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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902459/anti-tumor-activity-of-metformin-from-metabolic-and-epigenetic-perspectives
#1
REVIEW
Xilan Yu, Wuxiang Mao, Yansheng Zhai, Chong Tong, Min Liu, Lixin Ma, Xiaolan Yu, Shanshan Li
Metformin has been used to treat type 2 diabetes for over 50 years. Epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies suggest that metformin treatment reduces cancer incidence in diabetes patients. Due to its potential as an anti-cancer agent and its low cost, metformin has gained intense research interest. Its traditional anti-cancer mechanisms involve both indirect and direct insulin-dependent pathways. Here, we discussed the anti-tumor mechanism of metformin from the aspects of cell metabolism and epigenetic modifications...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901638/atlantic-dip-insulin-therapy-for-women-with-iadpsg-diagnosed-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-does-it-work
#2
D Bogdanet, A M Egan, C Reddin, O Kgosidialwa, B Kirwan, L Carmody, F P Dunne
INTRODUCTION: Approximately 40% of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosed using IADPSG criteria require insulin therapy. OBJECTIVE: To assess if the outcomes for women with GDM treated with insulin are comparable to women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 752 women with insulin-treated GDM and 2496 women with NGT during pregnancy. Maternal and foetal outcomes were examined...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881128/effect-of-intensive-insulin-treatment-on-plasma-levels-of-lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-and-secretory-phospholipase-a2-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes
#3
Xiu-Hong Lin, Ming-Tong Xu, Jv-Ying Tang, Li-Fang Mai, Xiao-Yi Wang, Meng Ren, Li Yan
BACKGROUND: China has the highest absolute disease burden of diabetes worldwide. For diabetic patients, diabetes-related vascular complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality. The roles of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) as inflammatory markers have been recently evaluated in the pathogenesis of both diabetes and atherosclerosis. We aimed to determine the mechanism through which patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes gain long-term vascular benefit from intensive insulin therapy by evaluating the change in Lp-PLA2 and sPLA2 levels after early intensive insulin treatment and its relevance with insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell function...
November 23, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875061/glycemic-control-reduces-infections-in-post-liver-transplant-patients-results-of-a-prospective-randomized-study
#4
Amisha Wallia, Kathleen Schmidt, Diana Johnson Oakes, Teresa Pollack, Nicholas Welsh, Susan Kling-Colson, Suruchi Gupta, Candice Fulkerson, Grazia Aleppo, Neehar Parikh, Josh Levitsky, J P Norvell, Alfred Rademaker, Mark E Molitch
CONTEXT: Prior studies have shown a relationship between glycemic control and post-transplant morbidity. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial in post liver transplant patients, evaluating intensive inpatient glycemic control and effects on outcomes to 1 year. Research Design and Intervention: 164 patients (blood glucose (BG) > 180 mg/dL) were randomized to two target groups: BG 140 mg/dL (N= 82) and 180 mg/dL (N= 82). Patients were initiated on insulin drips and then converted to subcutaneous basal bolus insulin therapy by our Glucose Management Service...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871838/chronic-insulin-infusion-induces-reversible-glucose-intolerance-in-lean-rats-yet-ameliorates-glucose-intolerance-in-obese-rats
#5
Shereen M Hamza, Miranda M Sung, Fei Gao, Carrie-Lynn Soltys, Nancy P Smith, Patrick E MacDonald, Peter E Light, Jason R B Dyck
: Background Although insulin resistance (IR) is a key factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), the precise role of insulin in the development of IR remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether chronic basal insulin infusion is causative in the development of glucose intolerance. Methods Normoglycemic lean rats surgically instrumented with i.v. catheters were infused with insulin (3mU/kg/min) or physiological saline for 6weeks. At infusion-end, plasma insulin levels along with glucose tolerance were assessed Results 6weeks of insulin infusion induced glucose intolerance and impaired insulin response in healthy rats...
November 18, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834301/improvement-in-insulin-sensitivity-following-intensive-insulin-therapy-and-association-of-glucagon-with-long-term-diabetes-remission
#6
Bo Zhang, Yan-Yan Chen, Zhao-Jun Yang, Xin Wang, Guang-Wei Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of the acute glucagon response in the long-term remission of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus following short-term intensive insulin therapy (IIT). METHODS: Ten patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus received IIT. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests and the clamp technique were performed pre- and post-IIT. Remission was defined as maintenance of target glycaemic control without anti-diabetic agents for 1 year...
November 10, 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811342/model-based-glycaemic-control-methodology-and-initial-results-from-neonatal-intensive-care
#7
Jennifer L Dickson, J Geoffrey Chase, Adrienne Lynn, Geoffrey M Shaw
Very/extremely premature infants often experience glycaemic dysregulation, resulting in abnormally elevated (hyperglycaemia) or low (hypoglycaemia) blood glucose (BG) concentrations, due to prematurity, stress, and illness. STAR-GRYPHON is a computerised protocol that utilises a model-based insulin sensitivity parameter to directly tailor therapy for individual patients and their changing conditions, unlike other common insulin protocols in this cohort. From January 2013 to January 2015, 13 patients totalling 16 hyperglycaemic control episodes received insulin under STAR-GRYPHON...
November 3, 2016: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804850/interval-exercise-therapy-for-type-2-diabetes
#8
Hidetaka Hamasaki
BACKGROUND: Regular exercise improves glycemic control and reduces cardiovascular risk and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Continuous moderate- to high-intensity exercise has been recommended to manage type 2 diabetes; however, only approximately 30% of diabetic patients achieve the recommended levels of physical activity. The reasons for not engaging in regular exercise vary; however, one of the common reasons is lack of time. Recently, the effectiveness of short-duration interval exercise such as high-intensity interval training and interval walking has been observed...
November 1, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789139/design-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-2s-4r-ketoconazole-sulfonamide-analogs-as-potential-treatments-for-metabolic-syndrome
#9
Benjamin E Blass, Pravin Iyer, Magid Abou-Gharbia, Wayne E Childers, John C Gordon, Mercy Ramanjulu, George Morton, Premkumar Arumugam, Joshodeep Boruwa, John Ellingboe, Sayan Mitra, Rajashekar Reddy Nimmareddy, Shalini Paliwal, Jamallamudi Rajasekhar, Savithiri Shivakumar, Pratima Srivastava, Raghuram S Tangirala, Konda Venkataramanaiah, Mahesh Yanamandra
Metabolic Syndrome, also referred to as 'Syndrome X' or 'Insulin Resistance Syndrome,' remains a major, unmet medical need despite over 30years of intense effort. Recent research suggests that there may be a causal link between this condition and abnormal glucocorticoid processing. Specifically, dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis leads to increased systemic cortisol concentrations. Cushing' syndrome, a disorder that is also typified by a marked elevation in levels of cortisol, produces clinical symptomology that is similar to those observed in MetS, and they can be alleviated by decreasing circulating cortisol concentrations...
December 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776846/-prevention-of-preterm-birth-complications-by-antenatal-corticosteroid-administration
#10
T Schmitz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short- and long-term benefits and risks associated with antenatal administration of a single course of corticosteroids and the related strategies: multiple and rescue courses. METHODS: The PubMed database, the Cochrane Library and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. RESULTS: Antenatal administration of a single course of corticosteroids before 34 weeks of gestation is associated in the neonatal period with a significant reduction of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and death (LE1), and in possibly childhood with a reduction of cerebral palsy and increased psychomotor development index and intact survival (LE3)...
October 21, 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764721/type-1-diabetes-in-older-adults-comparing-treatments-and-chronic-complications-in-the-united-states-t1d-exchange-and-the-german-austrian-dpv-registries
#11
Ruth S Weinstock, Ingrid Schütz-Fuhrmann, Crystal G Connor, Julia M Hermann, David M Maahs, Morten Schütt, Shivani Agarwal, Sabine E Hofer, Roy W Beck, Reinhard W Holl
AIMS: Compare characteristics, therapies and clinical outcomes in older adults with type 1 diabetes in the United States T1D Exchange (T1DX) and German/Austrian Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumentation (DPV) registries. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of adults ≥60years old with type 1 diabetes seen in 2011-2012 in the T1DX (n=1283) and DPV (n=2014) registries. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables...
October 4, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734650/lipemia-retinalis-due-to-secondary-hyperlipidemia-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#12
K Gayathri, P K Ramalingam, Rpsp Santhakumar, B V Manjunath, N Karuppuswamy, B Vetriveran, S Selvamani, P Vishnuram, A Muruganathan, Kumar Natarajan
Lipemia retinalis is a rare and asymptomatic condition which occurs when high levels of triglycerides and chylomicrons are present in blood. We report a rare case of secondary hyperlipoproteinemia in a 27 year old type 1 diabetes patient who presented with diabetic ketoacidosis and this peculiar ocular manifestation. The fundoscopic abnormality and creamy white serum cleared as the level of chylomicrons in the plasma dropped with intensive insulin therapy.
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699654/in-vitro-reprogramming-of-rat-bmmscs-into-pancreatic-endocrine-like-cells
#13
Hong-Tu Li, Fang-Xu Jiang, Ping Shi, Tao Zhang, Xiao-Yu Liu, Xue-Wen Lin, Zhong-Yan San, Xi-Ning Pang
Islet transplantation provides curative treatments to patients with type 1 diabetes, but donor shortage restricts the broad use of this therapy. Thus, generation of alternative transplantable cell sources is intensively investigated worldwide. We previously showed that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) can be reprogrammed to pancreatic-like cells through simultaneously forced suppression of Rest/Nrsf (repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor/neuronal restrictive silencing factor) and Shh (sonic hedgehog) and activation of Pdx1 (pancreas and duodenal transcription factor 1)...
October 3, 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692165/in-type-1-diabetics-high-dose-biotin-may-compensate-for-low-hepatic-insulin-exposure-promoting-a-more-normal-expression-of-glycolytic-and-gluconeogenic-enyzymes-and-thereby-aiding-glycemic-control
#14
Mark F McCarty
In type 1 diabetics, hepatic exposure to insulin is chronically subnormal even in the context of insulin therapy; as a result, expression of glycolytic enzymes is decreased, and that of gluconeogenic enzymes is enhanced, resulting in a physiologically inappropriate elevation of hepatic glucose output. Subnormal expression of glucokinase (GK) is of particular importance in this regard. Possible strategies for correcting this perturbation of hepatic enzyme expression include administration of small molecule allosteric activators of GK, as well as a procedure known as chronic intermittent intravenous insulin therapy (CIIIT); however, side effects accompany the use of GK activators, and CIIIT is time and labor intensive...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651347/comparison-between-a-novel-and-conventional-artificial-pancreas-for-perioperative-glycemic-control-using-a-closed-loop-system
#15
Tsutomu Namikawa, Masaya Munekage, Hiroyuki Kitagawa, Tomoaki Yatabe, Hiromichi Maeda, Yuuki Tsukamoto, Kenichi Hirano, Takuji Asano, Yoshihiko Kinoshita, Kazuhiro Hanazaki
This clinical study aimed to compare a novel and conventional artificial pancreas (AP) used in surgical patients for perioperative glycemic control, with respect to usability, blood glucose measurements, and glycemic control characteristics. From July in 2010 to March in 2015, 177 patients underwent perioperative glycemic control using a novel AP. Among them, 166 patients were eligible for inclusion in this study. Intensive insulin therapy (IIT) targeting a blood glucose range of 80-110 mg/dL was implemented in 82 patients (49 %), and the remaining 84 patients (51 %) received a less-intensive regime of insulin therapy...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638812/improvement-in-insulin-resistance-is-greater-when-infliximab-is-added-to-methotrexate-during-intensive-treatment-of-early-rheumatoid-arthritis-results-from-the-idea-study
#16
Lesley-Anne Bissell, Elizabeth M A Hensor, Lukasz Kozera, Sarah L Mackie, Agata N Burska, Jacqueline L Nam, Helen Keen, Edith Villeneuve, Helena Donica, Maya H Buch, Philip G Conaghan, Jacqueline Andrews, Paul Emery, Ann W Morgan
OBJECTIVES: To determine the change in established biomarkers of cardiovascular (CV) risk, namely, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TC/HDL-C), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and insulin resistance (IR) in patients with early RA treated with two different treat-to-target strategies. METHODS: Fasting glucose, lipids, insulin and NT-proBNP were measured at baseline, weeks 26 and 78 in 79 DMARD-naïve RA patients, free of CV disease, as part of a double-blind randomized controlled trial of MTX with either infliximab (IFX) or methylprednisolone as induction therapy...
September 16, 2016: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635409/canagliflozin-induced-diabetic-ketoacidosis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Jessica Turner, Tahmina Begum, Roger D Smalligan
INTRODUCTION: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are relatively new antihyperglycemic agents that lower renal glucose reabsorption. They are used as adjunctive therapy to standard diabetes treatment. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 62-year-old woman with a past medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and sudden-onset diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Use of canagliflozin, a SGLT-2 inhibitor, was determined to be the cause of the DKA. The patient ultimately recovered after 5 days in the intensive care unit...
July 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635175/secular-trends-in-the-clinical-characteristics-of-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-severe-hypoglycemia-between-2008-and-2013
#18
Hiroyuki Ito, Emiko Tsugami, Shigenori Ando, Ayano Imai, Suzuko Matsumoto, Takashi Omoto, Masahiro Shinozaki, Shinya Nishio, Mariko Abe, Shinichi Antoku, Mizuo Mifune, Michiko Togane
BACKGROUND: We investigated the trends in the clinical characteristics and prescriptions of type 2 diabetic patients with severe hypoglycemia because the prescription rate of antidiabetic agents has significantly changed recently. METHODS: A total of 193 patients with type 2 diabetes with severe hypoglycemia induced by antidiabetic agents between 2008 and 2013 were divided into three groups based on the period of visit: 2008 - 2009, 2010 - 2011 and 2012 - 2013. RESULTS: While the proportion of patients with severe hypoglycemia using insulin (from 55% to 74%), biguanides (from 6% to 20%), glinides, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors significantly increased, those using sulfonylureas (from 45% to 20%) significantly decreased...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629774/qualitative-assessment-of-user-experiences-of-a-novel-smart-phone-application-designed-to-support-flexible-intensive-insulin-therapy-in-type-1-diabetes
#19
Brigid A Knight, H David McIntyre, Ingrid J Hickman, Marina Noud
BACKGROUND: Modern flexible multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy requires people with diabetes to manage complex mathematical calculations to determine insulin doses on a day to day basis. Automated bolus calculators assist with these calculations, add additional functionality to protect against hypoglycaemia and enhance the record keeping process, however uptake and use depends on the devices meeting the needs of the user. We aimed to obtain user feedback on the usability of a mobile phone bolus calculator application in adults with T1DM to inform future development of mobile phone diabetes support applications...
September 15, 2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627073/-autoimmune-insulitis-in-patients-with-type-2%C3%A2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-clinical-trial-in-hospitalized-patients
#20
Emil Martinka, Mariana Rončáková, Michaela Mišániková, Arash Davani
BACKGROUND: It is not always easy to classify diabetes (DM) diagnosed in adults, with a significant group of patients initially classified and treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2T) presenting signs indicating the presence of autoimmune insulitis (AI), which is characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1T), or latent autoimmune diabetes mellitus in adults (LADA). GOAL: Identify the proportion of patients entered with DM2T who present AI signs, and the number of patients of that proportion, who at the same time present low insulin secretion, and what clinical and laboratory manifestations could be used to differentiate between these patients...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
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