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Lung inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775687/effects-of-bronchodilation-on-biomarkers-of-peripheral-airway-inflammation-in-copd
#1
Pierachille Santus, Dejan Radovanovic, Susanna Mascetti, Alessia Pauletti, Vincenzo Valenti, Marco Mantero, Alberto Papi, Marco Contoli
Peripheral airway inflammation and dysfunction are key elements in the pathogenesis of COPD. The exhaled alveolar fraction of nitric oxide (CANO) is an indirect biomarker of lung peripheral inflammation. We tested whether inhaled long-acting bronchodilators (LABA) can affect CANO and we evaluated correlations with lung mechanics in patients with COPD. Two-centre, randomised, double blind, crossover study including COPD patients with moderate-to-severe airflow obstruction. Following a pharmacological washout, multi-flow exhaled fraction of NO (FENO), plethysmography, lung diffusion (DLCO), single breath nitrogen washout test and dyspnoea were measured in a crossover manner at baseline and 30, 60 and 180 minutes following administration of salmeterol (Sal) or formoterol fumarate (FF)...
May 15, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775400/evaluating-the-cytotoxicity-of-tin-dioxide-nanofibers
#2
Ashley S Reynolds, Tanya H Pierre, Rebecca McCall, Ji Wu, Worlanyo E Gato
Tin dioxide nanofibers (SnDNFs) are small fibers that have many applications. Tin dioxide nanofibers can be used in cosmetics, solar cells, toxic gas release sensors, and air pollution control. To date there have been few studies on the cytotoxicity of SnDNFs. The goal of this research is to determine if electrospun SnDNFs are toxic in a lung cancer cell line (A549). Considering the nano-scale size of the fibers, they can easily be inhaled and enter the pulmonary system and cause toxic effects in the lung. Occupational exposure to SnDNFs has been linked to pulmonary disease, making the A549 cell line important in this study...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775223/curcumin-down-regulates-il-17a-mediated-p53-fibrinolytic-system-in-bleomycin-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-vivo
#3
Mahesh M Gouda, Yashodhar P Bhandary
Bleomycin (BLM) induced cellular damage causes inflammation in the alveolar compartment and impairment of fibrinolytic system leads to alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis. Here, we describe novel inflammatory pathway associated with p53-fibrinolytic system and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells and pharmacological efficiency of curcumin against this action. In the present study we used C57BL/6 mice. The specific dose and time interval of curcumin were analyzed to assess the intervention. Experiments were designed to investigate the IL-17A mediated modulation in the alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis and injury...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774097/natriuretic-peptides-system-in-the-pulmonary-tissue-of-rats-with-heart-failure-potential-involvement-in-lung-edema-and-inflammation
#4
Emad E Khoury, Safa Kinaneh, Doron Aronson, Offer Amir, Diab Ghanim, Natalia Volinsky, Zaher Azzam, Zaid Abassi
Congestive heart failure (CHF) often leads to progressive cardiac hypertrophy and salt/water retention as evident by peripheral and lung edema. Although the pathogenesis of CHF remains largely unclarified, it is widely accepted that neurohormonal changes and inflammatory processes are profoundly involved in structural and functional deterioration of vital organs including, heart, kidney and lungs. Corin, a cardiac serine protease, is responsible for converting pro-ANP and pro-BNP to biologically active natriuretic peptides (NPs)...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772098/insights-in-particulate-matter-induced-allergic-airway-inflammation-focus-on-the-epithelium
#5
Katrien C De Grove, Sharen Provoost, Guy G Brusselle, Guy F Joos, Tania Maes
Outdoor air pollution is a major environmental health problem throughout the world. In particular, exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with the development and exacerbation of several respiratory diseases, including asthma. Although the adverse health effects of PM have been demonstrated for many years, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully identified. In this review, we focus on the role of the lung epithelium and specifically highlight multiple cytokines in PM-induced respiratory responses...
May 17, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772024/use-of-human-amniotic-epithelial-cells-in-mouse-models-of-bleomycin-induced-lung-fibrosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Fang He, Aiting Zhou, Shuo Feng
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) urgently requires effective treatment. Bleomycin-induced lung injury models are characterized by initial inflammation and secondary fibrosis, consistent with the pathological features of IPF. Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) exhibit good differentiation potential and paracrine activity and are thus ideal for cell-based clinical therapies. The therapeutic effects of hAECs on lung fibrosis are attributed to many factors. We performed a systematic review of preclinical studies investigating the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis with hAECs to provide suggestions for their clinical use...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771950/biophotonic-detection-of-high-order-chromatin-alterations-in-field-carcinogenesis-predicts-risk-of-future-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-pilot-study
#7
Richard Kalman, Andrew Stawarz, David Nunes, Di Zhang, Mart A Dela Cruz, Arpan Mohanty, Hariharan Subramanian, Vadim Backman, Hemant K Roy
PURPOSE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) results from chronic inflammation/cirrhosis. Unfortunately, despite use of radiological/serological screening techniques, HCC ranks as a leading cause of cancer deaths. Our group has used alterations in high order chromatin as a marker for field carcinogenesis and hence risk for a variety of cancers (including colon, lung, prostate, ovarian, esophageal). In this study we wanted to address whether these chromatin alterations occur in HCC and if it could be used for risk stratification...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771572/inhibition-of-ubiquitin-activating-enzyme-protects-against-organ-injury-after-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion
#8
Shingo Matsuo, Andrew Chaung, Deanna Liou, Ping Wang, Weng-Lang Yang
Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) occurs in various clinical settings, such as transplantation, acute mesenteric arterial occlusion, trauma and shock. I/R injury causes severe systemic inflammation, leading to multiple organ dysfunction associated with high mortality. The ubiquitin proteasome pathway has been indicated in the regulation of inflammation, particularly through NF-κB signaling pathway. PYR-41 is a small molecular compound that selectively inhibits ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. A mouse model of intestinal I/R injury by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 45 minutes was performed to evaluate the effect of PYR-41 treatment on organ injury and inflammation...
May 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770701/mk2-mediates-macrophage-activation-and-acute-lung-injury-by-regulating-let-7e-mirna
#9
Yaxian Wu, Huiqiong He, Yunhe Ding, Sirui Liu, Depeng Zhang, Jun Wang, Hongchao Jiang, Dan Zhang, Lei Sun, Richard D Ye, Feng Qian
MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) plays a critical role in the development of inflammation. However, the modulatory mechanisms in macrophage activation and acute lung injury (ALI) haven't been completely defined. Here, we reported that MK2 deficient mice (MK2-/-) protected against sepsis-induced ALI. In response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, MK2-/- mice and myeloid cell-specific MK2 conditional knockout mice (MK2Lyz2-KO) exhibited attenuated inflammatory response, especially producing fewer amounts of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2)...
May 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769485/changes-of-peak-expiratory-flow-rate-in-adult-asthmatic-patient
#10
S Nasreen, A Nessa, F Islam, A Khanam, R Sultana, R Rahman, M Hossain
Asthma is a common pulmonary disorder characterizerized by airway inflammation, airway- hyper reactivity, and reversible airflow obstruction. The classic triad of symptoms is wheezing, chronic episodic dyspnea and chronic cough. The prevalence of asthma increased steadily over the latter part of the last century, first in the developed and then in the developing world. The number of people with asthma in the world may be as high as 334 million. Asthma in Bangladesh appears to be a substantial public health problem: an estimated 11...
April 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769163/dauricine-combined-with-clindamycin-inhibits-severe-pneumonia-co-infected-by-influenza-virus-h5n1-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#11
Hui Li, Xin Chen, Shu-Jun Zhou
Dauricine, isolated from Menispermum dauricum, has been widely used for treatment of various diseases, including cardiac ischemia and inflammation-related diseases. However, little is known regarding to the effect of dauricine on severe pneumonia. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the effect of dauricine on severe pneumonia and its mechanism during progress. Herein, H5N1 and Streptococcus pneumoniae (D39) were conducted to induce severe pneumonia in both BEAS-2B cells and mice. In vitro, dauricine reversed the protein and mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, examined by ELISA and qRT-PCR assay, respectively...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768688/ppar-%C3%AE-in-innate-and-adaptive-lung-immunity
#12
REVIEW
Samuel Philip Nobs, Manfred Kopf
The transcription factor PPAR-γ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) is a key regulator of lung immunity exhibiting multiple cell type specific roles in controlling development and function of the lung immune system. It is strictly required for the generation of alveolar macrophages by controlling differentiation of fetal lung monocyte precursors. Furthermore, it plays an important role in lung allergic inflammation by licensing lung dendritic cell t helper 2 (Th2) priming capacity as well as acting as a master transcription factor for pathogenic Th2 cells...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768540/effect-of-melatonin-on-antioxidant-capacity-%C3%A4-nflammation-and-apoptotic-cell-death-in-lung-tissue-of-diabetic-rats
#13
Didem Onk, Oruç Alper Onk, Hüseyin Serkan Erol, Mustafa Özkaraca, Selim Çomaklı, Tülin Akarsu Ayazoğlu, Ufuk Kuyrukluyıldız, Süheyla Ünver
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of melatonin on antioxidant capacity, inflammation and apoptotic cell death (through expression of cleaved-caspase 3) in lung tissue samples of diabetic rats. METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (control group) was made up of healthy rats. Group 2 (diabetes group) received streptozotocin at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 5 days.Group 3 (diabetes plus melatonin group) received streptozotocin at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 5 days and then they received melatonin at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day between 28thand 35thdays of the study...
April 2018: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768369/pembrolizumab-induced-acute-thrombosis-a-case-report
#14
Kei Kunimasa, Kazumi Nishino, Madoka Kimura, Takako Inoue, Motohiro Tamiya, Toru Kumagai, Fumio Imamura
RATIONALE: Acute thrombosis has not been reported in the literature so far in lung cancer patients as an immune-related adverse event (irAE) associated with PD-1 pathway inhibitors. PATIENTS CONCERNS: Here, we for the first time present two NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer) patients suffering from acute thrombosis as a pembrolizumab-induced irAE. Immediate treatment with continuous heparin infusion improved their symptoms and enabled them to continue pembrolizumab administration...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768218/microrna-1247-inhibits-lipopolysaccharides-induced-acute-pneumonia-in-a549-cells-via-targeting-cc-chemokine-ligand-16
#15
Jinjing Guo, Ying Cheng
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the potential roles and mechanism of miR-1247 in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced acute pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The miR-1247 expression in acute stage patients with infantile pneumonia was detected. To establish the cell model of acute pneumonia, A549 cells were treated with 1 mg/mL lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The effects of miR-1247 dysregulation on the cell viability, apoptosis, inflammation and autophagy of LPS-induced A549 cells were investigated...
May 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767563/integrative-physiology-of-pneumonia
#16
Lee J Quinton, Allan J Walkey, Joseph P Mizgerd
Pneumonia is a type of acute lower respiratory infection that is common and severe. The outcome of lower respiratory infection is determined by the degrees to which immunity is protective and inflammation is damaging. Intercellular and interorgan signaling networks coordinate these actions to fight infection and protect the tissue. Cells residing in the lung initiate and steer these responses, with additional immunity effectors recruited from the bloodstream. Responses of extrapulmonary tissues, including the liver, bone marrow, and others, are essential to resistance and resilience...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766980/ripasudil-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-lps-mediated-apoptosis-and-inflammation-in-pulmonary-microvascular-endothelial-cells-via-rock2-enos-signaling
#17
Jianxin Yang, Feng Ruan, Zhongjun Zheng
BACKGROUND Microvascular endothelial inflammation and apoptosis are responsible for septic acute lung injury (ALI). Ripasudil is a novel Rho/Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor which shows therapeutic effects on several vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects and correlated molecular mechanisms of ripasudil on lipopolysaccharide- induced inflammation and apoptosis of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs). MATERIAL AND METHODS Cultured PMVECs were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
May 16, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766753/toxicity-of-pristine-and-paint-embedded-tio-2-nanomaterials
#18
A T Saber, A Mortensen, J Szarek, N R Jacobsen, M Levin, I K Koponen, K A Jensen, U Vogel, H Wallin
Little is known on the toxicity of nanomaterials in the user phase. Inclusion of nanomaterials in paints is a common nanotechnology application. This study focuses on the toxicity of dusts from sanding of paints containing nanomaterials. We compared the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanomaterials (TiO2 NMs) and dusts generated by sanding boards coated with paints with different amounts of two different types of uncoated TiO2 NMs (diameters:10.5 nm and 38 nm). Mice were intratracheally instilled with a single dose of 18, 54 and 162 µg of TiO2 NMs or 54, 162 and 486 µg of sanding dusts...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766487/inhaled-corticosteroids-for-bronchiectasis
#19
REVIEW
Nitin Kapur, Helen L Petsky, Scott Bell, John Kolbe, Anne B Chang
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is being increasingly diagnosed and recognised as an important contributor to chronic lung disease in both adults and children in high- and low-income countries. It is characterised by irreversible dilatation of airways and is generally associated with airway inflammation and chronic bacterial infection. Medical management largely aims to reduce morbidity by controlling the symptoms, reduce exacerbation frequency, improve quality of life and prevent the progression of bronchiectasis...
May 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765562/a-myriad-of-roles-of-mir-25-in-health-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
Márta Sárközy, Zsuzsanna Kahán, Tamás Csont
Small non-coding RNAs including microRNAs (miRNAs) have been recently recognized as important regulators of gene expression. MicroRNAs play myriads of roles in physiological processes as well as in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases by translational repression or mRNA destabilization of numerous target genes. The miR-106b-25 cluster is highly conserved in vertebrates and consists of three members including miR-106b, miR-93 and miR-25. MiR-106b and miR-93 share the same seed sequences; however, miR-25 has only a similar seed sequence resulting in different predicted target mRNAs...
April 20, 2018: Oncotarget
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