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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635664/adolescent-exposure-to-the-synthetic-cannabinoid-win-55212-2-modifies-cocaine-withdrawal-symptoms-in-adult-mice
#1
María A Aguilar, Juan Carlos Ledesma, Marta Rodríguez-Arias, Carles Penalva, Carmen Manzanedo, José Miñarro, M Carmen Arenas
Chronic cannabinoid consumption is an increasingly common behavior among teenagers and has been shown to cause long-lasting neurobehavioral alterations. Besides, it has been demonstrated that cocaine addiction in adulthood is highly correlated with cannabis abuse during adolescence. Cocaine consumption and subsequent abstinence from it can cause psychiatric symptoms, such as psychosis, cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression. The aim of the present research was to study the consequences of adolescent exposure to cannabis on the psychiatric-like effects promoted by cocaine withdrawal in adult mice...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634286/conjugate-vaccine-immunotherapy-for-substance-use-disorder
#2
REVIEW
Paul T Bremer, Kim D Janda
Substance use disorder, especially in relation to opioids such as heroin and fentanyl, is a significant public health issue and has intensified in recent years. As a result, substantial interest exists in developing therapeutics to counteract the effects of abused drugs. A promising universal strategy for antagonizing the pharmacology of virtually any drug involves the development of a conjugate vaccine, wherein a hapten structurally similar to the target drug is conjugated to an immunogenic carrier protein...
July 2017: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632478/sexual-risk-behaviors-and-predictors-of-inconsistent-condom-use-among-crack-cocaine-users-in-the-french-overseas-territories-in-the-americas
#3
Marie-Claire Parriault, Astrid Van-Melle, Célia Basurko, Larissa Valmy, Bruno Hoen, André Cabié, Marie-Thérèse Goerger-Sow, Mathieu Nacher
The French overseas territories in the Americas are the French territories most affected by HIV. Crack cocaine users are particularly impacted. The objective of this study was to describe sexual risk behaviors and inconsistent condom use among crack cocaine users. A total of 640 crack cocaine users were interviewed. The sampling method was non-probabilistic. An anonymous standardized questionnaire of 110 questions was used. Over a third of persons did not use condoms systematically with casual sex partners (36...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631722/intrinsic-excitability-of-cocaine-associated-memories
#4
William J Wright, Yan Dong
Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 20 June 2017. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.127.
June 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628197/vesicular-acetylcholine-transporter-vacht-overexpression-induces-major-modifications-of-striatal-cholinergic-interneuron-morphology-and-function
#5
Helena Janickova, Vania F Prado, Marco A M Prado, Salah El Mestikawy, Véronique Bernard
Striatal cholinergic interneurons (CIN) are pivotal for the regulation of the striatal network. Acetylcholine (ACh) released by CIN is centrally involved in reward behavior as well as locomotor or cognitive functions. Recently, BAC transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) protein under the control of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) promoter (ChAT-ChR2) and displaying almost 50 extra copies of the VAChT gene were used to dissect cholinergic circuit connectivity and function using optogenetic approaches...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625719/atypical-dopamine-transporter-inhibitors-r-modafinil-and-jhw-007-differentially-affect-d2-autoreceptor-neurotransmission-and-the-firing-rate-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons
#6
Alicia J Avelar, J Cao, Amy Hauck Newman, Michael J Beckstead
Abuse of psychostimulants like cocaine that inhibit dopamine (DA) reuptake through the dopamine transporter (DAT) represents a major public health issue, however FDA-approved pharmacotherapies have yet to be developed. Recently a class of ligands termed "atypical DAT inhibitors" has gained attention due to their range of effectiveness in increasing extracellular dopamine (DA) levels without demonstrating significant abuse liability. These compounds not only hold promise as therapeutic agents to treat stimulant use disorders but also as experimental tools to improve our understanding of DAT function...
June 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624960/drug-induced-pyoderma-gangrenosum-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Jane Y Wang, Lars E French, Neil H Shear, Afkham Amiri, Afsaneh Alavi
Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare neutrophilic dermatosis that may be caused by an adverse drug reaction. We discuss the clinical presentation and outcomes of 52 cases of drug-induced PG reported to date in the literature. We conducted our literature search for case reports of drug-induced PG using keywords on PubMed and Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms on MEDLINE and EMBASE. To assess the probability that each case of PG was related to drug therapy, we used the Naranjo criteria. We identified 44 studies in the literature, with a total of 52 cases of drug-induced PG...
June 17, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624317/modulatory-effects-of-ampicillin-sulbactam-on-glial-glutamate-transporters-and-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-1-as-well-as-reinstatement-to-cocaine-seeking-behavior
#8
Alaa M Hammad, Fawaz Alasmari, Yusuf S Althobaiti, Youssef Sari
The glutamatergic system has an important role in cocaine-seeking behavior. Studies have reported that chronic exposure to cocaine induces downregulation of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and cystine/glutamate exchanger (xCT) in the central reward brain regions. Ceftriaxone, a β-lactam antibiotic, restored GLT-1 expression and consequently reduced cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. In this study, we investigated the reinstatement to cocaine (20mg/kg, i.p.) seeking behavior using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats...
June 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624112/opposing-roles-of-rapid-dopamine-signaling%C3%A2-across-the-rostral-caudal-axis-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-nucleus-accumbens-shell-in-drug-induced-negative-affect
#9
Seth W Hurley, Elizabeth A West, Regina M Carelli
BACKGROUND: Negative reinforcement theories of drug addiction posit that addicts use drugs to alleviate negative mood states. In a preclinical model developed in our laboratory, rats exhibit negative affect to a normally rewarding taste cue when it predicts impending but delayed cocaine. The emergence of this state is accompanied by a reduction in dopamine concentration in the rostral nucleus accumbens shell. However, the rostral and caudal regions of the shell have been implicated in promoting opposing appetitive and aversive states, respectively...
May 11, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623859/self-reported-cognitive-scales-in-a-u-s-national-survey-reliability-validity-and-preliminary-evidence-for-associations-with-alcohol-and-drug-use
#10
Efrat Aharonovich, Dvora Shmulewitz, Melanie M Wall, Bridget F Grant, Deborah S Hasin
AIMS: To evaluate relationships between measures of cognitive functioning and alcohol or drug use among adults (≥18 years) in the U.S. general population. DESIGN: Two cognitive scales were created based on dimensionality and reliability of self-reported Executive Function Index items. Relationships between the two scales and validators were evaluated. Associations between the cognitive scales and past-year frequency of alcohol or drug use were estimated with adjusted odds ratios (aOR)...
June 17, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623807/hiv-tat-excites-d1-receptor-like-expressing-neurons-from-rat-nucleus-accumbens
#11
G Cristina Brailoiu, Elena Deliu, Jeffrey L Barr, Linda M Console-Bram, Alexandra M Ciuciu, Mary E Abood, Ellen M Unterwald, Eugen Brailoiu
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection and drug abuse are frequently co-morbid and their association greatly increases the severity of HIV-1-induced neuropathology. While nucleus accumbens (NAcc) function is severely perturbed by drugs of abuse, little is known about how HIV-1 infection affects NAcc. METHODS: We used calcium and voltage imaging to investigate the effect of HIV-1 trans-activator of transcription (Tat) on rat NAcc. Based on previous neuronal studies, we hypothesized that Tat modulates intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis of NAcc neurons...
June 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623359/allosteric-modulatory-effects-of-sri-20041-and-sri-30827-on-cocaine-and-hiv-1-tat-protein-binding-to-human-dopamine-transporter
#12
Wei-Lun Sun, Pamela M Quizon, Yaxia Yuan, Wei Zhang, Subramaniam Ananthan, Chang-Guo Zhan, Jun Zhu
Dopamine transporter (DAT) is the target of cocaine and HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein. Identifying allosteric modulatory molecules with potential attenuation of cocaine and Tat binding to DAT are of great scientific and clinical interest. We demonstrated that tyrosine 470 and 88 act as functional recognition residues in human DAT (hDAT) for Tat-induced inhibition of DA transport and transporter conformational transitions. Here we investigated the allosteric modulatory effects of two allosteric ligands, SRI-20041 and SRI-30827 on cocaine binding on wild type (WT) hDAT, Y470 H and Y88 F mutants...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623340/adenovirus-mediated-suppression-of-hypothalamic-glucokinase-affects-feeding-behavior
#13
Romina María Uranga, Carola Millán, María José Barahona, Antonia Recabal, Magdiel Salgado, Fernando Martinez, Patricio Ordenes, Roberto Elizondo-Vega, Fernando Sepúlveda, Elena Uribe, María de Los Ángeles García-Robles
Glucokinase (GK), the hexokinase involved in glucosensing in pancreatic β-cells, is also expressed in arcuate nucleus (AN) neurons and hypothalamic tanycytes, the cells that surround the basal third ventricle (3V). Several lines of evidence suggest that tanycytes may be involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Tanycytes have extended cell processes that contact the feeding-regulating neurons in the AN, particularly, agouti-related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623168/access-to-nicotine-in-drinking-water-reduces-weight-gain-without-changing-caloric-intake-on-high-fat-diet-in-male-c57bl-6j-mice
#14
Cali A Calarco, Somin Lee, Marina R Picciotto
Nicotine and tobacco use is associated with lower body weight, and many smokers report concerns about weight. In animal studies, nicotine reduces weight gain, reduces food consumption, and alters energy expenditure, but these effects vary with duration and route of nicotine administration. Previous studies have used standardized nicotine doses, however, in this study, male and female mice had free access to nicotine drinking water for 30 days while fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or chow, allowing animals to titrate their nicotine intake...
June 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619859/criminal-charges-for-child-harm-from-substance-use-in-pregnancy
#15
Cara Angelotta, Paul S Appelbaum
Despite the opposition of medical and public health professionals, several state legislatures are considering laws that permit child abuse charges for substance use during pregnancy. We reviewed legal decisions regarding women charged with a crime against a fetus or child as a result of substance use during pregnancy. We identified 24 judicial opinions published between 1977 and 2015 in cases involving 29 women prosecuted in 19 states. Charges included child endangerment, child abuse, drug delivery, attempted aggravated child abuse, chemical endangerment of a child, child neglect, child mistreatment, homicide, manslaughter, and reckless injury to a child...
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619473/cocaine-adulteration
#16
REVIEW
Oliver Kudlacek, Tina Hofmaier, Anton Luf, Felix P Mayer, Thomas Stockner, Constanze Nagy, Marion Holy, Michael Freissmuth, Rainer Schmid, Harald H Sitte
Cocaine is a naturally occurring and illicitly used psychostimulant drug, which exerts its activity at monoaminergic neurotransmitter transporters. These transporters mediate the reuptake of the monoamines dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine and are blocked by cocaine. The increase of monoamines in the extracellular space is the phenomenon underlying the drug effects that cocaine users seek. Currently, it is one of the most important illicit drugs on the European market. However, this increase in monoamines is also the underlying cause for the development of addiction and a number of severe side effects...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619395/the-new-front-in-the-war-on-doping-amateur-athletes
#17
April D Henning, Paul Dimeo
The war on drugs is usually associated with criminal policies aimed at stemming consumption of drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and cannabis, less so with enhancement drugs like those used in sport. As drug use in sport, or doping, has become more visibly widespread, policies aimed at combating the issue have become more restrictive, intrusive, and harsh. In this article we draw new comparisons between the wider war on drugs and recent developments in sports anti-doping. We identify a growing trend towards criminalisation of traffickers and users, and associate that with another growing trend: the testing of amateur athletes...
June 12, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618284/differences-in-biomarkers-of-crack-cocaine-adolescent-users-before-after-abstinence
#18
Thiago Gatti Pianca, Ronaldo Lopes Rosa, Keila Maria Mendes Ceresér, Bianca Wollenhaupt de Aguiar, Rafaela Carvalho de Abrahão, Patrícia Mafra Lazzari, Flávio Kapczinski, Flávio Pechansky, Luis Augusto Rohde, Cláudia Maciel Szobot
AIMS: To measure the variation in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and interleukin (IL) levels in crack-cocaine dependent adolescents after 21days of abstinence, comparing to levels found in a group of healthy controls. DESIGN: Cross-sectional nested on a short follow-up study. SETTING: Two inpatient treatment units for adolescents, and a low-income neighborhood. PARTICIPANTS: 90 adolescents, of both genders, with diagnosis of crack cocaine dependence, and 81 healthy adolescents...
June 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615819/columella-reconstruction-with-an-inferiorly-based-philtral-advancement-flap-in-a-cocaine-abuser
#19
Davide Di Santo, Matteo Trimarchi, Andrea Galli, Mario Bussi
Nasal columella defects can significantly impair aesthetic appearance. Columella reconstruction can be very challenging for surgeons, especially if due to cocaine abuse. The case of a 32-year-old male patient with subtotal columellar necrosis secondary to cocaine abuse is presented. An inferiorly based philtral advancement flap was performed to cover the defect. Aesthetic outcome was the primary goal of surgery. Reconstruction led to good aesthetic and functional results.
January 2017: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614180/cocaine-inhibits-leptin-induced-increase-of-the-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-peptide-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-rats
#20
Bo Ram Cho, Hyung Shin Yoon, Wha Young Kim, Paul Vezina, Jeong-Hoon Kim
Two well-known appetite-regulatory peptides, leptin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), are known to be involved in the brain rewarding pathway. However, it is not yet known how they interact in the nucleus accumbens, an important region mediating the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. Using the immunoassay method, we found that a microinjection of leptin into the nucleus accumbens core induces an immediate and transient increase of the CART peptide in this site, whereas these effects were inhibited by cocaine...
June 13, 2017: Neuroreport
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