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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060797/t-memory-stem-cells-in-health-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Luca Gattinoni, Daniel E Speiser, Mathias Lichterfeld, Chiara Bonini
T memory stem (TSCM) cells are a rare subset of memory lymphocytes endowed with the stem cell-like ability to self-renew and the multipotent capacity to reconstitute the entire spectrum of memory and effector T cell subsets. Cumulative evidence in mice, nonhuman primates and humans indicates that TSCM cells are minimally differentiated cells at the apex of the hierarchical system of memory T lymphocytes. Here we describe emerging findings demonstrating that TSCM cells, owing to their extreme longevity and robust potential for immune reconstitution, are central players in many physiological and pathological human processes...
January 6, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057064/the-lncrnas-involved-in-mouse-airway-allergic-inflammation-following-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-mesenchymal-stem-cell-treatment
#2
Shu-Yue Wang, Xing-Liang Fan, Qiu-Ning Yu, Meng-Xia Deng, Yue-Qi Sun, Wen-Xiang Gao, Cheng-Lin Li, Jian-Bo Shi, Qing-Ling Fu
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) alleviated asthma inflammation in mice. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) were recently reported as being involved in the immune responses. However, whether lncRNAs are associated with iPSC-MSC immunomodulation in allergic inflammation is still unclear. METHODS: Mice were induced into an asthmatic state and received treatment consisting of iPSC-MSCs. Memory T cells isolated from sensitized mice were challenged and co-cultured with iPSC-MSCs in vitro...
January 6, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043897/natural-products-against-alzheimer-s-disease-pharmaco-therapeutics-and-biotechnological-interventions
#3
REVIEW
Abhijit Dey, Raktim Bhattacharya, Anuradha Mukherjee, Devendra Kumar Pandey
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe, chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with memory and cognition impairment ultimately leading to death. It is the commonest reason of dementia in elderly populations mostly affecting beyond the age of 65. The pathogenesis is indicated by accumulation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in brain tissues and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein in neurons. The main cause is considered to be the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to oxidative stress...
December 30, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034872/fetal-and-adult-progenitors-give-rise-to-unique-populations-of-cd8-t-cells
#4
Jocelyn Wang, Erin M Wissink, Neva B Watson, Norah L Smith, Andrew Grimson, Brian D Rudd
During the ontogeny of the mammalian immune system, distinct lineages of cells arise from fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during specific stages of development. However, in some cases, the same immune cell type is produced by both HSC populations, resulting in the generation of phenotypically similar cells with distinct origins and divergent functional properties. In this report, we demonstrate that neonatal CD8(+) T cells preferentially become short-lived effectors and adult CD8(+) T cells selectively form long-lived memory cells after infection because they are derived from distinct progenitor cells...
December 29, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033505/transgenerational-transmission-of-an-anticholinergic-endophenotype-with-memory-dysfunction
#5
Wolfram Doehner, Lieselotte Praße, James Wolpers, Martina K Brückner, Uwe Ueberham, Thomas Arendt
Impaired cholinergic neurotransmission associated with cognitive dysfunction occurs in various mental disorders of different etiologies including Alzheimer's disease and postalcoholic dementia and others. To address the question whether there exists a common endophenotype with a defined genetic and/or epigenetic signature causing mental dysfunction in these disorders, we investigated 2 generations of offspring born to alcohol-treated mothers. Here, we show that memory impairment and reduced synthesis of acetylcholine occurs in both F1 (exposed to ethanol in utero) and F2 generation (never been exposed to ethanol)...
December 5, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027219/cancer-risk-after-fat-transfer-a-multicenter-case-cohort-study
#6
Terence M Myckatyn, I Janelle Wagner, Babak J Mehrara, Melissa A Crosby, Julie E Park, Bahjat F Qaqish, Dominic T Moore, Evan L Busch, Amanda K Silva, Surinder Kaur, David W Ollila, Clara N Lee
BACKGROUND: Fat transfer is an increasingly popular method for refining postmastectomy breast reconstructions. However, concern persists that fat transfer may promote disease recurrence. Adipocytes are derived from adipose-derived stem cells and express adipocytokines that can facilitate active breast cancer cells in laboratory models. The authors sought to evaluate the association between fat transfer to the reconstructed breast and cancer recurrence in patients diagnosed with local or regional invasive breast cancers...
January 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018990/the-tcf1-bcl6-axis-counteracts-type-i-interferon-to-repress-exhaustion-and-maintain-t-cell-stemness
#7
Tuoqi Wu, Yun Ji, E Ashley Moseman, Haifeng C Xu, Monica Manglani, Martha Kirby, Stacie M Anderson, Robin Handon, Elizabeth Kenyon, Abdel Elkahloun, Weiwei Wu, Philipp A Lang, Luca Gattinoni, Dorian B McGavern, Pamela L Schwartzberg
During chronic viral infections and in cancer, T cells become dysfunctional, a state known as T cell exhaustion. Although it is well recognized that memory CD8 T cells account for the persistence of CD8 T cell immunity after acute infection, how exhausted T cells persist remains less clear. Using chronic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus clone 13 and tumor samples, we demonstrate that CD8 T cells differentiate into a less exhausted TCF1(high) and a more exhausted TCF1(low) population. Virus-specific TCF1(high) CD8 T cells, which resemble T follicular helper (TFH) cells, persist and recall better than do TCF1(low) cells and act as progenitor cells to replenish TCF1(low) cells...
December 23, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998208/increasing-stem-cell-dose-promotes-post-transplant-immune-reconstitution
#8
Ning Xu, Sylvie Shen, Alla Dolnikov
Umbilical Cord Blood (UCB) transplantation can provide a successful therapeutic option for patients that have no suitable related donor. UCB transplantation is often limited by the relatively small haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) numbers in UCB especially for adult recipients. Early neutrophil and platelet engraftment correlates with the stem cell numbers in UCB transplant. Compared to other HSC sources, immune reconstitution following UCB transplant is slower and complicated by increased frequency of opportunistic infections...
December 21, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997758/comprehensive-mass-cytometry-analysis-of-cell-cycle-activation-and-co-inhibitory-receptors-expression-in-cd4-t-cells-from-healthy-and-hiv-infected-individuals
#9
REVIEW
Aurélien Corneau, Antonio Cosma, Sophie Even, Christine Katlama, Roger Legrand, Véronique Frachet, Catherine Blanc, Brigitte Autran
RATIONALE: Mass cytometry allows large multiplex analysis of cell cycle stages together with differentiation, activation and exhaustion markers, allowing further assessment of the quiescence status of resting CD4 T cells. METHODS: peripheral blood CD4 T lymphocytes from 8 individuals, 4 healthy donors (HD) and 4 HIV-infected on anti-retroviral treatment (T) were stained with the same 26 monoclonal antibodies and dyes targeting surface and intra-cellular markers of differentiation, activation, exhaustion and cell cycle stages...
December 20, 2016: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993602/the-neurological-effects-of-ghrelin-in-brain-diseases-beyond-metabolic-functions
#10
REVIEW
Qian Jiao, Xixun Du, Yong Li, Bing Gong, Limin Shi, Tingting Tang, Hong Jiang
Ghrelin, a peptide released by the stomach that plays a major role in regulating energy metabolism, has recently been shown to have effects on neurobiological behaviors. Ghrelin enhances neuronal survival by reducing apoptosis, alleviating inflammation and oxidative stress, and accordingly improving mitochondrial function. Ghrelin also stimulates the proliferation, differentiation and migration of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs). Additionally, the ghrelin is benefit for the recovery of memory, mood and cognitive dysfunction after stroke or traumatic brain injury...
December 16, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980216/characterization-of-ifn%C3%AE-producing-natural-killer-cells-induced-by-cytomegalovirus-reactivation-after-haploidentical-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#11
Fengyan Jin, Hai Lin, Sujun Gao, Hengxiang Wang, Hongmin Yan, Jinglong Guo, Zheng Hu, Chunhui Jin, Yongqi Wang, Zhidong Wang, Yangzhi Zhao, Yu Liu, Xiaoli Zheng, Yehui Tan, Wei Li, Yun Dai, Yanping Yang
During human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after umbilical cord blood or HLA-matched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), a population of NKG2C-expressing natural killer (NK) cells expand and persist. The expanded NK cells express high levels of inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) specific for self-HLA and potently produce IFNγ. However, it remains unknown whether similar events would occur after haploidentical HSCT (haplo-HSCT). Here, we demonstrated that IFNγ-producing NK cells were expanded in haplo-HSCT patients with CMV reactivation...
December 12, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974195/human-stem-cell-like-memory-t-cells-are-maintained-in-a-state-of-dynamic-flux
#12
Raya Ahmed, Laureline Roger, Pedro Costa Del Amo, Kelly L Miners, Rhiannon E Jones, Lies Boelen, Tinhinane Fali, Marjet Elemans, Yan Zhang, Victor Appay, Duncan M Baird, Becca Asquith, David A Price, Derek C Macallan, Kristin Ladell
Adaptive immunity requires the generation of memory T cells from naive precursors selected in the thymus. The key intermediaries in this process are stem cell-like memory T (TSCM) cells, multipotent progenitors that can both self-renew and replenish more differentiated subsets of memory T cells. In theory, antigen specificity within the TSCM pool may be imprinted statically as a function of largely dormant cells and/or retained dynamically by more transitory subpopulations. To explore the origins of immunological memory, we measured the turnover of TSCM cells in vivo using stable isotope labeling with heavy water...
December 13, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943115/harnessing-bone-marrow-resident-regulatory-t-cells-to-improve-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplant-outcomes
#13
REVIEW
Laetitia Le Texier, Katie E Lineburg, Kelli P A MacDonald
Regulatory T cells (Treg) are a suppressive T cell population which play a crucial role in the establishment of tolerance after stem cell transplantation (SCT) by controlling the effector T cell responses that drive acute and chronic GVHD. The BM compartment is enriched in a highly suppressive, activated/memory autophagy-dependent Treg population, which contributes to the HSC engraftment and the control of GVHD. G-CSF administration releases Treg from the BM through disruption of the CXCR4/SDF-1 axis and further improves Treg survival following SCT through the induction of autophagy...
December 10, 2016: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942862/altered-immune-reconstitution-of-b-and-t-cells-precedes-the-onset-of-clinical-symptoms-of-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease-and-is-influenced-by-the-type-of-onset
#14
E-M Bohmann, U Fehn, B Holler, D Weber, E Holler, W Herr, P Hoffmann, M Edinger, D Wolff
We analyzed lymphocyte subpopulations and cytokines 3 months after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation aiming to identify predictive cellular and serum markers for chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Samples of 49 patients (pts) (no cGVHD (n = 14), subsequent quiescent onset (n = 16), de novo onset of cGVHD (n = 19)) were analyzed in the absence of active GVHD by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All mean absolute cell counts are presented as cells per microliter; relative cell counts are presented as percentage of lymphocytes...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938410/3d-culture-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-road-map-to-a-cure-in-a-dish
#15
REVIEW
Se Hoon Choi, Young Hye Kim, Luisa Quinti, Rudolph E Tanzi, Doo Yeon Kim
Alzheimer's disease (AD) transgenic mice have been used as a standard AD model for basic mechanistic studies and drug discovery. These mouse models showed symbolic AD pathologies including β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, gliosis and memory deficits but failed to fully recapitulate AD pathogenic cascades including robust phospho tau (p-tau) accumulation, clear neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and neurodegeneration, solely driven by familial AD (FAD) mutation(s). Recent advances in human stem cell and three-dimensional (3D) culture technologies made it possible to generate novel 3D neural cell culture models that recapitulate AD pathologies including robust Aβ deposition and Aβ-driven NFT-like tau pathology...
December 9, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932977/human-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-rescues-cognitive-defects-in-app-ps1-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-by-enhancing-neuronal-connectivity-and-metabolic-activity
#16
Xueyuan Li, Hua Zhu, Xicai Sun, Fuxing Zuo, Jianfeng Lei, Zhanjing Wang, Xinjie Bao, Renzhi Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most frequent type of dementia, is featured by Aβ pathology, neural degeneration and cognitive decline. To date, there is no cure for this disease. Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation provides new promise for treating AD. Many studies report that intra-hippocampal transplantation of murine NSCs improved cognition in rodents with AD by alleviating neurodegeneration via neuronal complement or replacement. However, few reports examined the potential of human NSC transplantation for AD...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924726/neurodegenerative-disease-a-perspective-on-cell-based-therapy-in-the-new-era-of-cell-free-nano-therapy
#17
Su M Metcalfe, Sean Bickerton, Tarek Fahmy
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) result in irreversible loss of neurons. Dementia develops when disease-induced neuronal loss becomes sufficient to impair both memory and cognitive functioning and, globally, dementia is increasing to epidemic proportions as populations age. In the current era of regenerative medicine intense activity is asking, can loss of endogenous neurons be compensated by replacement with exogenously derived cells that have either direct, or indirect, neurogenic capacity? But, more recently, excitement is growing around an emerging alternative to the cell-based approach - here nanotechnology for targeted delivery of growth factor aims to support and expand resident central nervous system (CNS) stem cells for endogenous repair...
December 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924076/stem-cells-hsc-function-determined-by-epigenetic-memory
#18
Kirsty Minton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919332/effects-of-ionizing-radiation-on-the-mammalian-brain
#19
Daniela Hladik, Soile Tapio
Epidemiological studies on the atomic-bomb survivors, cancer survivors and occupational cohorts provide strong evidence for multifaceted damage to brain after ionizing radiation. Radiation-induced late effects may manifest as brain tumors or cognitive impairment. Decreased neurogenesis and differentiation, alteration in neural structure and synaptic plasticity as well as increased oxidative stress and inflammation are suggested to contribute to adverse effects in the brain. In addition to neural stems cells, several brain-specific mature cell types including endothelial and glial cells are negatively affected by ionizing radiation...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916660/isoform-switch-of-tet1-regulates-dna-demethylation-and-mouse-development
#20
Wenhao Zhang, Weikun Xia, Qiujun Wang, Aaron J Towers, Jiayu Chen, Rui Gao, Yu Zhang, Chia-An Yen, Ah Young Lee, Yuanyuan Li, Chen Zhou, Kaili Liu, Jing Zhang, Tian-Peng Gu, Xiuqi Chen, Zai Chang, Danny Leung, Shaorong Gao, Yong-Hui Jiang, Wei Xie
The methylcytosine oxidase TET proteins play important roles in DNA demethylation and development. However, it remains elusive how exactly they target substrates and execute oxidation. Interestingly, we found that, in mice, the full-length TET1 isoform (TET1e) is restricted to early embryos, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and primordial germ cells (PGCs). By contrast, a short isoform (TET1s) is preferentially expressed in somatic cells, which lacks the N terminus including the CXXC domain, a DNA-binding module that often recognizes CpG islands (CGIs) where TET1 predominantly occupies...
December 15, 2016: Molecular Cell
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