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Tumor necrosis factor

Guo-Ying Sun, Hui-Hui Yang, Xin-Xin Guan, Wen-Jing Zhong, Yong-Ping Liu, Ming-Yuan Du, Xiao-Qin Luo, Yong Zhou, Cha-Xiang Guan
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the lungs with various biological characters. We have reported that VIP inhibited the expressions of TREM-1 and IL-17A, which are involved in the initiation and amplification of inflammation in acute lung injury (ALI). However, the overall effect of VIP on ALI remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of VIP mediated by lentivirus (Lenti-VIP) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine ALI. We found that the expression of intrapulmonary VIP peaked at day7 after the intratracheal injection of Lenti-VIP...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Francisco S Barreto, Adriano J M Chaves Filho, Márcia C C R de Araújo, Manoel O de Moraes, Maria E A de Moraes, Michael Maes, David F de Lucena, Danielle S Macedo
Both depression and cancer are related to a dysregulation of inflammatory and immune pathways. Indeed, depression is associated with increased expression of interferon-γ, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). In contrast, reductions of the activity of major histocompatibility complex protein molecules - class I and class II and natural killer cells are also observed. Similarly, cancers present elevated levels of TNF-α, reduced major histocompatibility complex class I and II, and natural killer cells...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Yuko Arita, Michael Kirk, Neha Gupta, Ramkumar Menon, Darios Getahun, Morgan R Peltier
OBJECTIVE: Tributyltin (TBT) is a persistent pollutant but its effects on placental function are poorly understood as are its possible interactions with infection. We hypothesized that TBT alters the production of sex hormones and biomarkers for inflammation and neurodevelopment in an infection-dependent manner. METHODS: Placental explant cultures were treated with 0-5000 nM TBT in the presence and absence of Escherichia coli. A conditioned medium was harvested and concentrations of steroids (progesterone, P4; testosterone, T and estradiol, E2) as well as biomarkers of inflammation [interleukin (IL)-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-10, IL-6, soluble glycoprotein 130 (sgp-130) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)], oxidative stress [8-iso-prostaglandin (8-IsoP)] and neurodevelopment [brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)] were quantified...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Keiichi Koizumi, Minako Hoshiai, Nobuyuki Katsumata, Takako Toda, Hiroaki Kise, Yohei Hasebe, Yosuke Kono, Yuto Sunaga, Masashi Yoshizawa, Atsushi Watanabe, Keiko Kagami, Masako Abe, Kanji Sugita
BACKGROUND: The effect of infliximab (IFX) on immune cells has not been fully reported in Kawasaki disease (KD). To investigate the mechanism of IFX in KD, we examined changes in the abundance of CD14+ CD16+ activated monocytes, regulatory T cells (Treg ), and T-helper cell type 17 (Th17) cells following treatment with IFX. METHODS: We collected peripheral blood from patients with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)-resistant KD and analyzed the absolute counts of CD14+ CD16+ monocytes, Treg cells (CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ ) and Th17 cells (CD4+ IL-17A+ ) by flow cytometry...
March 15, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Christian Leporini, Emilio Russo, Salvatore D'Angelo, Franco Arturi, Giovanni Tripepi, Rosario Peluso, Rosa Daniela Grembiale, Ignazio Olivieri, Giovambattista De Sarro, Francesco Ursini
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with insulin resistance (IR), a well-established pathophysiological feature of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Inconsistent literature evidence suggests that IR could be ameliorated by biological medications targeting TNFα. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of TNFα inhibitors (TNFi) on IR in RA patients. METHODS: We performed a systematic review in order to identify the available data on the effect of anti-TNFα medications on IR in RA patients...
March 13, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Yingying Liu, Yudiao Huang, Yueyue Xu, Peng Qu, Minghua Wang
Increased transendothelial permeability and subsequent blood-brain barrier damage play a key role in the pathological progression of human brain ischemia and secondary reperfusion. Memantine is a licensed drug providing clinically relevant efficacy in patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, little information is known regarding its effects on brain endothelial permeability. In this study, we investigated the effects of memantine on endothelial permeability and the underlying mechanisms in an ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury model in primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells...
March 15, 2018: IUBMB Life
Xun Yuan, Ambikai Gajan, Qian Chu, Hua Xiong, Kongming Wu, Gen Sheng Wu
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the TNF superfamily that can initiate the apoptosis pathway by binding to its associated death receptors DR4 and DR5. The activation of the TRAIL pathway in inducing tumor-selective apoptosis leads to the development of TRAIL-based cancer therapies, which include recombinant forms of TRAIL, TRAIL receptor agonists, and other therapeutic agents. Importantly, TRAIL, DR4, and DR5 can all be induced by synthetic and natural agents that activate the TRAIL apoptosis pathway in cancer cells...
March 14, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Paulino Alvarez, Alexandros Briasoulis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune system activation plays a central role in heart failure progression. Large-scale immune modulatory clinical trials targeting tumor necrosis factor-α and broad spectrum immune modulation have been negative. The objective of this review is to highlight past, present, and what is in the horizon for the immunomodulation in heart failure with a focus of biologics. RECENT FINDINGS: Strategies targeting interleukin-1 pathway are currently undergoing clinical evaluation and data from pilot studies are promising...
March 15, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Tomohiro Hirose, Yuri Fukuma, Ayumu Takeshita, Keiichiro Nishida
BACKGROUND: The role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in the inflammatory response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is well established, whereas less is known about the role of TNF's close homolog, lymphotoxin alpha (LTα). FINDINGS: Increased levels of LTα are found in the serum and synovial tissue of patients with RA, and in vitro studies found that LTα-induced proliferation of RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes was at a similar level to TNF. These findings support the idea that anti-LTα treatment could be beneficial in patients with RA, but pateclizumab, an anti-LTα antibody, was not as efficacious as the anti-TNF agent adalimumab in reducing symptoms of RA in a head-to-head study, suggesting that anti-LTα therapies might not represent a valid alternative treatment option in patients with RA...
March 14, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Antonella Mancusi, Sara Piccinelli, Andrea Velardi, Antonio Pierini
FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a subset of CD4+ T cells that can suppress proliferation and effector functions of T cells, B cells, NK cells, and antigen-presenting cells. Treg deficiency causes dramatic immunologic disease in both animal models and humans. As they are capable to suppress the function and the proliferation of conventional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, Treg-based cell therapies are under evaluation for the treatment of various autoimmune diseases and are currently employed to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in clinical trials of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Fan Wu, Jinying Zhang
Epidemiological studies have confirmed that ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) exposure is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the underlying mechanisms in PM2.5 exposure-induced heart injury are largely unknown. It has been acknowledged that NADPH oxidase (Nox) 4 plays a critical role in CVD development. To investigate the acute effects of PM2.5 on the mouse heart and the role of Nox4 in PM2.5 exposure-induced cardiac injury, C57BL/6J mice were instilled with saline or 1.5, 3.0, 6...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Xiaoxing Kou, Xingtian Xu, Chider Chen, Maria Laura Sanmillan, Tao Cai, Yanheng Zhou, Claudio Giraudo, Anh Le, Songtao Shi
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of secreting exosomes, extracellular vesicles, and cytokines to regulate cell and tissue homeostasis. However, it is unknown whether MSCs use a specific exocytotic fusion mechanism to secrete exosomes and cytokines. We show that Fas binds with Fas-associated phosphatase-1 (Fap-1) and caveolin-1 (Cav-1) to activate a common soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-mediated membrane fusion mechanism to release small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) in MSCs...
March 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Huisheng Wu, Chaoliang Tang, Lydia Wai Tai, Weifeng Yao, Peipei Guo, Junmou Hong, Xin Yang, Xinyi Li, Zhao Jin, Jianjuan Ke, Yanlin Wang
Background & Aims:  Ischemic stroke has been ranked the second cause of death in patients worldwide.Inflammation which is activated during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion is an important mechanism leading to brain injury. This study aimed to investigate the effect of flurbiprofen axetil on cerebral I/R injury and the role of inflammation in this process. Methods:  Rats were subjected to sham operation or global cerebral I/R with or without flurbiprofen axetil (5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg). Global cerebral ischemia was achieved by occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries combined with hypotension for 20 min followed by reperfusion for 72 h...
March 14, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Thenappan Thenappan, Mark L Ormiston, John J Ryan, Stephen L Archer
Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25 mm Hg or above. This review deals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a type of pulmonary hypertension that primarily affects the pulmonary vasculature. In PAH, the pulmonary vasculature is dynamically obstructed by vasoconstriction, structurally obstructed by adverse vascular remodeling, and pathologically non-compliant as a result of vascular fibrosis and stiffening. Many cell types are abnormal in PAH, including vascular cells (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts) and inflammatory cells...
March 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Mei Jiang, Xinghui Liu, Denghai Zhang, Ying Wang, Xiaoxia Hu, Fengxia Xu, Mingming Jin, Fanfan Cao, Limin Xu
BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the most common type of cerebrovascular disease and is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Recently, a study suggested that transformation of microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 state to the anti-inflammatory and tissue-reparative M2 phenotype may be an effective therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. Celastrol, a traditional oriental medicine, may have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Kai Wang, Dongmei Zhang, Yan Liu, Xuan Wang, Jiantong Zhao, Tingting Sun, Tingting Jin, Baoli Li, Janak L Pathak
BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula Bi-Qi capsule (Bi-Qi) is a commonly prescribed drug to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the mechanism of Bi-Qi-mediated amelioration of RA pathogenesis is still a mystery. Collagen induced arthritis (CIA) in rats is an established model that shares many similarities with RA in humans. In this study we investigated the effect of Bi-Qi on the pathogenesis of CIA in rats. METHODS: CIA was developed in Sprague-Dawley (S...
March 14, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Alexandra Okihiro, Rachana Hasija, Lillia Fung, Bonnie Cameron, Brian M Feldman, Ronald Laxer, Rayfel Schneider, Earl Silverman, Lynn Spiegel, Rae S M Yeung, Shirley M L Tse
BACKGROUND: Anti-TNF (Tumor necrosis factor) therapy is effective in treating pediatric patients with refractory rheumatic disease. There is however a concern that anti-TNF usage may increase the risk of malignancy. Reports on specific types of malignancy in this patient population have been emerging over the past decade, but there is a need for additional malignancy reports, as these events are rare. Therefore, a retrospective chart review was performed on the biologic database of pediatric rheumatology patients at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) from 1997 to 2013 for neoplasms, patient demographic information and rheumatologic treatment course...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
Ya-Ping Chen, Cui Tong, Wen-Quan Lu, Yun-Heng Shen, Zhi-Jun Wu, Wan-Sheng Chen
Three new sesquiterpenes: 4-acrylic-6-methyl-α-tetralone (1), ainsliaea acid A (2) and ainsliaea acid B (3), together with 8 known compounds (4-11) were isolated from the whole herb of Ainsliaea glabra and their structures were established by means of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HR-ESIMS. Compounds 1-6 were tested for the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the 293-NF-κB-luciferase reporter cell line induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and compound 2 was further tested for the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and IL-10 in RAW264...
March 14, 2018: Natural Product Research
Shimpei Shirai, Megumi Hara, Yasuhisa Sakata, Nanae Tsuruoka, Koji Yamamoto, Ryo Shimoda, Yasuyuki Gomi, Hironori Yoshii, Kazuma Fujimoto, Ryuichi Iwakiri
Background and Aims: No reports have described the immunogenicity and boosting effect of the quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (QIV) in adults with inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: Adults with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis were randomly assigned to a single vaccination group or booster group, and a QIV was administered subcutaneously. Serum samples were collected before vaccination, 4 weeks after vaccination, and after the influenza season in the single vaccination group...
March 9, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Denise C Hsu, Kimberly F Breglio, Luxin Pei, Chun-Shu Wong, Bruno B Andrade, Virginia Sheikh, Margery Smelkinson, Constantinos Petrovas, Adam Rupert, Leonardo Gil-Santana, Adrian Zelazny, Steven M Holland, Kenneth Olivier, Daniel Barber, Irini Sereti
Background: Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an aberrant inflammatory response in individuals with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. The pathogenesis of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-associated IRIS has not been fully elucidated. Methods: We investigated monocyte and CD4+ T-cell responses in vitro, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) expression in tissues, and plasma cytokines and inflammatory markers, in 13 HIV-infected patients with MAC-IRIS and 14 HIV-uninfected patients with pulmonary MAC infection...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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