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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944751/fitness-costs-of-plasmids-a-limit-to-plasmid-transmission
#1
Alvaro San Millan, R Craig MacLean
Plasmids mediate the horizontal transmission of genetic information between bacteria, facilitating their adaptation to multiple environmental conditions. An especially important example of the ability of plasmids to catalyze bacterial adaptation and evolution is their instrumental role in the global spread of antibiotic resistance, which constitutes a major threat to public health. Plasmids provide bacteria with new adaptive tools, but they also entail a metabolic burden that, in the absence of selection for plasmid-encoded traits, reduces the competitiveness of the plasmid-carrying clone...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944734/outcomes-based-contracting-experience-research-findings-from-u-s-and-european-stakeholders
#2
Tara Nazareth, John J Ko, Rahul Sasane, Christian Frois, Stephen Carpenter, Sebastian Demean, Ashok Vegesna, Eric Wu, Robert P Navarro
BACKGROUND: Outcomes-based contracts (OBCs), a type of risk-sharing arrangement (RSA), have emerged as a promising avenue for payers to engage with pharmaceutical manufacturers to share risk and improve patient access to medicines via evaluation of real-world outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of recent OBC activity and stakeholder perceptions of these arrangements, as well as the outlook for future OBC activity from a payer and manufacturer perspective in the United States and EU-5 (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom)...
October 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944731/the-fda-unapproved-drugs-initiative-an-observational-study-of-the-consequences-for-drug-prices-and-shortages-in-the-united-states
#3
Ravi Gupta, Sanket S Dhruva, Erin R Fox, Joseph S Ross
BACKGROUND: Hundreds of drug products are currently marketed in the United States without approval from the FDA. The 2006 Unapproved Drugs Initiative (UDI) requires manufacturers to remove these drug products from the market or obtain FDA approval by demonstrating evidence of safety and efficacy. Once the FDA acts against an unapproved drug, fewer manufacturers remain in the market, potentially enabling drug price increases and greater susceptibility to drug shortages. There is a need for systematic study of the UDI's effect on prices and shortages of all targeted drugs...
October 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944718/obesity-is-associated-with-altered-mid-insula-functional-connectivity-to-limbic-regions-underlying-appetitive-responses-to-foods
#4
Jason A Avery, Joshua N Powell, Florence J Breslin, Rebecca J Lepping, Laura E Martin, Trisha M Patrician, Joseph E Donnelly, Cary R Savage, W Kyle Simmons
Obesity is fundamentally a disorder of energy balance. In obese individuals, more energy is consumed than is expended, leading to excessive weight gain through the accumulation of adipose tissue. Complications arising from obesity, including cardiovascular disease, elevated peripheral inflammation, and the development of Type II diabetes, make obesity one of the leading preventable causes of morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is of paramount importance to both individual and public health that we understand the neural circuitry underlying the behavioral regulation of energy balance...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944467/olfactory-dysfunction-predicts-subsequent-dementia-in-older-u-s-adults
#5
Dara R Adams, David W Kern, Kristen E Wroblewski, Martha K McClintock, William Dale, Jayant M Pinto
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between olfactory dysfunction and subsequent diagnosis of dementia. DESIGN: Longitudinal study of a population representative of U.S. older adults. SETTING: Home interviews (National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project). PARTICIPANTS: Men and women aged 57 to 85 (N = 2,906). MEASUREMENTS: Objective odor identification ability was measured at baseline using a validated five-item test...
September 25, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944453/personalised-digital-interventions-for-reducing-hazardous-and-harmful-alcohol-consumption-in-community-dwelling-populations
#6
REVIEW
Eileen Fs Kaner, Fiona R Beyer, Claire Garnett, David Crane, Jamie Brown, Colin Muirhead, James Redmore, Amy O'Donnell, James J Newham, Frank de Vocht, Matthew Hickman, Heather Brown, Gregory Maniatopoulos, Susan Michie
BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol use contributes significantly to physical and psychological illness, injury and death, and a wide array of social harm in all age groups. A proven strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption levels is to offer a brief conversation-based intervention in primary care settings, but more recent technological innovations have enabled people to interact directly via computer, mobile device or smartphone with digital interventions designed to address problem alcohol consumption...
September 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944304/wearable-technology-to-reduce-sedentary-behavior-and-cvd-risk-in-older-adults-design-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Lisa M Krehbiel, Andrew S Layne, Bhanuprasad Sandesara, Todd M Manini, Stephen D Anton, Thomas W Buford
Persons aged over 65 years account for over the vast majority of healthcare expenditures and deaths attributable to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Accordingly, reducing CVD risk among older adults is an important public health priority. Structured physical activity (i.e. exercise) is a well-documented method of decreasing CVD risk, but recent large-scale trials suggest that exercise alone is insufficient to reduce CVD events in high-risk populations of older adults. Thus adjuvant strategies appear necessary to reduce CVD risk...
June 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943977/barriers-to-reporting-of-adverse-drugs-reactions-a-cross-sectional-study-among-community-pharmacists-in-united-kingdom
#8
Ejaz Cheema, Abdul Haseeb, Tahir M Khan, Paul Sutcliffe, Donald R Singer
BACKGROUND: Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) are a major public health problem. Prompt reporting of suspected ADRs is fundamental in the post-marketing surveillance of medicines and helps in ensuring medicine safety. However, fewer ADRs are reported in general and in particular by community pharmacists. There is limited knowledge about the factors which are preventing community pharmacists in the UK from reporting an ADR. OBJECTIVES: To identify the barriers to ADR reporting among community pharmacists practicing in the UK...
July 2017: Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943872/in-silico-screening-of-the-human-gut-metaproteome-identifies-th17-promoting-peptides-encrypted-in-proteins-of-commensal-bacteria
#9
Claudio Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Marco A Moro-García, Aitor Blanco-Míguez, Florentino Fdez-Riverola, Anália Lourenço, Rebeca Alonso-Arias, Borja Sánchez
Scientific studies focused on the role of the human microbiome over human health have generated billions of gigabits of genetic information during the last decade. Nowadays integration of all this information in public databases and development of pipelines allowing us to biotechnologically exploit this information are urgently needed. Prediction of the potential bioactivity of the products encoded by the human gut microbiome, or metaproteome, is the first step for identifying proteins responsible for the molecular interaction between microorganisms and the immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943316/it-s-more-than-just-luck-a-qualitative-exploration-of-breastfeeding-in-rural-australia
#10
Lois McKellar, Julie Fleet, Shona Dove
It's more than just luck: A qualitative exploration of breastfeeding in rural Australia PROBLEM: Despite significant public health benefits, breastfeeding for six months continues to be challenging for women. BACKGROUND: In the Mid North of South Australia, healthcare professionals were concerned that breastfeeding rates were lower than the national average and that a collaborative approach was needed to promote breastfeeding. AIM: To explore the experiences of women and health professional in the Mid North, to inform interventions to improve breastfeeding longevity...
September 21, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943284/evaluating-oral-flavorant-effects-on-nicotine-self-administration-behavior-and-phasic-dopamine-signaling
#11
Robert J Wickham, Eric J Nunes, Shannon Hughley, Phillip Silva, Sofia N Walton, Jinwoo Park, Nii A Addy
Understanding how tobacco product flavor additives, such as flavorants in electronic cigarettes, influence smoking behavior and addiction is critical for informing public health policy decisions regarding tobacco product regulation. Here, we developed a combined intraoral (i.o.) and intravenous (i.v.) self-administration paradigm in rats to determine how flavorants influence self-administration behavior. By combining i.o. flavorant delivery with fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) or i.v. nicotine self-administration in adult, male rats, we examined whether flavors alter phasic dopamine (DA) signaling and nicotine self-administration...
September 21, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942713/where-is-the-evidence-the-use-of-routinely-collected-patient-data-to-retain-adults-on-antiretroviral-treatment-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-state-of-the-evidence-review
#12
Nena do Nascimento, Catherine Barker, Isabel Brodsky
Retention rates in antiretroviral treatment (ART) in low- and middle-income countries are suboptimal for meeting global "90-90-90" treatment targets. Interventions using routinely collected patient data to follow up with ART defaulters is recommended to improve retention; yet, little is documented on how these data are used in practice. This state of the evidence review summarizes how facilities and programmes use patient data to retain adults on ART in low- and middle-income countries, and what effect, if any, these interventions have on retention...
September 25, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941917/national-trends-in-the-management-of-primary-vesicoureteral-reflux-in-children
#13
Michael Garcia-Roig, Curtis Tavers, Courtney E McCracken, Andrew J Kirsch
OBJECTIVE: In September 2011, the American Academy of Pediatrics(AAP) released updated guidelines for workup of children 2-24 months old with a febrile urinary tract infection(UTI). We aimed to document the guideline's impact on diagnosis and surgical management of VUR at US children's hospitals. We hypothesize that VCUG studies and VUR treatment rate decreased concurrent with national guideline release. METHODS: The Pediatric Health Information System(PHIS) was queried for children(<18 years) with primary VUR, and their anti-reflux surgical history, from January 2004-June 2015...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941856/effective-communication-approaches-in-tuberculosis-control-health-workers-perceptions-and-experiences
#14
Sriram Arulchelvan, Rengan Elangovan
BACKGROUND: Health workers' experiences and understanding of the myths, misconceptions, beliefs about TB, and patients in the community (and effective communication methods) can be useful in designing effective IEC materials and strategies. OBJECTIVE: To study the perceptions and experiences of health workers regarding TB disease, patients, and effective communication strategies in TB control. METHODS: A survey was conducted among health workers involved in Directly Observed Treatment Short (DOTS) course...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941673/influence-of-package-and-health-related-claims-on-perception-and-sensory-acceptability-of-snack-bars
#15
Vinícius Rodrigues Arruda Pinto, Tamara Beatriz de Oliveira Freitas, Maria Inês de Souza Dantas, Suzana Maria Della Lucia, Laura Fernandes Melo, Valéria Paula Rodrigues Minim, Josefina Bressan
Concerns for health can lead to healthier food choices, especially if the consumer is well informed. This study aimed to evaluate the importance of package and health-related claims on Brazilian consumers' acceptance of snack bars. In order to evaluate package attributes, in focus groups discussions, 19 consumers chose the most important factors that influence their purchase decisions. Next, 102 consumers evaluated six commercial brands of snack bars in a three-session acceptance test: the first with no information about the product, the second containing the product package and the third with information on health-related claims associated with consumption of the bar...
November 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940916/will-you-still-need-me-will-you-still-feed-me-when-i-m-64-the-health-impact-of-caregiving-to-one-s-spouse
#16
P L de Zwart, P Bakx, E K A van Doorslaer
Informal care may substitute for formal long-term care that is often publicly funded or subsidized. The costs of informal caregiving are borne by the caregiver and may consist of worse health outcomes and, if the caregiver has not retired, worse labor market outcomes. We estimate the impact of providing informal care to one's partner on the caregiver's health using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe. We use statistical matching to deal with selection bias and endogeneity. We find that in the short run caregiving has a substantial effect on the health of caregivers and, for female caregivers, on their health care use...
September 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940523/epidemiology-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-in-asymptomatic-schoolchildren-in-bhutan
#17
Sonam Wangda, James M Richter, Pema Kuenzang, Kinley Wangchuk, Tashi Choden, Karma Tenzin, Hoda M Malaty
AIM: Bhutan is a small mountainous country between Tibet and India with relatively homogenous population. According to the World Health Organization, gastric cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer death in Bhutan. This study examined the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among children in Bhutan with emphasis on water source and living conditions. METHODS: A cross-sectional sero-epidemiologic study was conducted among schoolchildren who attended public schools in Thimphu, Bhutan...
September 22, 2017: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940495/understanding-the-potential-for-patient-engagement-in-electronic-consultation-and-referral-systems-lessons-from-one-safety-net-system
#18
Jacqueline Nwando Olayiwola, Margae Knox, Kate Dubé, Emily Chen-Yuan Lu, Tem Woldeyesus, Iguehi E James, Rachel Willard-Grace, Delphine Tuot
OBJECTIVE: To understand patient, primary care clinician (PCC), and subspecialist perspectives on potential, unexplored roles for patients in electronic consultation and referral (eCR) systems. DATA SOURCES: Primary focus group and survey data collected April-November 2015. Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital (ZSFG) is part of an integrated public health delivery system. Its mature eCR system was first implemented in 2005. STUDY DESIGN: This mixed-methods study synthesizes patient, subspecialist, and PCC perspectives through two patient focus groups in English, Spanish, and Cantonese (n = 6); subspecialist focus groups (n = 2); and an electronic survey of all PCCs (n = 222/634, 35 percent response)...
September 20, 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940236/using-weighted-hospital-service-area-networks-to-explore-variation-in-preventable-hospitalization
#19
Michael O Falster, Louisa R Jorm, Alastair H Leyland
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the use of multiple-membership multilevel models, which analytically structure patients in a weighted network of hospitals, for exploring between-hospital variation in preventable hospitalizations. DATA SOURCES: Cohort of 267,014 people aged over 45 in NSW, Australia. STUDY DESIGN: Patterns of patient flow were used to create weighted hospital service area networks (weighted-HSANs) to 79 large public hospitals of admission...
September 22, 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939818/spatio-temporal-analysis-of-small-area-intestinal-parasites-infections-in-ghana
#20
F B Osei, A Stein
Intestinal parasites infection is a major public health burden in low and middle-income countries. In Ghana, it is amongst the top five morbidities. In order to optimize scarce resources, reliable information on its geographical distribution is needed to guide periodic mass drug administration to populations of high risk. We analyzed district level morbidities of intestinal parasites between 2010 and 2014 using exploratory spatial analysis and geostatistics. We found a significantly positive Moran's Index of spatial autocorrelation for each year, suggesting that adjoining districts have similar risk levels...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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