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Stem cell memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548278/neuropeptide-s-precursor-knockout-mice-display-memory-and-arousal-deficits
#1
Xiaobin Liu, Wei Si, Celia Garau, Kay Jüngling, Hans-Christian Pape, Stefan Schulz, Rainer K Reinscheid
Activation of Neuropeptide S (NPS) signaling has been found to produce arousal, wakefulness, anxiolytic-like behaviors and enhanced memory formation. In order to further study physiological functions of the NPS system, we generated NPS precursor knockout mice by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. NPS(-/-) mice were viable, fertile, and anatomically normal, when compared to their wildtype and heterozygous littermates. The total number of NPS neurons - although no longer synthesizing the peptide - was not affected by the knockout, as analyzed in NPS(-/-) /NPS(EGFP) double-transgenic mice...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530241/notch-mediated-conversion-of-activated-t-cells-into-stem-cell-memory-like-t-cells-for-adoptive-immunotherapy
#2
Taisuke Kondo, Rimpei Morita, Yuumi Okuzono, Hiroko Nakatsukasa, Takashi Sekiya, Shunsuke Chikuma, Takashi Shichita, Mitsuhiro Kanamori, Masato Kubo, Keiko Koga, Takahiro Miyazaki, Yoshiaki Kassai, Akihiko Yoshimura
Adoptive T-cell immunotherapy is a promising approach to cancer therapy. Stem cell memory T (TSCM) cells have been proposed as a class of long-lived and highly proliferative memory T cells. CD8(+) TSCM cells can be generated in vitro from naive CD8(+) T cells via Wnt signalling; however, methods do not yet exist for inducing TSCM cells from activated or memory T cells. Here, we show a strategy for generating TSCM-like cells in vitro (iTSCM cells) from activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in mice and humans by coculturing with stromal cells that express a Notch ligand...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529527/skeletal-muscle-cell-induction-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
REVIEW
Yusaku Kodaka, Gemachu Rabu, Atsushi Asakura
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have the potential to differentiate into various types of cells including skeletal muscle cells. The approach of converting ESCs/iPSCs into skeletal muscle cells offers hope for patients afflicted with the skeletal muscle diseases such as the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Patient-derived iPSCs are an especially ideal cell source to obtain an unlimited number of myogenic cells that escape immune rejection after engraftment. Currently, there are several approaches to induce differentiation of ESCs and iPSCs to skeletal muscle...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528185/simvastatin-ameliorate-memory-deficits-and-inflammation-in-clinical-and-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-via-modulating-the-expression-of-mir-106b
#4
Wenzhong Huang, Zhenyu Li, Liandong Zhao, Wei Zhao
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a neurodegenerative brain disorder is a devastating pathology leading to disastrous cognitive impairments and dementia, and several studies have shown that AD is closely related to the inflammation, so anti-inflammatory treatment may provide therapeutic benefits. In this study, the effect of simvastatin on inflammation was investigated and the underlying mechanisms were explored. METHODS: First, we tested the effect of simvastatin on AD in clinical research...
May 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516108/what-is-car-doing-in-the-middle-of-the-adult-neurogenic-road
#5
COMMENT
Sara Salinas, Felix Junyent, Nathalie Coré, Harold Cremer, Eric J Kremer
The molecular and cellular basis of adult neurogenesis has attracted considerable attention for fundamental and clinical applications because neural stem cells and newborn neurons may, one day, be harnessed to replace neurons and allow cognitive improvement in the diseased brain. In rodents, neural progenitors are located in the dentate gyrus and the sub/periventricular zone. In the dentate gyrus the generation of newborn neurons is associated with plasticity, including regulation of memory. The role of subventricular zone neural precursors that migrate to the olfactory bulb is less characterized...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512237/regulation-of-dna-demethylation-by-the-xpc-dna-repair-complex-in-somatic-and-pluripotent-stem-cells
#6
Jaclyn J Ho, Claudia Cattoglio, David T McSwiggen, Robert Tjian, Yick W Fong
Faithful resetting of the epigenetic memory of a somatic cell to a pluripotent state during cellular reprogramming requires DNA methylation to silence somatic gene expression and dynamic DNA demethylation to activate pluripotency gene transcription. The removal of methylated cytosines requires the base excision repair enzyme TDG, but the mechanism by which TDG-dependent DNA demethylation occurs in a rapid and site-specific manner remains unclear. Here we show that the XPC DNA repair complex is a potent accelerator of global and locus-specific DNA demethylation in somatic and pluripotent stem cells...
April 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511648/a-mathematical-model-of-mechanotransduction-reveals-how-mechanical-memory-regulates-mesenchymal-stem-cell-fate-decisions
#7
Tao Peng, Linan Liu, Adam L MacLean, Chi Wut Wong, Weian Zhao, Qing Nie
BACKGROUND: Mechanical and biophysical properties of the cellular microenvironment regulate cell fate decisions. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) fate is influenced by past mechanical dosing (memory), but the mechanisms underlying this process have not yet been well defined. We have yet to understand how memory affects specific cell fate decisions, such as the differentiation of MSCs into neurons, adipocytes, myocytes, and osteoblasts. RESULTS: We study a minimal gene regulatory network permissive of multi-lineage MSC differentiation into four cell fates...
May 16, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507260/reprogramming-cells-from-gulf-war-veterans-into-neurons-to-study-gulf-war-illness
#8
Liang Qiang, Anand N Rao, Gustavo Mostoslavsky, Marianne F James, Nicole Comfort, Kimberly Sullivan, Peter W Baas
Gulf War illness (GWI), which afflicts at least 25% of veterans who served in the 1990-1991 war in the Persian Gulf, is thought to be caused by deployment exposures to various neurotoxicants, including pesticides, anti-nerve gas pills, and low-level nerve agents including sarin/cyclosarin. GWI is a multisymptom disorder characterized by fatigue, joint pain, cognitive problems, and gastrointestinal complaints. The most prominent symptoms of GWI (memory problems, poor attention/concentration, chronic headaches, mood alterations, and impaired sleep) suggest that the disease primarily affects the CNS...
May 16, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501929/hyponatremia-associated-with-human-herpesvirus-6-hhv-6-encephalitis-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-presentation-different-from-hhv-6-myelitis
#9
Koichi Murakami, Sumiko Kohashi, Masatoshi Sakurai, Jun Kato, Takaaki Toyama, Yuya Koda, Yusuke Yamane, Risa Hashida, Ryohei Abe, Rie Yamazaki, Taku Kikuchi, Takayuki Shimizu, Shigeaki Suzuki, Naoki Hasegawa, Shinichiro Okamoto, Takehiko Mori
Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) encephalitis and myelitis following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is frequently life-threatening. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical significance of hyponatremia in cases of HHV-6 encephalitis/myelitis. Using an institutional database and medical records, we identified and retrospectively analyzed 16 cases of HHV-6 encephalitis and/or myelitis after allogeneic HSCT. HHV-6 encephalitis and myelitis were defined as the symptoms/signs with HHV-6-DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid...
May 13, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498568/reconstitution-of-immune-cell-populations-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-after-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation
#10
REVIEW
Fredrick G Karnell, Dongxia Lin, Samantha Motley, Thomas Duhen, Noha Lim, Daniel J Campbell, Laurence A Turka, Holden T Maecker, Kristina M Harris
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease. In a phase II clinical trial, high-dose immunosuppressive therapy combined with autologous CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cell transplant resulted in 69.2% of subjects remaining disease-free without evidence of relapse, loss of neurological function or new MRI lesions through year 5 post-treatment. A combination of CyTOF mass cytometry and multi-parameter flow cytometry was used to explore the reconstitution kinetics of immune cell subsets in the periphery post HSCT and the impact of treatment on the phenotype of circulating T cells in this study population...
May 12, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495643/humoral-immune-reconstitution-kinetics-following-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-children-a-maturation-block-of-igm-memory-b-cells-may-lead-to-impaired-antibody-immune-reconstitution
#11
Hisham Abdel-Azim, Amro Elshoury, Kris M Mahadeo, Robertson Parkman, Neena Kapoor
Although T cell immune reconstitution following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has been well studied, long-term B cell immune reconstitution remains less characterized. We evaluated humoral immune reconstitution among 71-pediatric allo-HSCT recipients. While tetanus toxoid (TT) antibody levels were normal at 1-year post allo-HSCT, anti-polysaccharide carbohydrate (PRP) antibodies remained persistently low for up to 5-years. While naive B cell counts normalized by 6-months, IgM memory B cell deficiency persisted for up to 2-years (P=0...
May 8, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490440/human-memory-cd8-t-cell-effector-potential-is-epigenetically-preserved-during-in-vivo-homeostasis
#12
Hossam A Abdelsamed, Ardiana Moustaki, Yiping Fan, Pranay Dogra, Hazem E Ghoneim, Caitlin C Zebley, Brandon M Triplett, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly, Ben Youngblood
Antigen-independent homeostasis of memory CD8 T cells is vital for sustaining long-lived T cell-mediated immunity. In this study, we report that maintenance of human memory CD8 T cell effector potential during in vitro and in vivo homeostatic proliferation is coupled to preservation of acquired DNA methylation programs. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of primary human naive, short-lived effector memory (TEM), and longer-lived central memory (TCM) and stem cell memory (TSCM) CD8 T cells identified effector molecules with demethylated promoters and poised for expression...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481945/human-cd8-cd57-temra-cells-too-young-to-be-called-old
#13
Kriti Verma, Justyna Ogonek, Pavankumar Reddy Varanasi, Susanne Luther, Ivonne Bünting, Katrin Thomay, Yvonne Lisa Behrens, Eva Mischak-Weissinger, Lothar Hambach
End-stage differentiation of antigen-specific T-cells may precede loss of immune responses against e.g. viral infections after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Antigen-specific CD8+ T-cells detected by HLA/peptide multimers largely comprise CD45RA-/CCR7- effector memory (TEM) and CD45RA+/CCR7- TEMRA subsets. A majority of terminally differentiated T-cells is considered to be part of the heterogeneous TEMRA subset. The senescence marker CD57 has been functionally described in memory T-cells mainly composed of central memory (TCM) and TEM cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477138/role-of-dna-methylation-in-the-dietary-restriction-mediated-cellular-memory
#14
Archana Unnikrishnan, Jordan Jackson, Stephanie A Matyi, Niran Hadad, Benjamin Wronowski, Constantin Georgescu, Karla P Garrett, Jonathan D Wren, Willard M Freeman, Arlan Richardson
An important facet of dietary restriction (DR) that has been largely overlooked is that DR can have early effects that create a cellular memory, which persists even when DR is discontinued. The goal of this study was to determine if DNA methylation played a role in the cellular memory of DR by examining the effect of short-term DR on gene expression and DNA methylation and determining if the changes in expression and DNA methylation persist when DR is discontinued and mice returned to ad libitum (AL) feeding...
May 5, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473846/transgenic-mouse-models-for-studying-adult-neurogenesis
#15
Fatih Semerci, Mirjana Maletic-Savatic
The mammalian hippocampus shows a remarkable capacity for continued neurogenesis throughout life. Newborn neurons, generated by the radial neural stem cells (NSCs), are important for learning and memory as well as mood control. During aging, the number and responses of NSCs to neurogenic stimuli diminish, leading to decreased neurogenesis and age-associated cognitive decline and psychiatric disorders. Thus, adult hippocampal neurogenesis has garnered significant interest because targeting it could be a novel potential therapeutic strategy for these disorders...
June 2016: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472656/the-dynamic-epigenetic-landscape-of-the-retina-during-development-reprogramming-and-tumorigenesis
#16
Issam Aldiri, Beisi Xu, Lu Wang, Xiang Chen, Daniel Hiler, Lyra Griffiths, Marc Valentine, Abbas Shirinifard, Suresh Thiagarajan, Andras Sablauer, Marie-Elizabeth Barabas, Jiakun Zhang, Dianna Johnson, Sharon Frase, Xin Zhou, John Easton, Jinghui Zhang, Elaine R Mardis, Richard K Wilson, James R Downing, Michael A Dyer
In the developing retina, multipotent neural progenitors undergo unidirectional differentiation in a precise spatiotemporal order. Here we profile the epigenetic and transcriptional changes that occur during retinogenesis in mice and humans. Although some progenitor genes and cell cycle genes were epigenetically silenced during retinogenesis, the most dramatic change was derepression of cell-type-specific differentiation programs. We identified developmental-stage-specific super-enhancers and showed that most epigenetic changes are conserved in humans and mice...
May 3, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470180/associations-of-the-intellectual-disability-gene-myt1l-with-helix-loop-helix-gene-expression-hippocampus-volume-and-hippocampus-activation-during-memory-retrieval
#17
Agnes Kepa, Lourdes Martinez Medina, Susanne Erk, Deepak P Srivastava, Alinda Fernandes, Roberto Toro, Sabine Lévi, Barbara Ruggeri, Cathy Fernandes, Franziska Degenhardt, Stephanie H Witt, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Jean-Christophe Poncer, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Christian P Müller, Andreas Heinz, Henrik Walter, Gunter Schumann, Sylvane Desrivières
The fundamental role of the brain-specific myelin transcription factor 1-like (MYT1L) gene in cases of intellectual disability and in the aetiology of neurodevelopmental disorders is increasingly recognised. Yet, its function remains under-investigated. Here, we identify a network of helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcriptional regulators controlled by MYT1L, as indicated by our analyses in human neural stem cells and in the human brain. Using cell-based knockdown approaches and microarray analyses we found that (i) MYT1L is required for neuronal differentiation and identified ID1, a HLH inhibitor of premature neurogenesis, as a target...
May 4, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456549/the-interplay-between-the-cellular-hypoxic-response-and-notch-signaling
#18
Sebastian K-J Landor, Urban Lendahl
The ability to sense and adapt to low oxygen levels (hypoxia) is central for most organisms and cell types. At the center of this process is a molecular mechanism, the cellular hypoxic response, in which the hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are stabilized by hypoxia, allowing the HIF proteins to act as master transcriptional regulators to adjust the cell to a low oxygen environment. In recent years, it has become increasingly appreciated that the cellular hypoxic response does not always operate in splendid isolation, but intersects with signaling mechanisms such as Notch signaling, a key regulatory signaling mechanism operating in most cell types controlling stem cell maintenance and differentiation...
April 26, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456008/donor-dependent-and-other-nondefined-factors-have-greater-influence-on-the-hepatic-phenotype-than-the-starting-cell-type-in-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-hepatocyte-like-cells
#19
James A Heslop, Richard Kia, Christopher S Pridgeon, Rowena L Sison-Young, Triantafillos Liloglou, Mohamed Elmasry, Stephen W Fenwick, John S Mills, Neil R Kitteringham, Chris E Goldring, Bong K Park
Drug-induced liver injury is the greatest cause of post-marketing drug withdrawal; therefore, substantial resources are directed toward triaging potentially dangerous new compounds at all stages of drug development. One of the major factors preventing effective screening of new compounds is the lack of a predictive in vitro model of hepatotoxicity. Primary human hepatocytes offer a metabolically relevant model for which the molecular initiating events of hepatotoxicity can be examined; however, these cells vary greatly between donors and dedifferentiate rapidly in culture...
May 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450738/dna-methylation-an-epigenetic-mark-of-cellular-memory
#20
REVIEW
Mirang Kim, Joseph Costello
DNA methylation is a stable epigenetic mark that can be inherited through multiple cell divisions. During development and cell differentiation, DNA methylation is dynamic, but some DNA methylation patterns may be retained as a form of epigenetic memory. DNA methylation profiles can be useful for the lineage classification and quality control of stem cells such as embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent cells and mesenchymal stem cells. During cancer initiation and progression, genome-wide and gene-specific DNA methylation changes occur as a consequence of mutated or deregulated chromatin regulators...
April 28, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
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