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Stem cell memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228650/haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-autoimmune-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Joost F Swart, Eveline M Delemarre, Femke van Wijk, Jaap-Jan Boelens, Jürgen Kuball, Jacob M van Laar, Nico M Wulffraat
Autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only treatment that is able to induce long-term, drug-free and symptom-free remission in several refractory autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Over 3,000 HSCT procedures for rheumatic and nonrheumatic severe autoimmune diseases have been performed worldwide. Specific conditioning regimens are currently used to eradicate the autoreactive immunological memory of patients. Although in vivo immune cell depletion with antithymocyte globulin or anti-CD52 is the norm for many regimens, ex vivo selection of CD34(+) stem cells from the graft is controversial...
February 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223921/epigenetic-modulation-of-stem-cells-in-neurodevelopment-the-role-of-methylation-and-acetylation
#2
REVIEW
Martyna Podobinska, Ilona Szablowska-Gadomska, Justyna Augustyniak, Ioanna Sandvig, Axel Sandvig, Leonora Buzanska
The coordinated development of the nervous system requires fidelity in the expression of specific genes determining the different neural cell phenotypes. Stem cell fate decisions during neurodevelopment are strictly correlated with their epigenetic status. The epigenetic regulatory processes, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications discussed in this review article, may impact both neural stem cell (NSC) self-renewal and differentiation and thus play an important role in neurodevelopment. At the same time, stem cell decisions regarding fate commitment and differentiation are highly dependent on the temporospatial expression of specific genes contingent on the developmental stage of the nervous system...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217689/multiple-roles-of-myc-in-integrating-regulatory-networks-of-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
REVIEW
Luca Fagnocchi, Alessio Zippo
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are defined by their self-renewal potential, which permits their unlimited propagation, and their pluripotency, being able to generate cell of the three embryonic lineages. These properties render PSCs a valuable tool for both basic and medical research. To induce and stabilize the pluripotent state, complex circuitries involving signaling pathways, transcription regulators and epigenetic mechanisms converge on a core transcriptional regulatory network of PSCs, thus determining their cell identity...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213929/exploration-of-the-brn4-regulated-genes-enhancing-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-by-rna-sequencing
#4
Jingjing Guo, Xiang Cheng, Lei Zhang, Linmei Wang, Yongxin Mao, Guixiang Tian, Wenhao Xu, Yuhao Wu, Zhi Ma, Jianbing Qin, Meiling Tian, Guohua Jin, Wei Shi, Xinhua Zhang
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is essential for learning and memory, and its dysfunction is involved in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying adult hippocampal neurogenesis are still largely unknown. Our previous studies indicated that the transcription factor Brn4 was upregulated and promoted neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the surgically denervated hippocampus in rats. In this study, we use high-throughput RNA sequencing to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis induced by lentivirus-mediated Brn4 overexpression in vivo...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212724/mechanistic-insight-into-neurotoxicity-induced-by-developmental-insults
#5
REVIEW
Christoffer Tamm, Sandra Ceccatelli
Epidemiological and/or experimental studies have shown that unfavorable prenatal environmental factors, such as stress or exposure to certain neurotoxic environmental contaminants, may have adverse consequences for neurodevelopment. Alterations in neurogenesis can have harmful effects not only for the developing nervous system, but also for the adult brain where neurogenesis is believed to play a role in learning, memory, and even in depression. Many recent advances in the understanding of the complex process of nervous system development can be integrated into the field of neurotoxicology...
January 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208656/primetime-for-learning-genes
#6
REVIEW
Joyce Keifer
Learning genes in mature neurons are uniquely suited to respond rapidly to specific environmental stimuli. Expression of individual learning genes, therefore, requires regulatory mechanisms that have the flexibility to respond with transcriptional activation or repression to select appropriate physiological and behavioral responses. Among the mechanisms that equip genes to respond adaptively are bivalent domains. These are specific histone modifications localized to gene promoters that are characteristic of both gene activation and repression, and have been studied primarily for developmental genes in embryonic stem cells...
February 11, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205361/immunotherapy-against-metastatic-bladder-cancer-by-combined-administration-of-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-and-interleukin-2-surface-modified-mb49-bladder-cancer-stem-cells-vaccine
#7
Chun-Yan Wang, Rui Hua, Li Liu, Xiaomin Zhan, Simei Chen, Song Quan, Qing-Jun Chu, Yong-Tong Zhu
In previous studies, it has been shown that the granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or interleukin-2 (IL-2) surface modified MB49 bladder cancer stem cells (MCSCs) vaccine could induce a specific antitumor immunity and against bladder cancer in mice model respectively. However, whether combined administration of GM-CSF and IL-2 could produce specific immune responses to cancer stem cells (CSCs) was uncertain. MCSCs were established and characterized. GM-CSF and IL-2 MCSCs vaccines were prepared and bioactivity was evaluated...
February 16, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195832/four-dimensional-printing-hierarchy-scaffolds-with-highly-biocompatible-smart-polymers-for-tissue-engineering-applications
#8
Shida Miao, Wei Zhu, Nathan J Castro, Jinsong Leng, Lijie Grace Zhang
The objective of this study was to four-dimensional (4D) print novel biomimetic gradient tissue scaffolds with highly biocompatible naturally derived smart polymers. The term "4D printing" refers to the inherent smart shape transformation of fabricated constructs when implanted minimally invasively for seamless and dynamic integration. For this purpose, a series of novel shape memory polymers with excellent biocompatibility and tunable shape changing effects were synthesized and cured in the presence of three-dimensional printed sacrificial molds, which were subsequently dissolved to create controllable and graded porosity within the scaffold...
October 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195555/blood-brain-barrier-supported-neurogenesis-in-healthy-and-diseased-brain
#9
Elena A Pozhilenkova, Olga L Lopatina, Yulia K Komleva, Vladimir V Salmin, Alla B Salmina
Adult neurogenesis is one of the most important mechanisms contributing to brain development, learning, and memory. Alterations in neurogenesis underlie a wide spectrum of brain diseases. Neurogenesis takes place in highly specialized neurogenic niches. The concept of neurogenic niches is becoming widely accepted due to growing evidence of the important role of the microenvironment established in the close vicinity to stem cells in order to provide adequate control of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis...
February 14, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161683/the-therapeutic-contribution-of-nanomedicine-to-treat-neurodegenerative-diseases-via-neural-stem-cell-differentiation
#10
REVIEW
Dario Carradori, Joel Eyer, Patrick Saulnier, Véronique Préat, Anne des Rieux
The discovery of adult neurogenesis drastically changed the therapeutic approaches of central nervous system regenerative medicine. The stimulation of this physiologic process can increase memory and motor performances in patients affected by neurodegenerative diseases. Neural stem cells contribute to the neurogenesis process through their differentiation into specialized neuronal cells. In this review, we describe the most important methods developed to restore neurological functions via neural stem cell differentiation...
January 27, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154169/cd44-and-hyaluronan-regulate-adult-hippocampal-neural-stem-cell-quiescence-and-differentiation
#11
Weiping Su, Scott C Foster, Rubing Xing, Kerstin Feistel, Reid H J Olsen, Summer F Acevedo, Jacob Raber, Larry S Sherman
Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) is involved in learning and memory throughout life but declines with aging. Mice lacking the CD44 transmembrane receptor for the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) demonstrate a number of neurological disturbances including hippocampal memory deficits, implicating CD44 in the processes underlying hippocampal memory encoding, storage or retrieval. Here, we find that HA and CD44 play important roles in regulating adult neurogenesis, and we provide evidence that HA contributes to age-related reductions in neural stem cell (NSC) expansion and differentiation in the hippocampus...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147265/gender-differences-in-global-but-not-targeted-demethylation-in-ipsc-reprogramming
#12
Inês Milagre, Thomas M Stubbs, Michelle R King, Julia Spindel, Fátima Santos, Felix Krueger, Martin Bachman, Anne Segonds-Pichon, Shankar Balasubramanian, Simon R Andrews, Wendy Dean, Wolf Reik
Global DNA demethylation is an integral part of reprogramming processes in vivo and in vitro, but whether it occurs in the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is not known. Here, we show that iPSC reprogramming involves both global and targeted demethylation, which are separable mechanistically and by their biological outcomes. Cells at intermediate-late stages of reprogramming undergo transient genome-wide demethylation, which is more pronounced in female cells. Global demethylation requires activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-mediated downregulation of UHRF1 protein, and abolishing demethylation leaves thousands of hypermethylated regions in the iPSC genome...
January 31, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139337/graft-versus-leukemia-effect-with-a-wt1-specific-t-cell-response-induced-by-azacitidine-and-donor-lymphocyte-infusions-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#13
Tatsunori Ishikawa, Nobuharu Fujii, Masahide Imada, Michinori Aoe, Yusuke Meguri, Tomoko Inomata, Hiromi Nakashima, Keiko Fujii, Shohei Yoshida, Hisakazu Nishimori, Ken-Ichi Matsuoka, Eisei Kondo, Yoshinobu Maeda, Mitsune Tanimoto
BACKGROUND: Azacitidine (Aza) and donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) therapy has recently been reported as an effective salvage therapy for relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Despite the high response rate and relatively long period of remission, most patients relapse again. The immunologic mechanism of the response and limited efficacy remain unknown. CASE REPORT: Aza + DLI therapy was performed for a patient with therapy-related MDS (t-MDS), who had relapsed after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation...
January 27, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138559/transient-stimulation-expands-superior-antitumor-t-cells-for-adoptive-therapy
#14
Yuki Kagoya, Munehide Nakatsugawa, Toshiki Ochi, Yuchen Cen, Tingxi Guo, Mark Anczurowski, Kayoko Saso, Marcus O Butler, Naoto Hirano
Adoptive cell therapy is a potentially curative therapeutic approach for patients with cancer. In this treatment modality, antitumor T cells are exponentially expanded in vitro prior to infusion. Importantly, the results of recent clinical trials suggest that the quality of expanded T cells critically affects their therapeutic efficacy. Although anti-CD3 mAb-based stimulation is widely used to expand T cells in vitro, a protocol to generate T cell grafts for optimal adoptive therapy has yet to be established...
January 26, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138558/circulating-cxcr5-cxcr3-pd-1-lo-tfh-like-cells-in-hiv-1-controllers-with-neutralizing-antibody-breadth
#15
Enrique Martin-Gayo, Jacqueline Cronin, Taylor Hickman, Zhengyu Ouyang, Madelene Lindqvist, Kellie E Kolb, Julian Schulze Zur Wiesch, Rafael Cubas, Filippos Porichis, Alex K Shalek, Jan van Lunzen, Elias K Haddad, Bruce D Walker, Daniel E Kaufmann, Mathias Lichterfeld, Xu G Yu
HIV-1-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) typically develop in individuals with continuous high-level viral replication and increased immune activation, conditions that cannot be reproduced during prophylactic immunization. Understanding mechanisms supporting bnAb development in the absence of high-level viremia may be important for designing bnAb-inducing immunogens. Here, we show that the breadth of neutralizing antibody responses in HIV-1 controllers was associated with a relative enrichment of circulating CXCR5(+)CXCR3(+)PD-1(lo) CD4(+) T cells...
January 26, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120140/lithium-chloride-promotes-neuronal-differentiation-of-rat-neural-stem-cells-and-enhances-neural-regeneration-in-parkinson-s-disease-model
#16
Li Qi, Yonggang Tang, Wei He, Honghua Pan, Wenxian Jiang, Lin Wang, Weilin Deng
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neural degenerative disease, affecting millions of people globally. Great progress has been made in the PD treatment, and one of the most promising one is the stem cell-based therapy. Thus, studies on the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) are important to the advancement in PD therapy. In this study, we used the rat NSCs to elucidate the role of Lithium in the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs by immunostaining against Ki67 and BrdU analysis as well as immunostaining against specific neuronal markers...
January 24, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114969/integrated-analysis-of-hematopoietic-differentiation-outcomes-and-molecular-characterization-reveals-unbiased-differentiation-capacity-and-minor-transcriptional-memory-in-hpc-hsc-ipscs
#17
Shuai Gao, Xinfeng Hou, Yonghua Jiang, Zijian Xu, Tao Cai, Jiajie Chen, Gang Chang
BACKGROUND: Transcription factor-mediated reprogramming can reset the epigenetics of somatic cells into a pluripotency compatible state. Recent studies show that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) always inherit starting cell-specific characteristics, called epigenetic memory, which may be advantageous, as directed differentiation into specific cell types is still challenging; however, it also may be unpredictable when uncontrollable differentiation occurs. In consideration of biosafety in disease modeling and personalized medicine, the availability of high-quality iPSCs which lack a biased differentiation capacity and somatic memory could be indispensable...
January 23, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110104/quercetin-3-o-glucuronide-promotes-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-neural-stem-cells
#18
Samrat Baral, Ramesh Pariyar, Jaehyo Kim, Ho-Sub Lee, Jungwon Seo
Quercetin is a bioactive compound exerting therapeutic effects on in vivo animal models of neurodegeneration or neurotoxicity. However, the narrow therapeutic dose-range of quercetin has been a point of concern since previous studies have demonstrated that quercetin induces cytotoxicity in vitro. Quercetin is metabolized to quercetin glucuronates such as quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3GA), primarily detected in the plasma and the brain. Here, we examined whether and how quercetin or Q3GA regulates neural stem cells (NSCs) in vivo and in vitro...
January 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098898/a-hepatic-stem-cell-vaccine-is-superior-to-an-embryonic-stem-cell-vaccine-in-the-prophylaxis-and-treatment-of-murine-hepatocarcinoma
#19
Qi Zheng, Yichao Zheng, Jing Chen, Jia You, Yueyong Zhu, Yurui Liu, Jia Ji Jiang
Stem cells and cancer cells express a common subset of antigens called oncofetal antigens. Theoretically, vaccination with stem cells is effective at boosting the preexisting anticancer immune response. Herein we describe the efficacy of two stem cell-based vaccines in the prophylaxis and treatment of subcutaneous hepatic tumors transplanted into mice. C57BL/6j mice were vaccinated weekly with either hepatic stem cells (HSCs) or embryonic stem cells (ESCs) for three weeks, followed by a subcutaneous challenge with Hepa 1-6 cells at one week (group 1) or four weeks (group 2) after vaccination...
January 17, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060797/t-memory-stem-cells-in-health-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
Luca Gattinoni, Daniel E Speiser, Mathias Lichterfeld, Chiara Bonini
T memory stem (TSCM) cells are a rare subset of memory lymphocytes endowed with the stem cell-like ability to self-renew and the multipotent capacity to reconstitute the entire spectrum of memory and effector T cell subsets. Cumulative evidence in mice, nonhuman primates and humans indicates that TSCM cells are minimally differentiated cells at the apex of the hierarchical system of memory T lymphocytes. Here we describe emerging findings demonstrating that TSCM cells, owing to their extreme longevity and robust potential for immune reconstitution, are central players in many physiological and pathological human processes...
January 6, 2017: Nature Medicine
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