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Psychopharmacology antidepressants antipsychotics

Marize Melo Dos Santos, Sarah De Melo Rocha Cabral, Márcio Denis Medeiros Mascarenhas, Renato Mendes Santos, Juliana Maria Libório Eulálio
INTRODUCTION: Psychopharmacology brought numerous benefits to people with mental disorders, although undesirable side effects have arisen, including weight gain. OBJECTIVE: Identify the overweight frequency in individuals with mental disorders and its relation with the use of psychiatric drugs.   MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study with patients with mental disorders of both sexes, older than 18 years. Body Mass Index (BMI) used to diagnose overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2)...
2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Julie Vestergaard Braüner, Lily Manzello Johansen, Troels Roesbjerg, Anne Katrine Pagsberg
This study aimed to describe the frequency of off-label prescriptions of psychopharmacological drugs in a child and adolescent psychiatric setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted on November 1, 2014, including all inpatients and outpatients at the Mental Health Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Capital Region of Denmark, aged 0 to 17 years receiving medical treatment with antidepressants, antipsychotic agents, benzodiazepines, melatonin and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
J D Bergiannaki, P Kostaras
The gender based or gender sensitive pharmacology is a new research area. Differences among sexes are observed in several parameters of their pharmacokinetic which may relate to alteration of their pharmacodynamic as well. Most psychotropics are given per os, and the greater part of their absorption takes place in the small intestine. Premenopausal women have slower gastric emptying times and lower gastrointestinal blood flow which probably reduces the extent of drug absorption. The distribution of drugs is influenced by the relative lower body mass index, the lower blood volume and flow and the greater percentage of body fat of women...
April 2016: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Harmony Raylen Abejuela, David N Osser
This revision of previous algorithms for the pharmacotherapy of generalized anxiety disorder was developed by the Psychopharmacology Algorithm Project at the Harvard South Shore Program. Algorithms from 1999 and 2010 and associated references were reevaluated. Newer studies and reviews published from 2008-14 were obtained from PubMed and analyzed with a focus on their potential to justify changes in the recommendations. Exceptions to the main algorithm for special patient populations, such as women of childbearing potential, pregnant women, the elderly, and those with common medical and psychiatric comorbidities, were considered...
July 2016: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Sascha Abbas, Peter Ihle, Jürgen-Bernhard Adler, Susanne Engel, Christian Günster, Roland Linder, Gerd Lehmkuhl, Ingrid Schübert
BACKGROUND: In view of the well-known increase in prescriptions of stimulants for children and adolescents over the last 20 years, it is important to study trends in the prevalence and incidence of the use of other psychotropic drugs by this age group as well, to enable an early response to potential problems in the current care situation. METHODS: We used nationwide data from German statutory health insurance funds (Allgemeine Ortskrankenkasse [AOK], all insurees; Techniker Kranken - kasse [TK], a 50% randomized sample) concerning all insurees aged 0-17 years (5...
June 6, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Ines Potočnjak, Vesna Degoricija, Dina Vukičević Baudoin, Josip Čulig, Miro Jakovljević
WHO defined in 1976 psychopharmaca as drugs affecting psychological functions, behaviour and self-perception. Psychopharmacology is the study of pharmacological agents that affect mental and emotional functions. Creative approach to psychopharmacotherapy reflects a transdisciplinary, integrative and person-centered psychiatry. Psychiatric disorders often occur in cardiac patients and can affect the clinical presentation and morbidity. Cardiovascular (CV) side effects (SE) caused by psychopharmaceutic agents require comprehensive attention...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Lisa L Giles, D Richard Martini
Most prescriptions for psychotropic medications are written by primary care physicians, yet pediatricians, many of whom are teaching residents and medical students about pediatric psychopharmacology, often feel inadequately trained to treat mental health concerns. Over the past several decades, the number, size, and quality of psychopharmacologic studies in youth has greatly increased. Here we review the current evidence for efficacy and safety of each of the major pharmacologic drug classes in youth (psychostimulants, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics)...
August 2016: Academic Pediatrics
Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer, Amandeep Kaur
Schizoaffective disorder (SAD) is an incapacitating illness that presents clinicians with challenges in terms of both its diagnosis and its psychopharmacological management. Most studies conducted on the psychopharmacological treatment of SAD also include patients with schizophrenia or other psychotic illnesses, thereby providing an unspecific view to the clinician as to the best way of treating patients with SAD. The objective of this article is to review studies on evidence-based treatment of patients with SAD...
April 2016: Drugs
Hani Raoul Khouzam
Chronic pain is considered one of the most prevalent causes of costly and disabling medical conditions. This review will define chronic pain and its categories and then will summarize the effectiveness and side effects associated with the use of various antidepressants, including the tricyclics, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, the serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, other miscellaneous antidepressants and the atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of chronic pain.
2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Jeremy D Coplan, Cindy J Aaronson, Venkatesh Panthangi, Younsuk Kim
Comorbid anxiety with depression predicts poor outcomes with a higher percentage of treatment resistance than either disorder occurring alone. Overlap of anxiety and depression complicates diagnosis and renders treatment challenging. A vital step in treatment of such comorbidity is careful and comprehensive diagnostic assessment. We attempt to explain various psychosocial and pharmacological approaches for treatment of comorbid anxiety and depression. For the psychosocial component, we focus only on generalized anxiety disorder based on the following theoretical models: (1) "the avoidance model"; (2) "the intolerance of uncertainty model"; (3) "the meta-cognitive model"; (4) "the emotion dysregulation model"; and (5) "the acceptance based model"...
December 22, 2015: World Journal of Psychiatry
Alejandro Ferrero
Research in psychopharmacology began around 1950 with the description of antipsychotic effect of chlorpromazine followed shortly later with the mechanism of action of antidepressants. In these initial phases, pharmacy industry was open to knowledge and made efforts tending to the development to new drugs that showed efficacy and good safety profiles. In parallel development of theories attempting to find the etiology of psychiatric disorders acquired impulse. This review summarizes the new drugs for the treatment of psychiatric disorders currently under development and also presents a short list of the main biomarkers proposed for the diagnosis or the comprehension of the etiopathogeny in Psychiatry...
July 2015: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Christoffer C Jørgensen, Joachim Knop, Merete Nordentoft, Henrik Kehlet
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorder (PsD) is rarely considered when evaluating perioperative risk factors. Studies on PsD are often limited by use of administrative coding, incomplete follow-up, and lack of preoperative data on psychopharmacological treatment. METHODS: A multicenter study with prospective registration on preoperative comorbidity, complete 90-day follow-up, and information on dispensed prescriptions on psychopharmacological treatment (excluding benzodiazepines)...
December 2015: Anesthesiology
Alexandra Kleimann, Viktoria Schrader, Susanne Stübner, Waldemar Greil, Kai G Kahl, Stefan Bleich, Renate Grohmann, Helge Frieling, Sermin Toto
BACKGROUND: Several studies have analyzed prescription patterns for bipolar disorder, but few have for acute mania. Treatment strategies in this complex domain change over time and do not always follow evidence-based guidelines. METHODS: Prescription data of in-patients suffering from acute mania in the time period from 2005 to 2012 were obtained from the database of the Drug Safety Program in Psychiatry (Institut für Arzneimittelsicherheit in der Psychiatrie; AMSP)...
February 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Chia-Ming Chang, Chi-Shin Wu, Ya-Wen Huang, Yeuk-Lun Chau, Hui-Ju Tsai
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine utilization and patterns of psychopharmacological treatment during a 1-year follow-up period among patients with newly diagnosed bipolar disorder from 2001 to 2010. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed bipolar disorder from 2001 to 2010 were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We assessed prescription records related to 4 kinds of psychopharmacological medication, including antipsychotics (APs), antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and benzodiazepines, as well as health care utilization in a 1-year follow-up period among the study subjects...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
W Rief, A J Barsky, U Bingel, B K Doering, R Schwarting, M Wöhr, U Schweiger
Emerging evidence indicates that treatment context profoundly affects psychopharmacological interventions. We review the evidence for the interaction between drug application and the context in which the drug is given both in human and animal research. We found evidence for this interaction in the placebo response in clinical trials, in our evolving knowledge of pharmacological and environmental effects on neural plasticity, and in animal studies analyzing environmental influences on psychotropic drug effects...
January 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Dennis Löffler, Kathrin Landgraf, Antje Körner, Jürgen Kratzsch, Kenneth Clifford Kirkby, Hubertus Himmerich
Weight gain is a major problem during psychopharmacological treatment. Research has concentrated on the appetite inducing properties and mechanisms of these drugs in the central nervous system. The potential contribution of direct effects of drugs on metabolically relevant peripheral cells such as adipocytes is less well understood. We examined the influence of the antidepressant imipramine, the antipsychotic clozapine, and the mood stabilizer lithium on preadipocytes and adipocytes in vitro, using Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) cells, an established human preadipocyte model...
January 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Miquel Bioque, Adrián Llerena, Bibiana Cabrera, Gisela Mezquida, Antonio Lobo, Ana González-Pinto, Covadonga M Díaz-Caneja, Iluminada Corripio, Eduardo J Aguilar, Antoni Bulbena, Josefina Castro-Fornieles, Eduard Vieta, Amàlia Lafuente, Sergi Mas, Mara Parellada, Jerónimo Saiz-Ruiz, Manuel J Cuesta, Miguel Bernardo
BACKGROUND: The characterization of the first episode of psychosis and how it should be treated are principal issues in actual research. Realistic, naturalistic studies are necessary to represent the entire population of first episode of psychosis attended in daily practice. METHODS: Sixteen participating centers from the PEPs project recruited 335 first episode of psychosis patients, aged 7 to 35 years. This article describes and discusses the psychopharmacological interventions and safety profiles at baseline and during a 60-day pharmacovigilance period...
April 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
H Javelot
Pharmacological treatment of acute anxiety still relies on benzodiazepines, while chronic anxiety disorders and depression are treated with different antidepressants, according to specific indications. The monoaminergic axis is represented by two families which are being developed: (i) serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (SNDRI), also called triple reuptake inhibitors (TRI), for the treatment of depression (amitifadine), (ii) multimodal antidepressants for depression and anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder mainly) (tedatioxetine, vortioxetine and vilazodone)...
March 2016: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
Krzysztof Krysta, Sławomir Murawiec, Anna Warchala, Karolina Zawada, Wiesław J Cubała, Mariusz S Wiglusz, Katarzyna Jakuszkowiak-Wojten, Marek Krzystanek, Irena Krupka-Matuszczyk
Opipramol is considered as a pharmacological agent that does not fit the classification taking into account the division of antidepressants, antipsychotics and anxiolytics. It has a structure related to tricyclic antidepressants but it has a different mechanism of action, i.e. binding to sigma1 and to sigma2 sites. It has been regarded as an effective drug in general anxiety disorders together with other agents like SSRI`s, SNRI`s, buspirone and pregabalin for many years. It can however also be indicated in other conditions, e...
September 2015: Psychiatria Danubina
Colm McDonald
Bipolar disorder is associated with subtle neuroanatomical deficits including lateral ventricular enlargement, grey matter deficits incorporating limbic system structures, and distributed white matter pathophysiology. Substantial heterogeneity has been identified by structural neuroimaging studies to date and differential psychotropic medication use is potentially a substantial contributor to this. This selective review of structural neuroimaging and diffusion tensor imaging studies considers evidence that lithium, mood stabilisers, antipsychotic medication and antidepressant medications are associated with neuroanatomical variation...
2015: Current Neuropharmacology
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