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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346581/melatonin-attenuates-lung-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-via-inhibition-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation
#1
Ming-Liang Wang, Chun-Hua Wei, Wen-Dong Wang, Jia-Shun Wang, Jun Zhang, Jian-Jun Wang
OBJECTIVES: Lung ischaemia-reperfusion injury is a complex pathophysiological process due to the production of reactive oxygen species and the generation of inflammatory reaction. We investigated the protective effects and the corresponding mechanism of melatonin (MT), a potent free-radical scavenger, on lung injury induced by ischaemia-reperfusion in a mouse model. METHODS: Adult male C57BL/6J mice (n = 30) were randomly and equally allocated into 5 groups: sham controls, IR, IR + 10 mg/kg MT, IR + 20 mg/kg MT and IR + 30 mg/kg MT...
January 15, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346420/initial-acquisition-and-succession-of-the-cystic-fibrosis-lung-microbiome-is-associated-with-disease-progression-in-infants-and-preschool-children
#2
Marianne S Muhlebach, Bryan T Zorn, Charles R Esther, Joseph E Hatch, Conor P Murray, Lidija Turkovic, Sarath C Ranganathan, Richard C Boucher, Stephen M Stick, Matthew C Wolfgang
The cystic fibrosis (CF) lung microbiome has been studied in children and adults; however, little is known about its relationship to early disease progression. To better understand the relationship between the lung microbiome and early respiratory disease, we characterized the lower airways microbiome using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples obtained from clinically stable CF infants and preschoolers who underwent bronchoscopy and chest computed tomography (CT). Cross-sectional samples suggested a progression of the lower airways microbiome with age, beginning with relatively sterile airways in infancy...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346348/macrophages-regulate-lung-ilc2-activation-via-pla2g5-dependent-mechanisms
#3
M Yamaguchi, S K Samuchiwal, O Quehenberger, J A Boyce, B Balestrieri
Group V phospholipase A2 (Pla2g5) is a lipid-generating enzyme necessary for macrophage effector functions in pulmonary inflammation. However, the lipid mediators involved and their cellular targets have not been identified. Mice lacking Pla2g5 showed markedly reduced lung ILC2 activation and eosinophilia following repetitive Alternaria Alternata inhalation. While Pla2g5-null mice had Wt levels of immediate IL-33 release after one Alternaria dose, they failed to upregulate IL-33 in macrophages following repeated Alternaria administration...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346246/comparison-of-diagnostic-potential-of-narrow-band-imaging-bronchoscopy-over-white-light-bronchoscopy-in-lung-cancer
#4
Manish Advani, Gopal Purohit, Sunil Vyas, Jyoti Kumari
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, lung cancer is the largest contributor to new cancer diagnoses and to death from cancer. Narrow band imaging (NBI) is a novel bronchoscopic technique which enables detailed examination of submucosal microcapillary grid and showed great potential in early detection of malignant lesions of the bronchial mucosa. The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic potential of NBI bronchoscopy over white light (WL) bronchoscopy in lung cancer. METHODS: We enrolled 187 patients having clinical and radiologic findings highly suspicious of lung cancer...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346191/the-four-corners-sign-a-specific-imaging-feature-in-differentiating-systemic-sclerosis-related-interstitial-lung-disease-from-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#5
Lara Walkoff, Darin B White, Jonathan H Chung, Dennis Asante, Christian W Cox
PURPOSE: Differentiating between systemic sclerosis-related interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is important because of the differences in workup, prognosis, and treatment. However, there is much overlap in the appearance of these 2 entities on high-resolution computed tomography. We propose that inflammation and/or fibrosis focally or disproportionately involving the bilateral anterolateral upper lobes and posterosuperior lower lobes ["Four Corners" Sign (FCS)] is specific for SSc-ILD...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345442/lung-uptake-of-fluorine-18-fluoroethyl-choline-pet-ct-in-patients-with-prostate-cancer
#6
Daniele A Pizzuto, Salvatore Annunziata, Francesco P Ieria, Carmelo Caldarella, Maria A Isgrò, Valerio Lanni, Gaia Bencivenga, Vittoria Rufini, Alessandro Giordano
BACKGROUND: Metastatic spreading to the lungs is a negative prognostic factor in patients with prostate cancer (PC). Aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of lung PC metastases in patients with fluorine-18 fluoroethyl-choline (F-18-FECh) PET-CT positive lung lesions and the role of Gleason Score (GS) and common biochemical markers in predicting metastatic spreading to the lungs. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the scans of 1283 patients ongoing (F-18-FECh) PET-CT for PC between May 2010 and July 2014...
January 17, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345380/cirp-increases-icam-1-phenotype-of-neutrophils-exhibiting-elevated-inos-and-nets-in-sepsis
#7
Yasumasa Ode, Monowar Aziz, Ping Wang
Sepsis represents uncontrolled inflammation due to an infection. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is a stress-induced damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP). A subset of neutrophils expressing ICAM-1+ neutrophils was previously shown to produce high levels of reactive oxygen species. The role of CIRP for the development and function of ICAM-1+ neutrophils during sepsis is unknown. We hypothesize that CIRP induces ICAM-1 expression in neutrophils causing injury to the lungs during sepsis. Using a mouse model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis, we found increased expression of CIRP and higher frequencies and numbers of ICAM-1+ neutrophils in the lungs...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345374/ship-negatively-regulates-type-ii-immune-responses-in-mast-cells-and-macrophages
#8
REVIEW
Peter Dobranowski, Laura M Sly
SHIP is a hematopoietic-specific lipid phosphatase that dephosphorylates PI3K-generated PI(3,4,5)-trisphosphate. SHIP removes this second messenger from the cell membrane blunting PI3K activity in immune cells. Thus, SHIP negatively regulates mast cell activation downstream of multiple receptors. SHIP has been referred to as the "gatekeeper" of mast cell degranulation as loss of SHIP dramatically increases degranulation or permits degranulation in response to normally inert stimuli. SHIP also negatively regulates Mϕ activation, including both pro-inflammatory cytokine production downstream of pattern recognition receptors, and alternative Mϕ activation by the type II cytokines, IL-4, and IL-13...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345286/cyclooxygenase-2-expression-is-induced-by-celecoxib-treatment-in-lung-cancer-cells-and-is-transferred-to-neighbor-cells-via-exosomes
#9
Jayoung Kim, Seung-Woo Hong, Seonghan Kim, Daejin Kim, Dae Young Hur, Dong-Hoon Jin, Bomi Kim, Yeong Seok Kim
Lung cancer is one of most common types of cancer worldwide. Lung cancer results in a death higher rate each year compared to colon, breast and prostate cancer combined. Celecoxib is a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX‑2), an enzyme of which the expression is induced by various stimuli, such as inflammation. In addition, celecoxib triggers COX-2 loading on exosomes. Exosomes are small vesicles composed of a lipid bilayer membrane and are found in most biological fluids, such as blood breast milk and urine...
February 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345251/cancer-associated-cachexia
#10
REVIEW
Vickie E Baracos, Lisa Martin, Murray Korc, Denis C Guttridge, Kenneth C H Fearon
Cancer-associated cachexia is a disorder characterized by loss of body weight with specific losses of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Cachexia is driven by a variable combination of reduced food intake and metabolic changes, including elevated energy expenditure, excess catabolism and inflammation. Cachexia is highly associated with cancers of the pancreas, oesophagus, stomach, lung, liver and bowel; this group of malignancies is responsible for half of all cancer deaths worldwide. Cachexia involves diverse mediators derived from the cancer cells and cells within the tumour microenvironment, including inflammatory and immune cells...
January 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345196/surfactant-protein-c-dampens-inflammation-by-decreasing-jak-stat-activation-during-lung-repair
#11
Huiyan Jin, Andrzej K Ciechanowicz, Alanna R Kaplan, Lin Wang, Ping Xia Zhang, Yi-Chien Lu, Rachel E Tobin, Brooke A Tobin, Lauren Cohn, Caroline J Zeiss, Patty J Lee, Emanuela M Bruscia, Diane S Krause
Surfactant Protein C (SPC), a key component of pulmonary surfactant, also plays a role in regulating inflammation. SPC deficiency in patients and mouse models is associated with increased inflammation and delayed repair, but the key drivers of SPC-regulated inflammation in response to injury are largely unknown. This study focuses on a new mechanism of SPC as an anti-inflammatory molecule using SPC-TK/SPC-KO (surfactant protein C-thymidine kinase/surfactant protein C knockout) mice, which represent a novel sterile injury model that mimics clinical acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344688/inflammation-based-prognostic-score-predicts-postoperative-survival-of-patients-with-interstitial-pneumonia-after-undergoing-lung-cancer-resection
#12
Satoru Kobayashi, Yuji Matsumura, Yoko Karube, Morimichi Nishihira, Takashi Inoue, Osamu Araki, Sumiko Maeda, Masayuki Chida
OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), which uses serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin levels to indicate systemic inflammatory response and nutrition level, has been reported to be a predictor of overall survival in patients with various types of cancer. We evaluated the usefulness of GPS for prediction of survival of patients with both lung cancer and IIPs following a lung resection procedure...
January 17, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343810/mitochondrial-dna-damage-and-subsequent-activation-of-z-dna-binding-protein-1-links-oxidative-stress-to-inflammation-in-epithelial-cells
#13
Bartosz Szczesny, Michela Marcatti, Akbar Ahmad, Mauro Montalbano, Attila Brunyánszki, Sofia-Iris Bibli, Andreas Papapetropoulos, Csaba Szabo
This report identifies mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a target and active mediator that links low-level oxidative stress to inflammatory response in pulmonary epithelial cells. Extrusion of mtDNA into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid occurs as an early event in mice subjected to cigarette smoke injury, concomitantly with the depletion of mtDNA in the lung tissue. In cultured lung epithelial cells, prolonged, low-level oxidative stress damages the mtDNA, without any detectable damage to the nuclear DNA. In turn, cellular depletion of the mtDNA occurs, together with a transient remodeling of cellular bioenergetics and morphology - all without any detectable impairment in overall cell viability...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343759/incorporation-of-iloprost-in-phospholipase-resistant-phospholipid-scaffold-enhances-its-barrier-protective-effects-on-pulmonary-endothelium
#14
Olga Oskolkova, Nicolene Sarich, Yufeng Tian, Grzegorz Gawlak, Fanyong Meng, Valery N Bochkov, Evgeny Berdyshev, Anna A Birukova, Konstantin G Birukov
Correction of barrier dysfunction and inflammation in acute lung injury (ALI) represents an important problem. Previous studies demonstrate barrier-protective and anti-inflammatory effects of bioactive lipid prostacyclin and its stable analog iloprost (ILO). We generated a phospholipase resistant synthetic phospholipid with iloprost attached at the sn-2 position (ILO-PC) and investigated its biological effects. In comparison to free ILO, ILO-PC caused sustained endothelial cell (EC) barrier enhancement, linked to more prolonged activation of Rap1 and Rac1 GTPases and their cytoskeletal and cell junction effectors: cortactin, PAK1, p120-catenin and VE-cadherin...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343554/biased-generation-and-in-situ-activation-of-lung-tissue-resident-memory-cd4-t-cells-in-the-pathogenesis-of-allergic-asthma
#15
Damian L Turner, Monica Goldklang, Filip Cvetkovski, Daniel Paik, Jordis Trischler, Josselyn Barahona, Minwei Cao, Ronak Dave, Nicole Tanna, Jeanine M D'Armiento, Donna L Farber
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease mediated by allergen-specific CD4 T cells that promote lung inflammation through recruitment of cellular effectors into the lung. A subset of lung T cells can persist as tissue-resident memory T cells (TRMs) following infection and allergen induction, although the generation and role of TRM in asthma persistence and pathogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we used a mouse model of chronic exposure to intranasal house dust mite (HDM) extract to dissect how lung TRMs are generated and function in the persistence and pathogenesis of allergic airway disease...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342458/glucocorticoids-modulate-th1-and-th2-responses-in-asthmatic-mouse-models-by-inhibition-of-notch1-signaling
#16
Chengping Hu, Zhifang Li, Juntao Feng, Yongjun Tang, Ling Qin, Xinyue Hu, Yan Zhang, Ruoxi He
BACKGROUND: Notch1 has been linked to the pathogenesis of asthma due to its contribution on Th1/Th2 imbalance. γ-Secretase inhibitor (GSI) acts as an effective blocker of Notch1 signaling. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the most effective anti-inflammatory drugs for asthma. The present study investigated the involvement of the Notch1 pathway in the anti-inflammatory effect of GCs and its association with Th1/Th2 balance. METHODS: The asthma model was established in BALB/c mice by sensitization with ovalbumin (OVA)...
January 18, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342164/environmental-dust-inhalation-in-the-european-badger-meles-meles-systemic-distribution-of-silica-laden-macrophages-pathological-changes-and-association-with-mycobacterium-bovis-infection-status
#17
Janne M Schoening, Leigh A L Corner, Locksley L McV Messam, Joseph P Cassidy, Alan Wolfe
Chronic inhalation of crystalline silica and silicates may lead to severe lung disease in humans, termed silicosis. The disease is an occupational health concern in miners and related professions worldwide. Silicosis is also a strong risk factor for tuberculosis in humans. Due to its subterranean lifestyle, the European badger (Meles meles) is continuously exposed to environmental dust, while this species is also susceptible to tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis. To date, a thorough investigation of mineral dust retention and its possible implication as a risk factor for mycobacterial infection in badgers has not been performed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342117/assessment-of-tspo-in-a-rat-experimental-autoimmune-myocarditis-model-a-comparison-study-between-18f-fluoromethyl-pbr28-and-18f-cb251
#18
Ga Ram Kim, Jin Chul Paeng, Jae Ho Jung, Byung Seok Moon, Antonio Lopalco, Nunzio Denora, Byung Chul Lee, Sang Eun Kim
Overexpression of the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is closely linked to inflammatory responses in the heart, including myocarditis, which can lead to myocardial necrosis. In vivo assessment of inflammatory responses has enabled the precise diagnosis of myocarditis to improve clinical outcomes. Here, we evaluated TSPO overexpression in a rat model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) compared to healthy rats using two TSPO radiotracers, [18F]fluoromethyl-PBR28 ([18F]1) and [18F]CB251 ([18F]2). All radiolabeling methods were successfully applied to an automated module for the reproducible preparation of TSPO radiotracers...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341228/bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-neutrophilia-is-associated-with-the-severity-of-pulmonary-lesions-during-equine-asthma-exacerbations
#19
M Bullone, P Joubert, A Gagné, J-Pierre Lavoie, P Hélie
BACKGROUND: The severe form of equine asthma is associated with pathological changes of the peripheral airways and pulmonary parenchyma that are only partly described. Also, the relationship between these structural alterations and the percentage of neutrophils found within the airway lumen, assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology, remains ill-defined. OBJECTIVE: To examine the histological lesions associated with equine asthma during disease exacerbation and remission, and their relationship with lung function and BALF neutrophilia...
January 17, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341114/recombinant-human-hepatocyte-growth-factor-provides-protective-effects-in-celurein-induced-acute-pancreatitis-in-mice
#20
Mayrel Palestino-Domínguez, Mario Pelaez-Luna, Roberto Lazzarini-Lechuga, Ignacio Rodríguez-Ochoa, Verónica Souza, Roxana U Miranda, Benjamín Pérez-Aguilar, Leticia Bucio, Jens U Marquardt, Luis Enrique Gomez-Quiroz, María Concepción Gutiérrez-Ruiz
Acute pancreatitis is a multifactorial disease associated with profound changes of the pancreas induced by release of digestive enzymes that lead to increase in proinflammatory cytokine production, excessive tissue necrosis, edema, and bleeding. Elevated levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor c-Met have been observed in different chronic and acute pancreatic diseases including experimental models of acute pancreatitis. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects induced by the recombinant human HGF in a mouse model of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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