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Stem cell memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924726/neurodegenerative-disease-a-perspective-on-cell-based-therapy-in-the-new-era-of-cell-free-nano-therapy
#1
Su M Metcalfe, Sean Bickerton, Tarek Fahmy
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) result in irreversible loss of neurons. Dementia develops when disease-induced neuronal loss becomes sufficient to impair both memory and cognitive functioning and, globally, dementia is increasing to epidemic proportions as populations age. In the current era of regenerative medicine intense activity is asking, can loss of endogenous neurons be compensated by replacement with exogenously derived cells that have either direct, or indirect, neurogenic capacity? But, more recently, excitement is growing around an emerging alternative to the cell-based approach - here nanotechnology for targeted delivery of growth factor aims to support and expand resident central nervous system (CNS) stem cells for endogenous repair...
December 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924076/stem-cells-hsc-function-determined-by-epigenetic-memory
#2
Kirsty Minton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919332/effects-of-ionizing-radiation-on-the-mammalian-brain
#3
Daniela Hladik, Soile Tapio
Epidemiological studies on the atomic-bomb survivors, cancer survivors and occupational cohorts provide strong evidence for multifaceted damage to brain after ionizing radiation. Radiation-induced late effects may manifest as brain tumors or cognitive impairment. Decreased neurogenesis and differentiation, alteration in neural structure and synaptic plasticity as well as increased oxidative stress and inflammation are suggested to contribute to adverse effects in the brain. In addition to neural stems cells, several brain-specific mature cell types including endothelial and glial cells are negatively affected by ionizing radiation...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916660/isoform-switch-of-tet1-regulates-dna-demethylation-and-mouse-development
#4
Wenhao Zhang, Weikun Xia, Qiujun Wang, Aaron J Towers, Jiayu Chen, Rui Gao, Yu Zhang, Chia-An Yen, Ah Young Lee, Yuanyuan Li, Chen Zhou, Kaili Liu, Jing Zhang, Tian-Peng Gu, Xiuqi Chen, Zai Chang, Danny Leung, Shaorong Gao, Yong-Hui Jiang, Wei Xie
The methylcytosine oxidase TET proteins play important roles in DNA demethylation and development. However, it remains elusive how exactly they target substrates and execute oxidation. Interestingly, we found that, in mice, the full-length TET1 isoform (TET1e) is restricted to early embryos, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and primordial germ cells (PGCs). By contrast, a short isoform (TET1s) is preferentially expressed in somatic cells, which lacks the N terminus including the CXXC domain, a DNA-binding module that often recognizes CpG islands (CGIs) where TET1 predominantly occupies...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914462/recombinant-mhc-tetramers-for-isolation-of-virus-specific-cd8-cells-from-healthy-donors-potential-approach-for-cell-therapy-of-posttransplant-cytomegalovirus-infection
#5
A S Vdovin, S Y Filkin, P R Yefimova, S A Sheetikov, N M Kapranov, Y O Davydova, E S Egorov, E G Khamaganova, M Y Drokov, L A Kuzmina, E N Parovichnikova, G A Efimov, V G Savchenko
Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have a high risk of cytomegalovirus reactivation, which in the absence of T-cell immunity can result in the development of an acute inflammatory reaction and damage of internal organs. Transfusion of the virus-specific donor T-lymphocytes represents an alternative to a highly toxic and often ineffective antiviral therapy. Potentially promising cell therapy approach comprises transfusion of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, specific to the viral antigens, immediately after their isolation from the donor's blood circulation without any in vitro expansion...
November 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903712/the-myeloma-stem-cell-concept-revisited-from-phenomenology-to-operational-terms
#6
REVIEW
Hans Erik Johnsen, Martin Bøgsted, Alexander Schmitz, Julie Støve Bødker, Tarec Christoffer El-Galaly, Preben Johansen, Peter Valent, Niklas Zojer, Els Van Valckenborgh, Karin Vanderkerken, Mark van Duin, Pieter Sonneveld, Martin Perez-Andres, Alberto Orfao, Karen Dybkær
The concept of the myeloma stem cell may have important therapeutic implications, yet its demonstration has been hampered by a lack of consistency in terms and definitions. Here, we summarize the current documentation and propose single-cell in vitro studies for future translational studies. By the classical approach, a CD19(-)/CD45(low/-)/CD38(high)/CD138(+) malignant plasma cell, but not the CD19(+)/CD38(low/-) memory B cell compartment, is enriched for tumorigenic cells that initiate myeloma in xenografted immunodeficient mice, supporting that myeloma stem cells are present in the malignant PC compartment...
December 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900343/divergence-and-rewiring-of-regulatory-networks-for-neural-development-between-human-and-other-species
#7
COMMENT
Ping Wang, Dejian Zhao, Shira Rockowitz, Deyou Zheng
Neural and brain development in human and other mammalian species are largely similar, but distinct features exist at the levels of macrostructure and underlying genetic control. Comparative studies of epigenetic regulation and transcription factor (TF) binding in humans, chimpanzees, rodents, and other species have found large differences in gene regulatory networks. A recent analysis of the cistromes of REST/NRSF, a critical transcriptional regulator for the nervous system, demonstrated that REST binding to syntenic genomic regions (i...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894837/cd4-virtual-memory-antigen-inexperienced-t-cells-reside-in-the-na%C3%A3-ve-regulatory-and-memory-t-cell-compartments-at-similar-frequencies-implications-for-autoimmunity
#8
Alina I Marusina, Yoko Ono, Alexander A Merleev, Michiko Shimoda, Hiromi Ogawa, Elizabeth A Wang, Kayo Kondo, Laura Olney, Guillaume Luxardi, Yoshinori Miyamura, Tilahun D Yilma, Itzel Bustos Villalobos, Jennifer W Bergstrom, Daniel G Kronenberg, Athena M Soulika, Iannis E Adamopoulos, Emanual Maverakis
It is widely accepted that central and effector memory CD4(+) T cells originate from naïve T cells after they have encountered their cognate antigen in the setting of appropriate co-stimulation. However, if this were true the diversity of T cell receptor (TCR) sequences within the naïve T cell compartment should be far greater than that of the memory T cell compartment, which is not supported by TCR sequencing data. Here we demonstrate that aged mice with far fewer naïve T cells, respond to the model antigen, hen eggwhite lysozyme (HEL), by utilizing the same TCR sequence as their younger counterparts...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886379/supernatants-of-adipocytes-from-obese-vs-normal-weight-women-and-breast-cancer-cells-in-vitro-impact-on-angiogenesis
#9
L Bougaret, L Delort, H Billard, C Lequeux, N Goncalves-Mendes, A Mojallal, O Damour, M-P Vasson, F Caldefie-Chezet
Breast cancer is correlated with a higher risk of metastasis in obese postmenopausal women. Adipokines, whose plasma concentrations are modulated in obese subjects, surrounds mammary cells, suggesting that adipocyte secretions affect mammary tumorogenesis. We hypothsesis that matures adipocytes secretions from obese women conditioned or not by breast neoplasic cells, increase changes on the stages of angiogenesis. Supernatants of human matures adipocytes differentiated from stem cells of either adipose tissue of normal weight (MA20) or obese (MA30) women or obtained from co-cultures between MA20 or MA30 and breast cancer cell line MCF-7 were collected...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872867/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-enhance-the-differentiation-of-human-switched-memory-b-lymphocytes-into-plasma-cells-in-serum-free-medium
#10
Guillaume Bonnaure, Catherine Gervais-St-Amour, Sonia Néron
The differentiation of human B lymphocytes into plasma cells is one of the most stirring questions with regard to adaptive immunity. However, the terminal differentiation and survival of plasma cells are still topics with much to be discovered, especially when targeting switched memory B lymphocytes. Plasma cells can migrate to the bone marrow in response to a CXCL12 gradient and survive for several years while secreting antibodies. In this study, we aimed to get closer to niches favoring plasma cell survival...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872103/rapid-and-continued-t-cell-differentiation-into-long-term-effector-and-memory-stem-cells-in-vaccinated-melanoma-patients
#11
Philippe Gannon, Petra Baumgaertner, Alexandre Huber, Emanuela M Iancu, Laurene Cagnon, Samia Abed-Maillard, Helene Maby-El Hajjami, Daniel E Speiser, Nathalie Rufer
PURPOSE: Cancer patients benefit increasingly from T cell-based therapies, such as adoptive T cell transfer, checkpoint blockade or vaccination. We have previously shown that serial vaccinations with Melan-AMART-126-35 peptide, CpG-B and IFA generated robust tumor-specific CD8 T cell responses in melanoma patients. Here, we describe the detailed kinetics of early- and long-term establishment of T cell frequency, differentiation (into memory and effector cells), poly-functionality and clonotype repertoire induced by vaccination...
November 21, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871887/a-silk-peptide-fraction-restores-cognitive-function-in-af64a-induced-alzheimer-disease-model-rats-by-increasing-expression-of-choline-acetyltransferase-gene
#12
Yeseul Cha, Sang Hoon Lee, Su Kil Jang, Haiyu Guo, Young-Hwan Ban, Dongsun Park, Gwi Yeong Jang, Sungho Yeon, Jeong-Yong Lee, Ehn-Kyoung Choi, Seong Soo Joo, Heon-Sang Jeong, Yun-Bae Kim
This study investigated the effects of a silk peptide fraction obtained by incubating silk proteins with Protease N and Neutrase (SP-NN) on cognitive dysfunction of Alzheimer disease model rats. In order to elucidate underlying mechanisms, the effect of SP-NN on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) mRNA was assessed in F3.ChAT neural stem cells and Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells; active amino acid sequence was identified using HPLC-MS. The expression of ChAT mRNA in F3.ChAT cells increased by 3.79-fold of the control level by treatment with SP-NN fraction...
November 18, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869821/synthetic-recording-and-in-situ-readout-of-lineage-information-in-single-cells
#13
Kirsten L Frieda, James M Linton, Sahand Hormoz, Joonhyuk Choi, Ke-Huan K Chow, Zakary S Singer, Mark W Budde, Michael B Elowitz, Long Cai
Reconstructing the lineage relationships and dynamic event histories of individual cells within their native spatial context is a long-standing challenge in biology. Many biological processes of interest occur in optically opaque or physically inaccessible contexts, necessitating approaches other than direct imaging. Here, we describe a new synthetic system that enables cells to record lineage information and event histories in the genome in a format that can be subsequently read out in single cells in situ...
November 21, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863245/epigenetic-memory-underlies-cell-autonomous-heterogeneous-behavior-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#14
Vionnie W C Yu, Rushdia Z Yusuf, Toshihiko Oki, Juwell Wu, Borja Saez, Xin Wang, Colleen Cook, Ninib Baryawno, Michael J Ziller, Eunjung Lee, Hongcang Gu, Alexander Meissner, Charles P Lin, Peter V Kharchenko, David T Scadden
Stem cells determine homeostasis and repair of many tissues and are increasingly recognized as functionally heterogeneous. To define the extent of-and molecular basis for-heterogeneity, we overlaid functional, transcriptional, and epigenetic attributes of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) at a clonal level using endogenous fluorescent tagging. Endogenous HSC had clone-specific functional attributes over time in vivo. The intra-clonal behaviors were highly stereotypic, conserved under the stress of transplantation, inflammation, and genotoxic injury, and associated with distinctive transcriptional, DNA methylation, and chromatin accessibility patterns...
November 17, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861287/wnt-signaling-as-master-regulator-of-t-lymphocyte-responses-implications-for-transplant-therapy
#15
Frank J T Staal, Ramon Arens
T cell-mediated immune responses to the grafted tissues are the major reason for failed organ transplantation. The regulation of T cell responses is complex and involves major histocompatibility complex molecules on transplanted organs, cytokines, regulatory cells, and antigen-presenting cells. The evolutionary conserved Wnt signal transduction pathway has long been known for its importance in development of stem cells and immature T cells in the thymus. Recent evidence indicates the Wnt pathway as a master regulator of T cell immune responses via governing the balance between T helper 17/regulatory T cells and by regulating the formation of effector and memory cytotoxic CD8 T cell responses...
December 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857751/rhesus-monkey-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-promotes-neural-regeneration-in-rats-with-hippocampal-lesions
#16
Li-Juan Ye, Hui Bian, Yao-Dong Fan, Zheng-Bo Wang, Hua-Lin Yu, Yuan-Ye Ma, Feng Chen
Rhesus monkey neural stem cells are capable of differentiating into neurons and glial cells. Therefore, neural stem cell transplantation can be used to promote functional recovery of the nervous system. Rhesus monkey neural stem cells (1 × 10(5) cells/μL) were injected into bilateral hippocampi of rats with hippocampal lesions. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that green fluorescent protein-labeled transplanted cells survived and grew well. Transplanted cells were detected at the lesion site, but also in the nerve fiber-rich region of the cerebral cortex and corpus callosum...
September 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857750/transplantation-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-modified-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-promotes-the-recovery-of-neurological-function-following-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-damage
#17
Yue Yao, Xiang-Rong Zheng, Shan-Shan Zhang, Xia Wang, Xiao-He Yu, Jie-Lu Tan, Yu-Jia Yang
Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSC) transplantation has been shown to effectively improve neurological function in rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a signaling protein that stimulates angiogenesis and improves neural regeneration. We hypothesized that transplantation of VEGF-transfected NSCs would alleviate hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in neonatal rats. We produced and transfected a recombinant lentiviral vector containing the VEGF165 gene into cultured NSCs...
September 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851909/systemic-cisplatin-exposure-during-infancy-and-adolescence-causes-impaired-cognitive-function-in-adulthood
#18
Tami John, Naomi Lomeli, Daniela A Bota
Cancer survivors diagnosed during infancy and adolescence may be at risk for chemotherapy-related cognitive impairments (CRCI), however the effects of pediatric chemotherapy treatment on adulthood cognitive function are not well understood. Impairments in memory, attention and executive function affect 15-50% of childhood leukemia survivors related to methotrexate exposure. Systemic cisplatin is used to treat a variety of childhood and adult cancers, yet the risk and extent of cognitive impairment due to platinum-based chemotherapy in pediatric patients is unknown...
November 13, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849617/tethered-il-15-augments-antitumor-activity-and-promotes-a-stem-cell-memory-subset-in-tumor-specific-t-cells
#19
Lenka V Hurton, Harjeet Singh, Amer M Najjar, Kirsten C Switzer, Tiejuan Mi, Sourindra Maiti, Simon Olivares, Brian Rabinovich, Helen Huls, Marie-Andrée Forget, Vrushali Datar, Partow Kebriaei, Dean A Lee, Richard E Champlin, Laurence J N Cooper
Adoptive immunotherapy retargeting T cells to CD19 via a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is an investigational treatment capable of inducing complete tumor regression of B-cell malignancies when there is sustained survival of infused cells. T-memory stem cells (TSCM) retain superior potential for long-lived persistence, but challenges exist in manufacturing this T-cell subset because they are rare among circulating lymphocytes. We report a clinically relevant approach to generating CAR(+) T cells with preserved TSCM potential using the Sleeping Beauty platform...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845241/synergistic-effect-of-tanshinone-iia-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-preventing-learning-and-memory-deficits-via-anti-apoptosis-attenuating-tau-phosphorylation-and-enhancing-the-activity-of-central-cholinergic-system-in-vascular-dementia
#20
Deyan Kong, Qian Liu, Guangxu Xu, Zhenhua Huang, Ning Luo, Yuanheng Huang, Keshu Cai
Vascular dementia (VaD) is one of common causes of dementia following Alzheimer's disease. However, up to date, there has been no effective treatment for VaD yet. Cellular therapy with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and some extract ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines are expected to improve learning and memory function in VaD model. In this study, we applied tanshinone II A (TSA) and MSCs in the rat model of VaD to evaluate the synergistic effect of TSA and MSCs on preventing cognitive deficits as well as explore the underlying mechanism...
November 11, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
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