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James cavanagh

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709580/increased-conflict-induced-slowing-but-no-differences-in-conflict-induced-positive-or-negative-prediction-error-learning-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#1
Matthew A Albrecht, James A Waltz, James F Cavanagh, Michael J Frank, James M Gold
People with schizophrenia (PSZ) often fail to pursue rewarding activities despite largely intact in-the-moment hedonic experiences. Deficits in effort-based decision making in PSZ may be related to enhanced effects of cost or reduced reward, i.e., through the amplification of negative prediction errors or by dampened positive prediction errors (here, positive and negative prediction errors refer to outcomes that are better or worse than expected respectively). We administered a modified Simon task to people with schizophrenia (PSZ; N=46) and healthy controls (N=32)...
April 27, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626340/neuroimmune-biomarkers-in-mental-illness
#2
James W Herron, Louis Nerurkar, Jonathan Cavanagh
Exploration of neuroimmune mechanisms is vital to the understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of mental disorders. Inflammatory and immune mechanisms are increasingly understood to underpin a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, with an ever-expanding evidence base drawn from basic science to large-scale epidemiological data. Unravelling of these mechanisms should lead to biomarker discovery and potential new avenues for therapeutics that modulate immunological mechanisms. Identification of neuroimmune biomarkers is vital to improving diagnosis, stratification and treatment of mental disorders...
April 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569219/dopamine-d2-agonist-affects-visuospatial-working-memory-distractor-interference-depending-on-individual-differences-in-baseline-working-memory-span
#3
James M Broadway, Michael J Frank, James F Cavanagh
The interplay of dopaminergic striatal D1-D2 circuits is thought to support working memory (WM) by selectively filtering information that is to be remembered versus information to be ignored. To test this theory, we conducted an experiment in which healthy participants performed a visuospatial working memory (VSWM) task after ingesting the D2-receptor agonist cabergoline (or placebo), in a randomized, double-blinded, crossover design. Results showed greater interference from distractors under cabergoline, particularly for individuals with higher baseline dopamine (indicated by WM span)...
March 22, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505851/rewarding-images-do-not-invoke-the-reward-positivity-they-inflate-it
#4
Darin R Brown, James F Cavanagh
Increasing evidence suggests that the reward positivity conforms to an axiomatic reward prediction error - that is, it closely follows the rule-like encoding of surprising reinforcers. However, a major limitation in these EEG studies is the over-reliance on a single class of secondary rewards like points or money, constraining dimensionality and limiting generalizability. In the current suite of studies we address this limitation by leveraging different classes of rewards outcomes, specifically emotionally pleasant pictures...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444813/-teosinte-branched1-regulates-inflorescence-architecture-and-development-in-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum
#5
Laura E Dixon, Julian R Greenwood, Stefano Bencivenga, Peng Zhang, James Cockram, Gregory Mellers, Kerrie Ramm, Colin Cavanagh, Steve M Swain, Scott A Boden
The flowers of major cereals are arranged on reproductive branches known as spikelets, which group together to form an inflorescence. Diversity for inflorescence architecture has been exploited during domestication to increase crop yields, and genetic variation for this trait has potential to further boost grain production. Multiple genes that regulate inflorescence architecture have been identified by studying alleles that modify gene activity or dosage; however, little is known in wheat. Here, we show TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 ( TB1 ) regulates inflorescence architecture in bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) by investigating lines that display a form of inflorescence branching known as "paired spikelets...
March 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209195/the-patient-repository-for-eeg-data-computational-tools-pred-ct
#6
James F Cavanagh, Arthur Napolitano, Christopher Wu, Abdullah Mueen
Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings are thought to reflect the network-wide operations of canonical neural computations, making them a uniquely insightful measure of brain function. As evidence of these virtues, numerous candidate biomarkers of different psychiatric and neurological diseases have been advanced. Presumably, we would only need to apply powerful machine-learning methods to validate these ideas and provide novel clinical tools. Yet, the reality of this advancement is more complex: the scale of data required for robust and reliable identification of a clinical biomarker transcends the ability of any single laboratory...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023805/intracranial-source-activity-eloreta-related-to-scalp-level-asymmetry-scores-and-depression-status
#7
Ezra E Smith, James F Cavanagh, John J B Allen
Frontal EEG alpha asymmetry provides a promising index of depression risk, yet very little is known about the neural sources of alpha asymmetry. To identify these sources, this study examined alpha asymmetry using a distributed inverse solution: exact low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA). Findings implicated a generator in lateral midfrontal regions that contributed to both surface asymmetry and depression risk. Participants with any lifetime history of depressive episodes were characterized by less left than right activity in the precentral gyrus and midfrontal gyrus...
January 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871288/error-specific-cognitive-control-alterations-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#8
James F Cavanagh, Alexandria Meyer, Greg Hajcak
BACKGROUND: Trait anxiety is reliably associated with enhanced neural responses following errors: meta analyses have described how the electrophysiological response to errors known as the Error-Related Negativity (ERN) is increased in anxious individuals, particularly in relation to worry. The ERN has been related to a broader class of control signals, particularly via a common theta band denominator, but it is unknown whether worry relates to these alternative medial frontal metrics...
July 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726287/the-sound-and-the-fury-late-positive-potential-is-sensitive-to-sound-affect
#9
Darin R Brown, James F Cavanagh
Emotion is an emergent construct of multiple distinct neural processes. EEG is uniquely sensitive to real-time neural computations, and thus is a promising tool to study the construction of emotion. This series of studies aimed to probe the mechanistic contribution of the late positive potential (LPP) to multimodal emotion perception. Experiment 1 revealed that LPP amplitudes for visual images, sounds, and visual images paired with sounds were larger for negatively rated stimuli than for neutrally rated stimuli...
December 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394352/spatial-heterogeneity-in-medulloblastoma
#10
A Sorana Morrissy, Florence M G Cavalli, Marc Remke, Vijay Ramaswamy, David J H Shih, Borja L Holgado, Hamza Farooq, Laura K Donovan, Livia Garzia, Sameer Agnihotri, Erin N Kiehna, Eloi Mercier, Chelsea Mayoh, Simon Papillon-Cavanagh, Hamid Nikbakht, Tenzin Gayden, Jonathon Torchia, Daniel Picard, Diana M Merino, Maria Vladoiu, Betty Luu, Xiaochong Wu, Craig Daniels, Stuart Horswell, Yuan Yao Thompson, Volker Hovestadt, Paul A Northcott, David T W Jones, John Peacock, Xin Wang, Stephen C Mack, Jüri Reimand, Steffen Albrecht, Adam M Fontebasso, Nina Thiessen, Yisu Li, Jacqueline E Schein, Darlene Lee, Rebecca Carlsen, Michael Mayo, Kane Tse, Angela Tam, Noreen Dhalla, Adrian Ally, Eric Chuah, Young Cheng, Patrick Plettner, Haiyan I Li, Richard D Corbett, Tina Wong, William Long, James Loukides, Pawel Buczkowicz, Cynthia E Hawkins, Uri Tabori, Brian R Rood, John S Myseros, Roger J Packer, Andrey Korshunov, Peter Lichter, Marcel Kool, Stefan M Pfister, Ulrich Schüller, Peter Dirks, Annie Huang, Eric Bouffet, James T Rutka, Gary D Bader, Charles Swanton, Yusanne Ma, Richard A Moore, Andrew J Mungall, Jacek Majewski, Steven J M Jones, Sunit Das, David Malkin, Nada Jabado, Marco A Marra, Michael D Taylor
Spatial heterogeneity of transcriptional and genetic markers between physically isolated biopsies of a single tumor poses major barriers to the identification of biomarkers and the development of targeted therapies that will be effective against the entire tumor. We analyzed the spatial heterogeneity of multiregional biopsies from 35 patients, using a combination of transcriptomic and genomic profiles. Medulloblastomas (MBs), but not high-grade gliomas (HGGs), demonstrated spatially homogeneous transcriptomes, which allowed for accurate subgrouping of tumors from a single biopsy...
May 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384481/cognitive-states-influence-dopamine-driven-aberrant-learning-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
James F Cavanagh, Andrea A Mueller, Darin R Brown, Jacqueline R Janowich, Jacqueline H Story-Remer, Ashley Wegele, Sarah Pirio Richardson
Individual differences in dopaminergic tone underlie tendencies to learn from reward versus punishment. These effects are well documented in Parkinson's patients, who vacillate between low and high tonic dopaminergic states as a function of medication. Yet very few studies have investigated the influence of higher-level cognitive states known to affect downstream dopaminergic learning in Parkinson's patients. A dopamine-dependent cognitive influence over learning would provide a candidate mechanism for declining cognitive integrity and motivation in Parkinson's patients...
May 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138218/evaluation-of-a-2-aminoimidazole-variant-as-adjuvant-treatment-for-dermal-bacterial-infections
#12
G Logan Draughn, C Leigh Allen, Patricia A Routh, Maria R Stone, Kelly R Kirker, Laura Boegli, Ryan M Schuchman, Keith E Linder, Ronald E Baynes, Garth James, Christian Melander, Angela Pollard, John Cavanagh
2-Aminoimidazole (2-AI)-based compounds have been shown to efficiently disrupt biofilm formation, disperse existing biofilms, and resensitize numerous multidrug-resistant bacteria to antibiotics. Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, we provide initial pharmacological studies regarding the application of a 2-AI as a topical adjuvant for persistent dermal infections. In vitro assays indicated that the 2-AI H10 is nonbactericidal, resensitizes bacteria to antibiotics, does not harm the integument, and promotes wound healing...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928040/biodiversity-in-the-anthropocene-prospects-and-policy
#13
REVIEW
Nathalie Seddon, Georgina M Mace, Shahid Naeem, Joseph A Tobias, Alex L Pigot, Rachel Cavanagh, David Mouillot, James Vause, Matt Walpole
Meeting the ever-increasing needs of the Earth's human population without excessively reducing biological diversity is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, suggesting that new approaches to biodiversity conservation are required. One idea rapidly gaining momentum-as well as opposition-is to incorporate the values of biodiversity into decision-making using economic methods. Here, we develop several lines of argument for how biodiversity might be valued, building on recent developments in natural science, economics and science-policy processes...
December 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854457/visual-attention-is-required-for-multiple-object-tracking
#14
Annie Tran, James E Hoffman
In the multiple object tracking task, participants attempt to keep track of a moving set of target objects embedded in an identical set of moving distractors. Depending on several display parameters, observers are usually only able to accurately track 3 to 4 objects. Various proposals attribute this limit to a fixed number of discrete indexes (Pylyshyn, 1989), limits in visual attention (Cavanagh & Alvarez, 2005), or "architectural limits" in visual cortical areas (Franconeri, 2013). The present set of experiments examined the specific role of visual attention in tracking using a dual-task methodology in which participants tracked objects while identifying letter probes appearing on the tracked objects and distractors...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460144/frontostriatal-anatomical-connections-predict-age-and-difficulty-related-differences-in-reinforcement-learning
#15
Irene van de Vijver, K Richard Ridderinkhof, Helga Harsay, Liesbeth Reneman, James F Cavanagh, Jessika I V Buitenweg, Michael X Cohen
Reinforcement learning (RL) is supported by a network of striatal and frontal cortical structures that are connected through white-matter fiber bundles. With age, the integrity of these white-matter connections declines. The role of structural frontostriatal connectivity in individual and age-related differences in RL is unclear, although local white-matter density and diffusivity have been linked to individual differences in RL. Here we show that frontostriatal tract counts in young human adults (aged 18-28), as assessed noninvasively with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and probabilistic tractography, positively predicted individual differences in RL when learning was difficult (70% valid feedback)...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417205/startle-habituation-and-midfrontal-theta-activity-in-parkinson-disease
#16
Kuan-Hua Chen, Katrina L Okerstrom, Jonathan R Kingyon, Steven W Anderson, James F Cavanagh, Nandakumar S Narayanan
The ability to adapt to aversive stimuli is critical for mental health. Here, we investigate the relationship between habituation to startling stimuli and startle-related activity in medial frontal cortex as measured by EEG in both healthy control participants and patients with Parkinson disease (PD). We report three findings. First, patients with PD exhibited normal initial startle responses but reduced startle habituation relative to demographically matched controls. Second, control participants had midfrontal EEG theta activity in response to startling stimuli, and this activity was attenuated in patients with PD...
December 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27044008/reduction-of-pavlovian-bias-in-schizophrenia-enhanced-effects-in-clozapine-administered-patients
#17
Matthew A Albrecht, James A Waltz, James F Cavanagh, Michael J Frank, James M Gold
The negative symptoms of schizophrenia (SZ) are associated with a pattern of reinforcement learning (RL) deficits likely related to degraded representations of reward values. However, the RL tasks used to date have required active responses to both reward and punishing stimuli. Pavlovian biases have been shown to affect performance on these tasks through invigoration of action to reward and inhibition of action to punishment, and may be partially responsible for the effects found in patients. Forty-five patients with schizophrenia and 30 demographically-matched controls completed a four-stimulus reinforcement learning task that crossed action ("Go" or "NoGo") and the valence of the optimal outcome (reward or punishment-avoidance), such that all combinations of action and outcome valence were tested...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26952196/identification-of-canonical-neural-events-during-continuous-gameplay-of-an-8-bit-style-video-game
#18
James F Cavanagh, Joel Castellanos
Cognitive neuroscience suffers from a unique and pervasive problem of generalizability. Since neural findings are often interpreted in the context of a specific manipulation during a carefully controlled task, it is hard to transfer knowledge from one task to another. In this report we address problems of generalizability with two methodological advancements. First, we aimed to transcend status quo experimental procedures with a continuous, engaging task environment. To this end, we created a novel 8-bit style continuous space shooter video game that elicits a multitude of goal-oriented events, such as crashing into a wall or blowing up an enemy with a missile...
June 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26871888/the-development-of-a-tissue-engineered-tracheobronchial-epithelial-model-using-a-bilayered-collagen-hyaluronate-scaffold
#19
Cian O'Leary, Brenton Cavanagh, Ronald E Unger, C James Kirkpatrick, Shirley O'Dea, Fergal J O'Brien, Sally-Ann Cryan
Today, chronic respiratory disease is one of the leading causes of mortality globally. Epithelial dysfunction can play a central role in its pathophysiology. The development of physiologically-representative in vitro model systems using tissue-engineered constructs might improve our understanding of epithelial tissue and disease. This study sought to engineer a bilayered collagen-hyaluronate (CHyA-B) scaffold for the development of a physiologically-representative 3D in vitro tracheobronchial epithelial co-culture model...
April 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26708965/simplified-versus-geometrically-accurate-models-of-forefoot-anatomy-to-predict-plantar-pressures-a-finite-element-study
#20
Scott Telfer, Ahmet Erdemir, James Woodburn, Peter R Cavanagh
Integration of patient-specific biomechanical measurements into the design of therapeutic footwear has been shown to improve clinical outcomes in patients with diabetic foot disease. The addition of numerical simulations intended to optimise intervention design may help to build on these advances, however at present the time and labour required to generate and run personalised models of foot anatomy restrict their routine clinical utility. In this study we developed second-generation personalised simple finite element (FE) models of the forefoot with varying geometric fidelities...
January 25, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
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