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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664893/occupational-exposure-during-emergency-department-thoracotomy-a-prospective-multi-institution-study
#1
Andrew Nunn, Priya Prakash, Kenji Inaba, Alvarez Escalante, Zoë Maher, Seiji Yamaguchi, Dennis Y Kim, James Maciel, William C Chiu, Byron Drumheller, Joshua P Hazelton, Kaushik Mukherjee, Xian Luo-Owen, Rachel M Nygaard, Ashley P Marek, Bryan C Morse, Caitlin A Fitzgerald, Patrick L Bosarge, Randeep S Jawa, Susan E Rowell, Louis J Magnotti, Adrian W Ong, Tejal S Brahmbhatt, Michael D Grossman, Mark J Seamon
BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure is an important consideration during emergency department thoracotomy (EDT). While HIV/hepatitis prevalence in trauma patients (0-16.8%) and occupational exposure rates during operative trauma procedures (1.9-18.0%) have been reported, exposure risk during EDT is unknown. We hypothesized that occupational exposure risk during EDT would be greater than other operative trauma procedures. METHODS: A prospective, observational study at 16 US trauma centers was performed (2015-2016)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613947/nationwide-trends-in-mortality-following-penetrating-trauma-are-we-up-for-the-challenge
#2
Joseph V Sakran, Ambar Mehta, Ryan Fransman, Avery B Nathens, Bellal Joseph, Alistair Kent, Elliott R Haut, David T Efron
OBJECTIVES: Despite a focus on improved pre-hospital care, penetrating injuries contribute substantially to trauma mortality in the United States (U.S.). We therefore analyzed contemporary trends in pre-hospital mortality from penetrating trauma in the past decade. METHODS: We identified patients in the The National Trauma Data Bank from 2007-2010 ('early period') and 2011-2014 ('late period') with gunshot (GSW) and stab wounds (SW), who were treated at hospitals that recorded dead-on-arrival statistics...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609973/the-burden-of-gunshot-wounding-of-uk-military-personnel-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-from-2003-14
#3
T Stevenson, D J Carr, J G Penn-Barwell, T J Ringrose, S A Stapley
INTRODUCTION: Gunshot wounding (GSW) is the second most common mechanism of injury in warfare after explosive injury. The aim of this study was to define the clinical burden of GSW placed on UK forces throughout the recent Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. METHODS: This study was a retrospective review of data from the UK Military Joint Theatre Trauma Registry (JTTR). A JTTR search identified records within the 12 year period of conflict between 19 Mar 2003 and 27 Oct 2014 of all UK military GSW casualties sustained during the complete timelines of both conflicts...
March 27, 2018: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590411/wartime-soft-tissue-coverage-techniques-for-the-deployed-surgeon
#4
Vilas Saldanha, Nathan Tiedeken, Brandon Godfrey, Nichole Ingalls
Background: Since the start of the conflict in the Middle East in 2001, military orthopedic surgeons have faced complex orthopedic injuries including high-energy soft tissue wounds, traumatic amputations, and open fractures. Although orthopedic surgeons are well trained in the management of osseous injuries, the treatment of soft tissue injuries can be technically challenging and unfamiliar. Early washout, debridement of devitalized tissue, external fixation of bony injuries, and antibiotic therapy remain the foundation of early wound management...
March 26, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564366/phase-controlled-speckle-free-holographic-projection-with-applications-in-precision-optogenetics
#5
Tal Aharoni, Shy Shoham
Holographic speckle is a major impediment to computer-generated holographic (CGH) projections in applications ranging from display, optical tweezers, and machining to optogenetic neural control. We present an iterative phase retrieval algorithm that allows the projection of amplitude-controlled speckle-free one-dimensional patterns with a high degree of pattern uniformity. The algorithm, termed the weighted Gerchberg-Saxton with phase-control (GSW-PC), is shown to have the ability to simultaneously control both the phase and amplitude of projected patterns with high diffraction efficiencies...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547926/causes-of-death-in-military-working-dogs-during-operation-iraqi-freedom-and-operation-enduring-freedom-2001-2013
#6
Laura Miller, Gerardo J Pacheco, Jud C Janak, Rose C Grimm, Nicole A Dierschke, Janice Baker, Jean A Orman
Background: Military working dogs (MWDs) are a major asset in the theater of operations. Their unique abilities make them ideal for tasks such as tracking, patrol, and scent detection. MWDs deployed to a war zone are exposed to harsh environments and battlefield dangers that increase their risk of disease, injuries, and death. Although canines have been used extensively in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), no published studies have reported detailed causes of death among MWDs deployed to these conflicts...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540114/denial-of-suicide-attempt-among-hospitalized-survivors-of-a-self-inflicted-gunshot-wound
#7
Michael Matthew McClay, Stephen S O'Connor, Brittany Nicole Groh, Marissa Baudino, Lisa Venanzi, Angela Shields, Jo Ellen Wilson, John Bone, Stephen Nicolson
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that suicide attempts by self-inflicted gunshot wound (GSW) are underreported and may in turn affect disposition following hospitalization. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and use of services among individuals who do not disclose suicidal intent following a self-inflicted GSW. METHODS: Electronic medical record data from 128 survivors of self-inflicted GSWs at a level 1 trauma center were analyzed to identify factors associated with nondisclosure of a suicide attempt to medical staff...
March 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535478/punishment-attacks-in-post-ceasefire-northern-ireland-an-emergency-department-perspective
#8
Kevin McGarry, Duncan Redmill, Mark Edwards, Aoife Byrne, Aaron Brady, Mark Taylor
Northern Ireland (NI) has been in a post-conflict state for over twenty years. However, injuries sustained during paramilitary Punishment Attacks (PA) remain a common hospital presentation. The aim of this study was to compare the current province-wide frequency and cost with data collected from the same unit in 1994, the end of the so called, "Troubles". A ten month retrospective emergency chart analysis from all assault and gunshot wound (GSW) attendances to the Emergency Department, Royal Victoria Hospital Belfast (RVH) in 2012 was carried out...
May 2017: Ulster Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433877/self-inflicted-gunshot-wounds-readmission-patterns
#9
Charlotte M Rajasingh, Lakshika Tennakoon, Kristan L Staudenmayer
BACKGROUND: Self-inflicted gunshot wounds (SI-GSWs) are often fatal, but roughly 20% of individuals survive. What happens to survivors after the initial hospitalization is unknown. We hypothesized that the SI-GSW survivors are frequently readmitted and that the pattern of readmission is different from that of the survivors of non-GSW self-harm (SH). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis using the 2013 and 2014 Nationwide Readmission Database. Patients with any diagnosis indicating deliberate SH in the first 6 months of the year were included...
March 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426193/sewage-sludge-used-as-organic-manure-in-moroccan-sunflower-culture-effects-on-certain-soil-properties-growth-and-yield-components
#10
Bourioug Mohamed, Krouna Mounia, Abouabdillah Aziz, Harraq Ahmed, Bouabid Rachid, Aleya Lotfi
The wastewater treatment and sludge production sectors in Morocco are recent. Considered as waste, no management strategy for sewage sludge (SS) has been implemented. Thus, its disposal definitely represents a major environmental problem since sludge is either incinerated, used as landfill or simply deposited near wastewater treatment plants. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dehydrated SS on certain soil properties (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), Mineral nitrogen, available phosphate P2O5, and soluble potassium K2O), and also on growth and yield components of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L...
January 31, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410701/is-case-triaging-a-useful-tool-for-emergency-surgeries-a-review-of-106-trauma-surgery-cases-at-a-level-1-trauma-center-in-south-africa
#11
Sharfuddin Chowdhury, Andrew John Nicol, Mahammed Riyaad Moydien, Pradeep Harkison Navsaria, Luis Felipe Montoya-Pelaez
Background: The optimal timing for emergency surgical interventions and implementation of protocols for trauma surgery is insufficient in the literature. The Groote Schuur emergency surgery triage (GSEST) system, based on Cape Triaging Score (CTS), is followed at Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH) for triaging emergency surgical cases including trauma cases. The study aimed to look at the effect of delay in surgery after scheduling based on the GSEST system has an impact on outcome in terms of postoperative complications and death...
2018: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396308/variation-in-treatment-of-low-energy-gunshot-injuries-a-survey-of-ota-members
#12
Mai P Nguyen, John J Como, Joseph F Golob, Michael S Reich, Heather A Vallier
The purpose of this study was to determine current practice patterns in the treatment of low energy gunshot wounds involving bones and joints. One hundred seventy-three Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) members completed a web-based survey. The survey included practices for antibiotic therapy and operative treatment for different types of low-energy gunshot injuries. Six different scenarios of soft tissue injury, intra-articular injury, and fractures were described. Several permutations of antibiotic therapy and operative or non-operative management options were given as choices on the survey...
January 30, 2018: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392526/ponticaulis-profundi-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-deep-sea-seamount
#13
Ya-Wen Sun, Jie Liu, De-Chao Zhang
A Gram-stain negative, rod-shaped, strictly aerobic, motile bacterial strain, designated YC239T, was isolated from a seamount near the Yap Trench in the tropical western Pacific. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain YC239T is related to the genus Ponticaulis and has high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strain of Ponticaulis koreensis GSW-23T (97.9%). The predominant cellular fatty acids were C18:1ω7c, C16:0, C17:0 and C17:1ω6c. Strain YC239T had Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone...
February 1, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375943/penetrating-obturator-artery-injury-after-gunshot-wounds-a-successful-multidisciplinary-trauma-team-approach-to-a-potentially-lethal-injury
#14
Tareq I Maraqa, Ji-Sun J Shin, Ismael Diallo, Gul R Sachwani-Daswani, Leo C Mercer
Obturator artery injury (OAI) from pelvic gunshot wounds (GSW) is a rarely reported condition. Hemorrhages from pelvic trauma (PT) are mostly venous. Arterial hemorrhages represent about 10-20% of PTs. When arterial hemorrhages from PT occur, they are a severe and deadly complication often causing significant hemodynamic instability and eventual shock. A 23-year-old male presented to our emergency service via a private vehicle with multiple gunshot wounds to both thighs and to the lower back, resulted in rectal and obturator artery (OA) injuries...
November 17, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350370/operative-and-non-operative-management-of-children-with-abdominal-gunshot-injuries
#15
Mehmet Şerif Arslan, Hikmet Zeytun, Serkan Arslan, Erol Basuguy, Mehmet Hanifi Okur, Bahattin Aydoğdu, Cemil Göya, İbrahim Uygun, Selçuk Otçu
BACKGROUND: Non-operative management (NOM) is a standard treatment method for solid organ injuries worldwide. There is no consensus on the management of gunshot wounds (GSW) because of the higher frequency of hollow viscus injuries (HVI) and the unpredictable depth of tissue damage produced by kinetic energy transfer during retardation of the bullet. Here we aimed to reevaluate indications for surgery and NOM based on our pediatric patients with abdominal GSW. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients evaluated and treated for abdominal GSW at University of Dicle between January 2010 and October 2016...
January 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194318/non-compliance-with-acs-cot-recommended-criteria-for-full-trauma-team-activation-is-associated-with-undertriage-deaths
#16
Christopher J Tignanelli, Wayne E Vander Kolk, Judy N Mikhail, Matthew J Delano, Mark R Hemmila
BACKGROUND: The appropriate triage of acutely injured patients within a trauma system is associated with improved rates of mortality and optimal resource utilization. The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACS-COT) put forward six minimum criteria (ACS-6) for full trauma team activation (TTA). We hypothesized that ACS-COT verified trauma center compliance with these criteria is associated with low under-triage rates and improved overall mortality. METHODS: Data from a state-wide collaborative quality initiative was utilized...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091466/micro-mechanical-properties-of-different-sites-on-woodpecker-s-skull
#17
Yikun Ni, Lizhen Wang, Xiaoyu Liu, Hongquan Zhang, Chia-Ying Lin, Yubo Fan
The uneven distributed microstructure featured with plate-like spongy bone in woodpecker's skull has been found to further help reduce the impact during woodpecker's pecking behavior. Therefore, this work was to investigate the micro-mechanical properties and composition on different sites of Great Spotted woodpecker's (GSW) skull. Different sites were selected on forehead, tempus and occiput, which were also compared with those of Eurasian Hoopoe (EH) and Lark birds (LB). Micro structural parameters assessed from micro computed tomography (μCT) occurred significantly difference between GSW, EH and LB...
November 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025455/the-burden-of-gunshot-injuries-on-orthopaedic-healthcare-resources-in-south-africa
#18
Case Martin, Gerhard Thiart, Graham McCollum, Stephen Roche, Sithombo Maqungo
BACKGROUND: Injuries inflicted by gunshot wounds (GSWs) are an immense burden on the South African (SA) healthcare system. In 2005, Allard and Burch estimated SA state hospitals treated approximately 127 000 firearm victims annually and concluded that the cost of treating an abdominal GSW was approximately USD1 467 per patient. While the annual number of GSW injuries has decreased over the past decade, an estimated 54 870 firearm-related injuries occurred in SA in 2012. No study has estimated the burden of these GSWs from an orthopaedic perspective...
June 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019403/tertiary-interactions-in-the-unbound-guanine-sensing-riboswitch-focus-functional-conformational-variability-on-the-binding-site
#19
Christian A Hanke, Holger Gohlke
Riboswitches are genetic regulatory elements mainly found in bacteria, which regulate gene expression based on the availability of a ligand. Purine-sensing riboswitches, including the guanine-sensing riboswitch (Gsw), possess tertiary interactions connecting the L2 and L3 loops. These interactions are important for ligand binding to the aptamer. However, atomic-level structural knowledge about the unbound state and how the tertiary interactions influence the conformational heterogeneity of the aptamer is still scarce...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985608/the-role-of-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-ngal-in-the-detection-of-blast-lung-injury-in-a-military-population
#20
Andrew Lumley, Erik Osborn, Adrian Mellor, Elise LaCroix, George Johnson, Mary Wallace, Mike Stacey, Jason E Smith, David Woods
PURPOSE: To study the relationship between serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and military blast and gunshot wound (GSW) to establish whether potential exists for NGAL as a biomarker for blast lung injury (BLI). METHOD: Patients from the intensive care unit (ICU) of the Role 3 Medical Treatment Facility at Camp Bastion, Helmand Province, Afghanistan were studied over a five month period commencing in 2012. Age, mechanism, trauma injury severity score (TRISS) and serum NGAL were recorded on ICU admission (NGAL1)...
February 2018: Journal of Critical Care
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