei Leliavski, Olaf Uhl, Ling Yao, Leif Erik Sander, Chien-Sin Chen, Kerstin Kraus, Alba de Juan, Sophia Martina Hergenhan, Marc Ehlers, Berthold Koletzko, Rainer Haas, Werner Solbach, Henrik Oster, Christoph Scheiermann
Lymphocytes circulate through lymph nodes (LN) in search for antigen in what is believed to be a continuous process. Here, we show that lymphocyte migration through lymph nodes and lymph occurred in a non-continuous, circadian manner. Lymphocyte homing to lymph nodes peaked at night onset, with cells leaving the tissue during the day. This resulted in strong oscillations in lymphocyte cellularity in lymph nodes and efferent lymphatic fluid. Using lineage-specific genetic ablation of circadian clock function, we demonstrated this to be dependent on rhythmic expression of promigratory factors on lymphocytes...
January 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086920/absence-of-system-xc-on-immune-cells-invading-the-central-nervous-system-alleviates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalitis
#14
Ellen Merckx, Giulia Albertini, Magdalena Paterka, Cathy Jensen, Philipp Albrecht, Michael Dietrich, Joeri Van Liefferinge, Eduard Bentea, Lise Verbruggen, Thomas Demuyser, Lauren Deneyer, Jan Lewerenz, Geert van Loo, Jacques De Keyser, Hideyo Sato, Pamela Maher, Axel Methner, Ann Massie
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS), leading to neurodegeneration and chronic disability. Accumulating evidence points to a key role for neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and excitotoxicity in this degenerative process. System xc(-) or the cystine/glutamate antiporter could tie these pathological mechanisms together: its activity is enhanced by reactive oxygen species and inflammatory stimuli, and its enhancement might lead to the release of toxic amounts of glutamate, thereby triggering excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076019/viral-and-prion-infections-of-the-central-nervous-system-radiologic-pathologic-correlation-from-the-radiologic-pathology-archives
#15
Kelly K Koeller, Robert Y Shih
Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) range in clinical severity, with the most severe proving fatal within a matter of days. Some of the more than 100 different viruses known to affect the brain and spinal cord are neurotropic with a predilection for producing CNS infection. The host response to viral infection of the CNS is responsible for the pathophysiology and imaging findings seen in affected patients. Viral CNS infections can take the form of meningitis, encephalitis, encephalomyelitis, or, when involving the spinal cord and nerve roots, encephalomyeloradiculitis...
January 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074391/etiologic-spectrum-and-functional-outcome-of-the-acute-inflammatory-myelitis
#16
Edgar Carnero Contentti, Javier Pablo Hryb, Ana Diego, José Luis Di Pace, Mónica Perassolo
Clinical, neuroimaging, and laboratory features are not specific enough to establish the etiological diagnosis of the acute inflammatory myelitis (AIM). Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been associated with a poor functional prognosis. The aim of this study was to assess the functional outcomes of a first AIM event comparing patients with LETM vs. no LETM on MRI and to report the differential diagnosis. Clinical, radiological, biochemical aspects were collected, and Winner-Hughes Functional Disability Scale (WHFDS) was performed after 3 and 6 months...
January 10, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069965/dual-role-of-alcam-in-neuroinflammation-and-blood-brain-barrier-homeostasis
#17
Marc-André Lécuyer, Olivia Saint-Laurent, Lyne Bourbonnière, Sandra Larouche, Catherine Larochelle, Laure Michel, Marc Charabati, Michael Abadier, Stephanie Zandee, Neda Haghayegh Jahromi, Elizabeth Gowing, Camille Pittet, Ruth Lyck, Britta Engelhardt, Alexandre Prat
Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is a cell adhesion molecule found on blood-brain barrier endothelial cells (BBB-ECs) that was previously shown to be involved in leukocyte transmigration across the endothelium. In the present study, we found that ALCAM knockout (KO) mice developed a more severe myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The exacerbated disease was associated with a significant increase in the number of CNS-infiltrating proinflammatory leukocytes compared with WT controls...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068342/neuropathogenesis-of-zika-virus-in-a-highly-susceptible-immunocompetent-mouse-model-after-antibody-blockade-of-type-i-interferon
#18
Darci R Smith, Bradley Hollidge, Sharon Daye, Xiankun Zeng, Candace Blancett, Kyle Kuszpit, Thomas Bocan, Jeff W Koehler, Susan Coyne, Tim Minogue, Tara Kenny, Xiaoli Chi, Soojin Yim, Lynn Miller, Connie Schmaljohn, Sina Bavari, Joseph W Golden
Animal models are needed to better understand the pathogenic mechanisms of Zika virus (ZIKV) and to evaluate candidate medical countermeasures. Adult mice infected with ZIKV develop a transient viremia, but do not demonstrate signs of morbidity or mortality. Mice deficient in type I or a combination of type I and type II interferon (IFN) responses are highly susceptible to ZIKV infection; however, the absence of a competent immune system limits their usefulness for studying medical countermeasures. Here we employ a murine model for ZIKV using wild-type C57BL/6 mice treated with an antibody to disrupt type I IFN signaling to study ZIKV pathogenesis...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065579/roles-of-regulatory-t-cells-and-il-10-in-virus-induced-demyelination
#19
REVIEW
Stanley Perlman, Jingxian Zhao
Neurotropic viruses are important causes of morbidity and mortality in human populations. Some of these viruses preferentially infect oligodendrocytes in the white matter, causing either direct lysis of infected cells, or more commonly myelin damage as a consequence of the host immune response to the virus. Virus-induced demyelination has similarities to the human disease multiple sclerosis. To study this disease process in experimental animals, mice are infected, most commonly, with neurotropic strains of mouse hepatitis virus, a coronavirus or Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis, a picornavirus...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063151/gad65-neurological-autoimmunity
#20
Andrew McKeon, Jennifer A Tracy
The glutamic acid decarboxylase 65-isoform (GAD65) antibody is a biomarker of autoimmune central nervous system (CNS) disorders and, more commonly, non-neurological autoimmune diseases. Type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroid disease, and pernicious anemia are the most frequent GAD65 autoimmune associations. One or more of these disorders coexists in approximately 70% of patients with GAD65 neurological autoimmunity. Neurological phenotypes have CNS localization and include limbic encephalitis, epilepsy, cerebellar ataxia, and stiff-person syndrome (SPS), among others...
January 7, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
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