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common cold

Wen-Ping Huang, Ting Tan, Zhi-Feng Li, Hui OuYang, Xu Xu, Bin Zhou, Yu-Lin Feng
The Chimonanthus nitens Oliv. leaf (CNOL). is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used for treating colds and influenza. In the present study, a comprehensive strategy integrating multiple chromatographic analysis and chemometric methods was firstly proposed for structural characterization and discrimination of CNOL from different geographical origins. It consists of three steps: Firstly, the ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) method was applied for comprehensive profiling of characterization constituents in CNOL by high-resolution diagnostic product ions/neutral loss filtering, and a total of 40 constituents were identified...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
M Loretto Muñoz, Deepali Jaju, Saroja Voruganti, Sulayma Albarwani, Afshin Aslani, Riad Bayoumi, Said Al-Yahyaee, Anthony G Comuzzie, Philip J Millar, Peter Picton, John S Floras, Ilja Nolte, Mohammed O Hassan, Harold Snieder
INTRODUCTION: Individual differences in heart rate variability (HRV) can be partly attributed to genetic factors that may be more pronounced during stress. Using data from the Oman Family Study (OFS), we aimed to estimate and quantify the relative contribution of genes and environment to the variance of HRV at rest and during stress; calculate the overlap in genetic and environmental influences on HRV at rest and under stress using bivariate analyses of HRV parameters and heart rate (HR)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Olivier Castagna, Sébastien de Maistre, Bruno Schmid, Delphine Caudal, Jacques Regnard
In healthy divers, the occurrence of immersion pulmonary oedema (IPE) is commonly caused by contributory factors including strenuous exercise, cold water and negative-pressure breathing. Contrary to this established paradigm, this case reports on a 26-year-old, well-trained combat swimmer who succumbed to acute IPE during static immersion in temperate (21°C) water, while using a front-mounted counterlung rebreather. The incident occurred during repeated depth-controlled ascent practice at the French military diving school...
March 31, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Ming-San Miao, Li-Ling Xiang, Ming Bai, Li-Hua Cao
Frostbite is a common disease in winter, and systemic or local injury caused by low temperature invasion. Frostbite sites are commonly face, ears, nose, hands, feet and other peripheral blood circulation parts. The main symptoms are pale skin, cold, pain and numbness, skin itching in high temperature, and severe cases may suffer from skin erosions and ulcers. Frostbite model is a pathological model mainly based on Western medicine index. Based on the analysis of clinical symptoms of frostbite in traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine, and a large number of experimental studies on the existing animal models, the animal model preparation of specifications (draft) was formulated as follows...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
John R Hurst, Maria Dilleen, Kevin Morris, Siân Hills, Birol Emir, Rupert Jones
Purpose: Inappropriate use of an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) for COPD has clinical and economic disadvantages. This retrospective analysis of The UK Health Improvement Network (THIN) database identified factors influencing treatment escalation (step-up) from a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) to triple therapy (LAMA + long-acting β-agonist-ICS). Secondary objectives included time to step up from first LAMA prescription, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) grouping (2011/2013, 2017), and Medical Research Council (MRC) grade prior to treatment escalation...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Joshua P Egan, Devin D Bloom, Chien-Hsien Kuo, Michael P Hammer, Prasert Tongnunui, Samuel P Iglésias, Marcus Sheaves, Chaiwut Grudpan, Andrew M Simons
Biotic and abiotic forces govern the evolution of trophic niches, which profoundly impact ecological and evolutionary processes and aspects of species biology. Herbivory is a particularly interesting trophic niche because there are theorized trade-offs associated with diets comprised of low quality food that might prevent the evolution of herbivory in certain environments. Herbivory has also been identified as a potential evolutionary "dead-end" that hinders subsequent trophic diversification. For this study we investigated trophic niche evolution in Clupeoidei (anchovies, sardines, herrings, and their relatives) and tested the hypotheses that herbivory is negatively correlated with salinity and latitude using a novel, time-calibrated molecular phylogeny, trophic guilds delimited using diet data and cluster analysis, and standard and phylogenetically-informed statistical methods...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Victor M Corman, Doreen Muth, Daniela Niemeyer, Christian Drosten
The four endemic human coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 contribute a considerable share of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in adults and children. While their clinical representation resembles that of many other agents of the common cold, their evolutionary histories, and host associations could provide important insights into the natural history of past human pandemics. For two of these viruses, we have strong evidence suggesting an origin in major livestock species while primordial associations for all four viruses may have existed with bats and rodents...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
Mai-He Li, Yong Jiang, Ao Wang, Xiaobin Li, Wanze Zhu, Cai-Feng Yan, Zhong Du, Zheng Shi, Jingpin Lei, Leonie Schönbeck, Peng He, Fei-Hai Yu, Xue Wang
The low-temperature limited alpine treeline is one of the most obvious boundaries in mountain landscapes. The question of whether resource limitation is the physiological mechanism for the formation of the alpine treeline is still waiting for conclusive evidence and answers. We therefore examined non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and nitrogen (N) in treeline trees (TATs) and low-elevation trees (LETs) in both summer and winter in 11 alpine treeline cases ranging from subtropical monsoon to temperate continental climates across Eurasia...
March 12, 2018: Tree Physiology
Kristoffer Vogler, Lisbeth Samsø Schmidt
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is globally prevalent and in adolescents mostly observed as infectious mononucleosis. Abnormal liver blood tests are common, whereas more serious hepatitis is less prevalent. Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia may also occur in the course of this infection. We report a case of a 15-year-old girl with cholestatic hepatitis and autoimmune haemolytic anaemia associated with EBV infection. The Donath-Landsteiner test was positive suggesting paroxysmal cold haemoglobinuria. She was treated with supportive care and discharged in recovery after three weeks...
March 5, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Theerasuk Kawamatawong, Jitsupa Onnipa, Thitiporn Suwatanapongched
Background: The prevalence rate of bronchiectasis in COPD is variable. Coexisting bronchiectasis and COPD may influence COPD severity and exacerbation. Objective: We investigated whether bronchiectasis is associated with frequent or severe COPD exacerbation. Lower airway bacterial and mycobacterial infections are a possible mechanism for bronchiectasis. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013-2014. COPD exacerbations and hospitalizations were reviewed...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Rüdiger Ortiz-Álvarez, Xavier Triadó-Margarit, Lluís Camarero, Emilio O Casamayor, Jordi Catalan
A rich eukaryotic planktonic community exists in high-mountain lakes despite the diluted, oligotrophic and cold, harsh prevailing conditions. Attempts of an overarching appraisal have been traditionally hampered by observational limitations of small, colorless, and soft eukaryotes. We aimed to uncover the regional eukaryotic biodiversity of a mountain lakes district to obtain general conclusions on diversity patterns, dominance, geographic diversification, and food-web players common to oligotrophic worldwide distributed freshwater systems...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chanchan Liu, Narayanan Srividya, Amber N Parrish, Wei Yue, Mingqiu Shan, Qinan Wu, B Markus Lange
Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briquet, commonly known as Japanese catnip, is used for the treatment of colds, headaches, fevers, and skin rashes in traditional Asian medicine (China, Japan and Korea). The volatile oil and its constituents have various demonstrated biological activities, but there is currently limited information regarding the site of biosynthesis. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated the presence of three distinct glandular trichome types which, based on their morphological features, are referred to as peltate, capitate and digitiform glandular trichomes...
March 10, 2018: Phytochemistry
Tianqi Liu, Xin Peng, Ya-Nan Chen, Qing-Wen Bai, Cong Shang, Lin Zhang, Huiliang Wang
A novel type of polymeric material with tunable mechanical properties is fabricated from polymers and small molecules that can form hydrogen-bonded intermolecular complexes (IMCs). In this work, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-glycerol hydrogels are first prepared, and then they are dried to form IMCs. The tensile strengths and moduli of IMCs decrease dramatically with increasing glycerol content, while the elongations increase gradually. The mechanical properties are comparable with or even superior to those of common engineering plastics and rubbers...
March 13, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Megan Kruse, Jame Abraham
Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a common and distressing adverse effect of many types of chemotherapy. Scalp cooling has been used since the 1970s for prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia; however, most data regarding this treatment modality are retrospective in nature, and use in the United States has been limited by safety concerns, specifically the potential for scalp metastases. Two prospective studies of scalp-cooling systems performed in the United States were published within the last year and add evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of scalp cooling in preventing chemotherapy-induced alopecia in patients receiving chemotherapy for solid tumor malignancies...
March 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
Kiran Dhaliwal, Michelle Griffin, Christopher P Denton, Peter E M Butler
Raynaud's phenomenon is a vasospastic disorder of the digital vessels triggered by exposure to cold or stress. It is most commonly observed in the hands, but also frequently affects the toes. We present three cases of patients with severe Raynaud's phenomenon in the toes, secondary to scleroderma. The diagnosis of Raynaud's syndrome and scleroderma was established according to the 2010 American College of Rheumatology and European League Against Rheumatism criteria. Patients were treated with 10 units of botulinum toxin injected into each foot...
March 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Oded Potchter, Pninit Cohen, Tzu-Ping Lin, Andreas Matzarakis
Over the past century, many research studies have been conducted in an attempt to define thermal conditions for humans in the outdoor environment and to grade thermal sensation. Consequently, a large number of indices have been proposed. The examination of human thermal indices by thermal subjective perception has become recently a methodical issue to confirm the accuracy, applicability and validation of human thermal indices. The aims of this study are: (a) to review studies containing both calculated human thermal conditions and subjective thermal perception in the outdoor environment (b) to identify the most used human thermal indices for evaluating human thermal perception (c) to examine the relation between human thermal comfort range and outdoor thermal environment conditions and (d) to compare between categories of thermal sensation in different climatic zones based on subjective perception and levels of thermal strain...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Miwa Suzuki, Kaho Banno, Toshiki Usui, Noriko Funasaka, Takao Segawa, Tetsuo Kirihata, Haruka Kamisako, Keiichi Ueda, Arimune Munakata
In general, thyroid hormones (THs) stimulate cellular metabolism by inducing ATP utilization that collaterally leads to thermogenesis. However, in cetaceans, TH functions and the contribution of THs to cold adaptation are not fully understood. To investigate the role of THs in metabolism of cetaceans, seasonal changes in circulating levels in thyroxine (T4 ) were investigated in the common bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus that were monitored under two different conditions for two years, with routine measurements of body temperature (BT), water temperature (WT) and air temperature (AT)...
March 7, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Ying Cheng, Bifeng Gao, Yuhao Jin, Na Xu, Taipin Guo
BACKGROUND: The common cold (CC) is the most common syndromes of infection in human beings, but there is currently no special treatment. For this reason, acupuncture is used to relieve the symptoms of the CC. Acupuncture is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapy that has been used for over 2000 years to treat various diseases. However, few studies have provided evidence for the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for the CC. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture on CC periods and its symptoms...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Rashid Usman, Muhammad Jamil, Javaid Sajjad Hashmi
Objective : To share our experience regarding the management of arterial injuries in children with pulseless hand secondary to supracondylar fracture of the humerus (SFH). Patients and Methods : All consecutive children with pulseless hands after SFH who were being treated in the vascular surgery units of the Combined Military Hospital, Lahore and Peshawar between September 2011 and September 2016 were included. The type of fracture, mode and pattern of injury, time from injury to definitive treatment, operative treatment, and complications were recorded...
December 25, 2017: Annals of Vascular Diseases
Hanna M Butler-Struben, Samantha M Brophy, Nasira A Johnson, Robyn J Crook
Cephalopod molluscs are among the most behaviorally and neurologically complex invertebrates. As they are now included in research animal welfare regulations in many countries, humane and effective anesthesia is required during invasive procedures. However, currently there is no evidence that agents believed to act as anesthetics produce effects beyond immobility. In this study we demonstrate, for the first time, that two of the most commonly used agents in cephalopod general anesthesia, magnesium chloride and ethanol, are capable of producing strong and reversible blockade of afferent and efferent neural signal; thus they are genuine anesthetics, rather than simply sedating agents that render animals immobile but not insensible...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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