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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627455/gemcitabine-vitamin-e-conjugates-synthesis-characterization-entrapment-into-nanoemulsions-and-in-vitro-deamination-and-antitumor-activity
#1
Ahmed Abu-Fayyad, Sami Nazzal
Gemcitabine is the first line therapy for pancreatic cancer. It is, however, extensively metabolized to the inactive form by deamination enzymatic reaction. Conjugation of gemcitabine with fatty acids on its 4-amino group was found to protect it from deamination deactivation reaction. The objective of the present study was to test the in-vitro anticancer activity of gemcitabine conjugated to the γ-tocotrienol isomer of vitamin E against pancreatic tumor cells. This objective was based on reported studies in which it was demonstrated that free tocotrienol isomers of vitamin E can potentiate the anticancer activity of gemcitabine...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627454/synthesis-physiochemical-characterization-and-in-vitro-antitumor-activity-of-the-amide-and-ph-cleavable-hydrazone-conjugates-of-%C3%AE-tocotrienol-isomer-of-vitamin-e-with-methoxy-poly-ethylene-glycol
#2
Ahmed Abu-Fayyad, Sami Nazzal
The anticancer activity of water soluble methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) derivatives of tocotrienol (T3) isomers of vitamin E was previously found to be reduced when compared to the parent free isomers. This could be due to the ester bond formation between the mPEG and the 6-OH group on the chroman moiety of the T3 isomer. To further investigate, the objectives of the current study were to (1) synthesize and characterize stable amide and cleavable hydrazone conjugates between mPEG and carbon-5 on the chroman moiety of T3, and (2) examine the cytotoxicity of the newly synthesized mPEG conjugates against breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and pancreatic (BxPC-3 and PANC-1) cancer cells...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581741/overexpression-of-hvhggt-enhances-tocotrienol-levels-and-antioxidant-activity-in-barley
#3
Jianshu Chen, Cuicui Liu, Bo Shi, Yuqiong Chai, Ning Han, Muyuan Zhu, Hongwu Bian
Vitamin E is a potent lipid-soluble antioxidant and essential nutrient for human health. Tocotrienols are the major form of vitamin E in seeds of most monocots. It has been known that homogentisate geranylgeranyl transferase (HGGT) catalyzes the committed step of tocotrienol biosynthesis. In the present study, we generated transgenic barley overexpressing HvHGGT under endogenous D-Hordein promoter (proHor). Overexpression of HvHGGT increased seed size and seed weight in transgenic barley. Notably, total tocotrienol content increased by 10-15% in seeds of transgenic lines, due to the increased levels of δ-, β-, and γ-tocotrienol, but not α-tocotrienol...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559632/achiote-bixa-orellana-l-a-natural-source-of-pigment-and-vitamin-e
#4
REVIEW
Denise Raddatz-Mota, Laura J Pérez-Flores, Fernando Carrari, José A Mendoza-Espinoza, Fernando Díaz de León-Sánchez, Luis L Pinzón-López, Gregorio Godoy-Hernández, Fernando Rivera-Cabrera
Commercialization of agricultural products, including seeds and its derived products, represents an important economic source for developing countries. Natural colorants obtained from the seeds of achiote plant (annatto) have been used since pre-Hispanic times. Also, production of this crop has been important for Mayan cuisine. Annual world production of achiote seeds is approximately 14,500 tons (dry weight). Two thirds of the production is commercialized as dried seeds and the rest as colorant. Latin America produces 60% of the total world production, followed by Africa (27%) and Asia (12%)...
May 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545672/enhancement-of-apoptotic-activities-on-brain-cancer-cells-via-the-combination-of-%C3%AE-tocotrienol-and-jerantinine-a
#5
Ibrahim Babangida Abubakar, Kuan-Hon Lim, Toh-Seok Kam, Hwei-San Loh
BACKGROUND: γ-Tocotrienol, a vitamin E isomer possesses pronounced in vitro anticancer activities. However, the in vivo potency has been limited by hardly achievable therapeutic levels owing to inefficient high-dose oral delivery which leads to subsequent metabolic degradation. Jerantinine A, an Aspidosperma alkaloid, originally isolated from Tabernaemontana corymbosa, has proved to possess interesting anticancer activities. However, jerantinine A also induces toxicity to non-cancerous cells...
July 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467362/glutathione-as-a-redox-biomarker-in-mitochondrial-disease-implications-for-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Gregory M Enns, Tina M Cowan
Technical advances in the ability to measure mitochondrial dysfunction are providing new insights into mitochondrial disease pathogenesis, along with new tools to objectively evaluate the clinical status of mitochondrial disease patients. Glutathione (l-ϒ-glutamyl-l-cysteinylglycine) is the most abundant intracellular thiol, and the intracellular redox state, as reflected by levels of oxidized (GSSG) and reduced (GSH) glutathione, as well as the GSH/GSSG ratio, is considered to be an important indication of cellular health...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459863/effect-of-processing-on-composition-changes-of-selected-spices
#7
Cai-Hua Jia, Jung-Ah Shin, Young-Min Kim, Ki-Teak Lee
The present investigation was conducted to study the true retentions of α-tocopherol, tocotrienols and β-carotene in crown daisy, unripe hot pepper, onion, garlic, and red pepper as affected by various domestic cooking methods, those were, boiling, baking, stir-frying, deep-frying, steaming, roasting, and microwaving. Fatty acid compositions were determined by GC, and HPLC were used for quantification of α-tocopherol, tocotrienols, and β-carotene. True retentions of α-tocopherol in cooked foods were as follows: boiling (77...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456359/the-use-of-countercurrent-chromatography-in-the-separation-of-nonpolar-lipid-compounds
#8
Walter Vetter, Simon Hammann, Marco Müller, Michael Englert, Yining Huang
Isolation of lipophilic compounds by countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is a challenge because biphasic solvent systems in which these compounds distribute evenly are difficult to obtain. In this article we present novel applications of lipid compound isolation from natural sources. Conjugated linolenic acids (CLnAs, log KOW ∼7) were isolated from pomegranate oil using a solvent system consisting of n-heptane/methanol/water 100:91:9 (v/v/v). The CLnA fraction was free of other fatty acids but consisted of different isomers which were not resolved from each other...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456081/gamma-tocotrienol-profoundly-alters-sphingolipids-in-cancer-cells-by-inhibition-of-dihydroceramide-desaturase-and-possibly-activation-of-sphingolipid-hydrolysis-during-prolonged-treatment
#9
Yumi Jang, Xiayu Rao, Qing Jiang
Vitamin E gamma-tocotrienol (γTE) is known to have anticancer effects, but mechanisms underlying these actions are not clear. Here using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we show that γTE induced marked changes of sphingolipids including rapid elevation of dihydrosphingosine and dihydroceramides (dhCers) in various types of cancer cells. The elevation of dihydrosphingolipids coincided with increased cellular stress, as indicated by JNK phosphorylation, and was prior to any sign of induction of apoptosis...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438040/semi-preparative-hplc-purification-of-%C3%AE-tocotrienol-%C3%AE-t3-from-elaeis-guineensis-jacq-and-bixa-orellana-l-and-evaluation-of-its-in-vitro-anticancer-activity-in-human-a375-melanoma-cells
#10
Giangiacomo Beretta, Fabrizio Gelmini, Fabrizio Fontana, Roberta Manuela Moretti, Marina Montagnani Marelli, Patrizia Limonta
In this work, we report a rapid and convenient HPLC-UV-DAD method for the isolation of δ-T3 on semi-preparative scale from two different vitamin E rich processed, commercially available products obtained from the fruits of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (oil palm) and from the seeds of Bixa orellana L. (achiote tree). Chromatography was run using reverse phase (RP) C-18 columns and HPLC-grade acetonitrile as mobile phase. The purity of the isolated δ-T3, assessed by GC-MS and (1)H NMR was above 98%. The δ-T3 cytotoxic activity found in vitro against the proliferation of human A375 melanoma cells compared to that of the other δ-T3 free tocols mixture suggest its primary role in the experimental anticancer activity observed for palm oil derived products...
April 24, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404939/%C3%AE-tocotrienol-a-natural-form-of-vitamin-e-inhibits-pancreatic-cancer-stem-like-cells-and-prevents-pancreatic-cancer-metastasis
#11
Kazim Husain, Barbara A Centeno, Domenico Coppola, Jose Trevino, Said M Sebti, Mokenge P Malafa
The growth, metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by the activation and growth of tumor-initiating cells in distant organs that have stem-like properties. Thus, inhibiting growth of these cells may prevent PDAC growth and metastases. We have demonstrated that δ-tocotrienol, a natural form of vitamin E (VEDT), is bioactive against cancer, delays progression, and prevents metastases in transgenic mouse models of PDAC. In this report, we provide the first evidence that VEDT selectively inhibits PDAC stem-like cells...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384008/high-dietary-alpha-tocopherol-or-mixed-tocotrienols-have-no-effect-on-bone-mass-density-or-turnover-in-male-rats-during-skeletal-maturation
#12
Katherine G Tennant, Scott W Leonard, Carmen P Wong, Urszula T Iwaniec, Russell T Turner, Maret G Traber
High levels of alpha-tocopherol, the usual vitamin E supplement, are reported to decrease bone mass in rodents; however, the effects of other vitamin E forms on the skeleton are unknown. To test the hypothesis that high intakes of various vitamin E forms or the vitamin E metabolite, carboxyethyl hydroxy chromanol, were detrimental to bone status, Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 per group, 11-week males) for 18 weeks consumed semipurified diets that contained adequate alpha-tocopherol, high alpha-tocopherol (500 mg/kg diet), or 50% Tocomin (250 mg mixed tocopherols and tocotrienols/kg diet)...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362175/synergistic-impact-of-d-%C3%AE-tocotrienol-and-geranylgeraniol-on-the-growth-and-hmg-coa-reductase-of-human-du145-prostate-carcinoma-cells
#13
Hoda Yeganehjoo, Russell DeBose-Boyd, Brian K McFarlin, Huanbiao Mo
The growth-suppressive effect of d-δ-tocotrienol and geranylgeraniol is at least partially attributed to their impact on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway that provides essential intermediates for the posttranslational modification of growth-related proteins including RAS. We hypothesize that these agents synergistically impact cell growth based on their complementary mechanisms of action with HMG CoA reductase. d-δ-tocotrienol (0-40 µmol/L; half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 15 µmol/L) and geranylgeraniol (0-100 µmol/L; IC50 = 60 µmol/L) each induced concentration-dependent suppression of the growth of human DU145 prostate carcinoma cells...
May 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359358/rice-bran-enzymatic-extract-reduces-atherosclerotic-plaque-development-and-steatosis-in-high-fat-fed-apoe-mice
#14
Cristina Perez-Ternero, Carmen Claro, Juan Parrado, Maria Dolores Herrera, Maria Alvarez de Sotomayor
OBJECTIVE: Rice bran is a by-product of rice milling and is rich in bioactive molecules such as γ-oryzanol, phytosterols, and tocotrienols. The rice bran enzymatic extract (RBEE) previously showed vessel remodeling prevention and lipid-lowering, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic activities. The aim of this study was to identify RBEE hypolipidemic mechanisms and to study the effects of RBEE on the progression of atherosclerosis disease and linked vascular dysfunction and liver steatosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-/-) mice fed low- or high-fat (LFD, HFD, respectively) and cholesterol diets...
May 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350848/reduction-of-oxidative-nitrosative-stress-underlies-anticataract-effect-of-topically-applied-tocotrienol-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#15
Nurul Alimah Abdul Nasir, Renu Agarwal, Siti Hamimah Sheikh Abdul Kadir, Sushil Vasudevan, Minaketan Tripathy, Igor Iezhitsa, Aqil Mohammad Daher, Mohd Ikraam Ibrahim, Nafeeza Mohd Ismail
Cataract, a leading cause of blindness, is of special concern in diabetics as it occurs at earlier onset. Polyol accumulation and increased oxidative-nitrosative stress in cataractogenesis are associated with NFκB activation, iNOS expression, ATP depletion, loss of ATPase functions, calpain activation and proteolysis of soluble to insoluble proteins. Tocotrienol was previously shown to reduce lens oxidative stress and inhibit cataractogenesis in galactose-fed rats. In current study, we investigated anticataract effects of topical tocotrienol and possible mechanisms involved in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335380/vitamin-e-nicotinate
#16
REVIEW
Kimbell R Duncan, Yuichiro J Suzuki
Vitamin E refers to a family of compounds that function as lipid-soluble antioxidants capable of preventing lipid peroxidation. Naturally occurring forms of vitamin E include tocopherols and tocotrienols. Vitamin E in dietary supplements and fortified foods is often an esterified form of α-tocopherol, the most common esters being acetate and succinate. The vitamin E esters are hydrolyzed and converted into free α-tocopherol prior to absorption in the intestinal tract. Because its functions are relevant to many chronic diseases, vitamin E has been extensively studied in respect to a variety of diseases as well as cosmetic applications...
March 13, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331417/%C3%AE-tocotrienol-inhibits-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-contractile-phenotype-expression-of-human-airway-smooth-muscle-cells
#17
Takehito Fukushima, Akira Yamasaki, Tomoya Harada, Hiroki Chikumi, Masanari Watanabe, Ryota Okazaki, Miki Takata, Yasuyuki Hasegawa, Jun Kurai, Masaaki Yanai, Akihiro Yamamoto, Yuriko Sueda, Andrew J Halayko, Eiji Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Tocotrienols, members of the vitamin E family, exist in four different isoforms (α, β, γ and δ tocotrienol) that have can be protective against brain damage, as well as having anticancer effects in vivo and in vitro. We have shown that γ-tocotrienol inhibits human airway smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB by suppressing RhoA activation. In this study, we tested whether γ-tocotrienol modulates transforming growth factor (TGF) -β-induced induction of human airway smooth muscle (ASM) into a contractile phenotype and concomitant synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins...
March 2017: Yonago Acta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327426/current-strategies-for-vitamin-e-biofortification-of-crops
#18
REVIEW
Laurent Mène-Saffrané, Sébastien Pellaud
Vitamin E refers to four tocopherols and four tocotrienols that are exclusively synthesized by photosynthetic organisms. While α-tocopherol is the most potent vitamin E compound, it is not the main form consumed since the composition of most major crops is dominated by γ-tocopherol. Nutritional studies show that populations of developed countries do not consume enough vitamin E and that a large proportion of individuals exhibit plasma α-tocopherol deficiency. Following the identification of vitamin E biosynthetic genes, several strategies including metabolic engineering, classic breeding and mutation breeding, have been undertaken to improve the vitamin E content of crops...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293383/vitamin-e-for-the-treatment-of-children-with-hepatitis-b-e-antigen-positive-chronic-hepatitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Sirio Fiorino, Maria Letizia Bacchi-Reggiani, Paolo Leandri, Elisabetta Loggi, Pietro Andreone
AIM: To assess vitamin E efficacy, defined as its ability to induce hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion, in children with HBeAg-positive persistent hepatitis. METHODS: In July 2016, we extracted articles published in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library using the following search terms: "chronic hepatitis B", "children", "childhood", "therapy", "treatment", "vitamin E", "tocopherols", "tocotrienols". Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in English language were collected...
February 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274454/phytochemical-profiles-and-antioxidant-activity-of-brown-rice-varieties
#20
Er Sheng Gong, Shun Jing Luo, Tong Li, Cheng Mei Liu, Guo Wen Zhang, Jun Chen, Zi Cong Zeng, Rui Hai Liu
The phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of eight varieties of brown rice (BR) are reported. The total phenolic contents of BR ranged from 72.45 to 120.13mg of gallic acid equiv./100g. The phenolics from bound fraction contributed 40.6-50.2% of the total phenolic content. The total flavonoid contents of BR ranged from 75.90 to 112.03mg catechin equiv./100g. The flavonoids from the bound fraction contributed 26.9-48.2% of total flavonoids. Trans-ferulic acid was the predominant phenolic acid in BR...
July 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
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