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Encephalomyelitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726788/neuroprotection-by-eif2%C3%AE-chop-inhibition-and-xbp-1-activation-in-eae-optic-neuritiss
#1
Haoliang Huang, Linqing Miao, Feisi Liang, Xiaodong Liu, Lin Xu, Xiuyin Teng, Qizhao Wang, William H Ridder, Kenneth S Shindler, Yang Sun, Yang Hu
No therapies exist to prevent neuronal deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS), because the molecular mechanism responsible for the progressive neurodegeneration is unknown. We previously showed that axon injury-induced neuronal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and optic nerve degeneration in traumatic and glaucomatous optic neuropathies. Optic neuritis, one of the most common clinical manifestations of MS, is readily modeled by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mouse...
July 20, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726401/amidoalkylindoles-as-potent-and-selective-cannabinoid-type-2-receptor-agonists-with-in-vivo-efficacy-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Ying Shi, Yan-Hui Duan, Yue-Yang Ji, Zhi-Long Wang, Yan-Ran Wu, Hendra Gunosewoyo, Xiao-Yu Xie, Jian-Zhong Chen, Fan Yang, Jing Li, Jie Tang, Xin Xie, Li-Fang Yu
Selective CB2 agonists represent an attractive therapeutic strategy for the treatment of a variety of diseases without psychiatric side effects mediated by the CB1 receptor. We carried out a rational optimization of a black market designer drug SDB-001 that led to the identification of potent and selective CB2 agonists. A 7-methoxy or 7-methylthio substitution at the 3-amidoalkylindoles resulted in potent CB2 antagonists (27 or 28, IC50 = 16-28 nM). Replacement of the amidoalkyls from 3-position to the 2-position of the indole ring dramatically increased the agonist selectivity on the CB2 over CB1 receptor...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726127/clippers
#3
REVIEW
Nicholas L Zalewski, W Oliver Tobin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a recently described treatable, inflammatory, brainstem predominant encephalomyelitis. The diagnosis of CLIPPERS is challenging without a specific biomarker, and thus it is important to consider if both the clinical and radiographic features are consistent with the diagnosis, or rather a disease mimicker. RECENT FINDINGS: Many patients with CLIPPERS-like lesions have been described in the literature with follow-up revealing a range of alternative diagnoses, such as malignancies, vasculitis, and other specific inflammatory diseases...
September 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724999/x-ray-phase-contrast-tomography-reveals-early-vascular-alterations-and-neuronal-loss-in-a-multiple-sclerosis-model
#4
A Cedola, A Bravin, I Bukreeva, M Fratini, A Pacureanu, A Mittone, L Massimi, P Cloetens, P Coan, G Campi, R Spanò, F Brun, V Grigoryev, V Petrosino, C Venturi, M Mastrogiacomo, Nicole Kerlero de Rosbo, A Uccelli
The degenerative effects of multiple sclerosis at the level of the vascular and neuronal networks in the central nervous system are currently the object of intensive investigation. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model for multiple sclerosis, but the neuropathology of specific lesions in EAE and the effects of MSC treatment are under debate. Because conventional imaging techniques entail protocols that alter the tissues, limiting the reliability of the results, we have used non-invasive X-ray phase-contrast tomography to obtain an unprecedented direct 3D characterization of EAE lesions at micro-to-nano scales, with simultaneous imaging of the vascular and neuronal networks...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724943/aim2-inflammasome-mediated-pyroptosis-in-enterovirus-a71-infected-neuronal-cells-restricts-viral-replication
#5
Thinesshwary Yogarajah, Kien Chai Ong, David Perera, Kum Thong Wong
Encephalomyelitis is a well-known complication of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) due to Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection. Viral RNA/antigens could be detected in the central nervous system (CNS) neurons in fatal encephalomyelitis but the mechanisms of neuronal cell death is not clearly understood. We investigated the role of absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome in neuronal cell death, and its relationship to viral replication. Our transcriptomic analysis, RT-qPCR, Western blot, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry studies consistently showed AIM2 gene up-regulation and protein expression in EV-A71-infected SK-N-SH cells...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724595/hypertensive-encephalopathy-mimicking-cerebral-vasculitis-with-pontine-oedema-cerebellar-white-matter-lesions-and-multiple-cerebral-infarctions
#6
Daniela Ceccarelli, David Hargroves, Ibrahim Balogun, Thomas Webb
A 47-year-old man with poorly controlled hypertension presented with headaches, right-sided weakness and dysarthria. CT and MRI scans of the brain showed widespread abnormalities including significant pontine oedema, basal ganglia and corona radiata infarctions and cerebellar white matter high signal. Imaging of the intracerebral vasculature also demonstrated wall irregularities. Initially a central nervous system inflammatory disorder was thought to be the most likely diagnosis, possibly acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis or cerebral vasculitis, and the patient was treated with high-dose intravenous steroids...
July 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718500/neurofilament-light-as-an-immune-target-for-pathogenic-antibodies
#7
Fabiola Puentes, Baukje J van der Star, Stephanie D Boomkamp, Markus Kipp, Louis Boon, Isabel Bosca, Joel Raffel, Sharmilee Gnanapavan, Paul van der Valk, Jodie Stephenson, Susan C Barnett, David Baker, Sandra Amor
Antibodies to neuronal antigens are associated with many neurological diseases including paraneoplastic neurological disorders, epilepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. Immunisation with neuronal antigens such as neurofilament light NF-L, a neuronal intermediate filament in axons, has been shown to induce neurological disease and spasticity in mice. Also, while antibodies to NF-L are widely used as surrogate biomarkers of axonal injury in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis, it remains to be elucidated if antibodies to NF-L contribute to neurodegeneration and neurological disease...
July 17, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717866/mir-30a-positively-regulates-the-inflammatory-response-of-microglia-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#8
Xue Fang, Dingya Sun, Zhihong Wang, Zhongwang Yu, Weili Liu, Yingyan Pu, Dan Wang, Aijun Huang, Mingdong Liu, Zhenghua Xiang, Cheng He, Li Cao
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a classical inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia are the main resident immune cells in the CNS and are closely associated with the pathogenesis of MS. In the present study, we found that miR-30a was highly expressed in jellyfish-like microglia in chronic active lesions of MS patients, as well as in the microglia of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) at the chronic phase. In vitro, the conditioned supernatant of mouse microglia overexpressing miR-30a promoted the apoptosis of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and inhibited OPC differentiation...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713878/access-to-medical-care-for-individuals-with-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-and-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-a-call-for-centers-of-excellence
#9
Madison Sunnquist, Laura Nicholson, Leonard A Jason, Kenneth J Friedman
The current study sought to better understand the experience of individuals with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in accessing care for their debilitating illness. Of 898 participants, less than half had ever seen an ME or CFS specialist, though 99% of participants were interested in specialist care. Participants cited geographic and financial barriers as most frequently precluding access to specialists. Furthermore, satisfaction with specialist care greatly exceeded satisfaction with non-specialist care...
April 2017: Mod Clin Med Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713856/differences-in-me-and-cfs-symptomology-in-patients-with-normal-and-abnormal-exercise-test-results
#10
Stephanie L McManimen, Leonard A Jason
Post-exertional malaise (PEM) is a cardinal symptom of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), which often distinguishes patients with this illness from healthy controls or individuals with exclusionary illnesses such as depression. However, occurrence rates for PEM fluctuate from subject to how the symptom is operationalized. One commonly utilized method is exercise testing, maximal or submaximal. Many patients with ME and CFS experience PEM after participating in these tests, and often show abnormal results...
2017: International Journal of Neurology and Neurotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711631/corrigendum-to-osteopontin-metallothionein-i-ii-interactions-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-neuroscience-350-2017-133-145
#11
Hrvoje Jakovac, Tanja Grubić Kezele, Sandrašuć Urović, Biserka Mulac-Jeričević, Biserka Radošević-Stašić
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708466/a-bidirectional-association-between-the-gut-microbiota-and-cns-disease-in-a-biphasic-murine-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Sara L Colpitts, Eli J Kasper, Abigail Keever, Caleb Liljenberg, Trevor Kirby, Krisztian Magori, Lloyd H Kasper, Javier Ochoa-Repáraz
The gut microbiome plays an important role in the development of inflammatory disease as shown using experimental models of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. Gut microbes influence the response of regulatory immune cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), which drive protection in acute and chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recent observations suggest that communication between the host and the gut microbiome is bidirectional. We hypothesized that the gut microbiota differs between the acute inflammatory and chronic progressive stages of a murine model of secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SP-MS)...
July 14, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707358/suppressed-oligodendrocyte-steroidogenesis-in-multiple-sclerosis-implications-for-regulation-of-neuroinflammation
#13
Roobina Boghozian, Brienne A McKenzie, Leina B Saito, Ninad Mehta, William G Branton, JianQiang Lu, Glen B Baker, Farshid Noorbakhsh, Christopher Power
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Neurosteroids are reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects in several neurological disorders. We investigated the expression and actions of the neurosteroid, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and its more stable 3β-sulphated ester, DHEA-S, in MS and associated experimental models. CNS tissues from patients with MS and animals with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) displayed reduced DHEA concentrations, accompanied by diminished expression of the DHEA-synthesizing enzyme CYP17A1 in oligodendrocytes (ODCs), in association with increased expression of inflammatory genes including interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-1β...
July 14, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702933/characterization-of-simbu-serogroup-virus-infections-in-type-i-interferon-receptor-knock-out-mice
#14
Kerstin Tauscher, Kerstin Wernike, Melina Fischer, Anne Wegelt, Bernd Hoffmann, Jens Peter Teifke, Martin Beer
In late 2011, Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel, arthropod-borne, teratogenic orthobunyavirus, emerged near the German/Dutch border and thereafter spread rapidly throughout the continent thereby causing great economic losses in European livestock. SBV mainly infects ruminants and closely related viruses such as Sabo virus (SABOV), Simbu virus (SIMBUV) and Sathuperi virus (SATV) have been isolated from their insect-vectors or putative ruminant hosts. However, information about their pathogenesis and in vivo studies with SABOV, SIMBUV, and SATV are scarce...
July 12, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701795/terahertz-spectroscopic-diagnosis-of-myelin-deficit-brain-in-mice-and-rhesus-monkey-with-chemometric-techniques
#15
Yi Zou, Jiang Li, Yiyuan Cui, Peiren Tang, Lianghui Du, Tunan Chen, Kun Meng, Qiao Liu, Hua Feng, Jianheng Zhao, Mina Chen, Li-Guo Zhu
While myelin deficit of the central nervous system leads to several severe diseases, the definitive diagnostic means are lacking. We proposed and performed terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) combined with chemometric techniques to discriminate and evaluate the severity of myelin deficit in mouse and rhesus monkey brains. The THz refractive index and absorption coefficient of paraffin-embedded brain tissues from both normal and mutant dysmyelinating mice are shown. Principal component analysis of time-domain THz signal (PCA-tdTHz) and absorption-refractive index relation of THz spectrum identified myelin deficit without exogenous labeling or any pretreatment...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698732/tumefactive-multiple-sclerosis-variants-report-of-two-cases-of-schilder-and-balo-diseases
#16
Mahmoud Reza Ashrafi, Ali Reza Tavasoli, Houman Alizadeh, Javad Zare Noghabi, Nima Parvaneh
A tumefactive lesion of central nervous system (CNS) is defined as a mass-like lesion with a size greater than 2 cm in brain detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Neuroimaging may help to distinguish the nature of a tumefactive lesion and therefore, can prevent an unnecessary brain biopsy. Here we emphasized on determining the nature of a CNS tumefactive lesions with the help of MRI and more explanations about demyelinating lesions with focus on Schilder and Balo diseases as two multiple sclerosis variants...
2017: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698666/modelling-person-to-person-transmission-in-an-enterovirus-a71-orally-infected-hamster-model-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-and-encephalomyelitis
#17
Win Kyaw Phyu, Kien Chai Ong, Kum Thong Wong
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), which may be complicated by fatal encephalomyelitis. Although fecal-oral or oral-oral routes are important in person-to-person transmission, how viral shedding and exposure may predispose individuals to infection remains unknown. We investigated person-to-person transmission by using a model of HFMD and encephalomyelitis based on EV-A71 oral infection of 2-week-old hamsters. Animals (index animals) infected with 10(4) 50% cell culture infective doses of virus uniformly developed severe disease four days post-infection (dpi), whereas littermate contacts developed severe disease after six to seven days of exposure to index animals...
July 12, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698455/development-of-polioencephalomyelitis-in-cesarean-derived-colostrum-deprived-pigs-following-experimental-inoculation-with-either-teschovirus-a-serotype-2-or-serotype-11
#18
Franco Matias Ferreyra, Bailey Arruda, Gregory Stevenson, Kent Schwartz, Darin Madson, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Jianqiang Zhang, Pablo Piñeyro, Qi Chen, Paulo Arruda
Teschovirus encephalomyelitis is a sporadic disease associated with Teschovirus A (PTV) serotype 1 and, less frequently, other serotypes. In recent years, the number of cases submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory with a history of posterior paresis has increased. Submission histories from various regions of the United States suggest a trend for clinical disease to persist in herds and affect a wider age-range of pigs than historically reported. Polioencephalitis and/or myelitis was consistently present and PTV was detected in affected neural tissue by PCR in a portion of cases...
July 8, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696309/influenza-infection-triggers-disease-in-a-genetic-model-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#19
Stephen Blackmore, Jessica Hernandez, Michal Juda, Emily Ryder, Gregory G Freund, Rodney W Johnson, Andrew J Steelman
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Most MS patients experience periods of symptom exacerbation (relapses) followed by periods of partial recovery (remission). Interestingly, upper-respiratory viral infections increase the risk for relapse. Here, we used an autoimmune-prone T-cell receptor transgenic mouse (2D2) and a mouse-adapted human influenza virus to test the hypothesis that upper-respiratory viral infection can cause glial activation, promote immune cell trafficking to the CNS, and trigger disease...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696300/acetylcholine-producing-nk-cells-attenuate-cns-inflammation-via-modulation-of-infiltrating-monocytes-macrophages
#20
Wei Jiang, Daojing Li, Ranran Han, Chao Zhang, Wei-Na Jin, Kristofer Wood, Qiang Liu, Fu-Dong Shi, Junwei Hao
The nonneural cholinergic system of immune cells is pivotal for the maintenance of immunological homeostasis. Here we demonstrate the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and cholinergic enzymes in murine natural killer (NK) cells. The capacity for acetylcholine synthesis by NK cells increased markedly under inflammatory conditions such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), in which ChAT expression escalated along with the maturation of NK cells. ChAT(+) and ChAT(-) NK cells displayed distinctive features in terms of cytotoxicity and chemokine/cytokine production...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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