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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933094/the-newer-opioid-agonist-treatment-with-lower-substitutive-opiate-doses-is-associated-with-better-toxicology-outcome-than-the-older-harm-reduction-treatment
#1
Jacopo V Bizzarri, Valentina Casetti, Livia Sanna, Angelo Giovanni Icro Maremmani, Luca Rovai, Silvia Bacciardi, Daria Piacentino, Andreas Conca, Icro Maremmani
BACKGROUND: Charge-free heroin use disorder treatment in Italy follows two main approaches, i.e., harm reduction treatment (HRT) strategy in community low-threshold facilities for drug addiction and opioid agonist treatment (OAT) in high-threshold facilities for opioid addiction, focusing on pharmacological maintenance according to the Dole and Nyswander strategy. We aimed to compare the impact of HRT and OAT on patient outcome, as assessed through negativity for drugs on about 1-year urinalyses...
2016: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932899/sudden-cardiac-death-of-a-body-packer-due-to-cocaine-cardiotoxicity
#2
Parthasarathi Pramanik, Raghvendra Kumar Vidua
This article presents a case of sudden cardiac death due to the effects of cocaine concealed in the body of a male drug smuggler in his 40s, a so-called body packer. A total of 57 body packets filled with cocaine powder were discovered in his body cavities. The detailed autopsy examination, including histopathology and toxicology findings, is discussed with the aim of describing the mechanism of cocaine intoxication in the body packer and an analysis of cocaine-induced cardiotoxicity and sudden death.
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929672/long-term-consequences-of-adolescent-cannabis-use-examining-intermediary-processes
#3
Kerry M Green, Elaine E Doherty, Margaret E Ensminger
BACKGROUND: In the United States, perceptions of marijuana's acceptability are at an all-time high, risk perceptions among youth are low, and rates are rising among Black youth. Thus, it is imperative to increase the understanding of long-term effects of adolescent marijuana use and ways to mitigate adverse consequences. OBJECTIVES: To identify the midlife consequences of heavy adolescent marijuana use and the mechanisms driving effects among a Black, urban population...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929528/risk-of-preterm-birth-among-women-using-drugs-during-pregnancy-with-elevated-%C3%AE-fetoprotein
#4
R J Baer, C D Chambers, K K Ryckman, S P Oltman, M E Norton, L L Jelliffe-Pawlowski
OBJECTIVE: Examine the risk of preterm birth (PTB) among women who use drugs during pregnancy and have elevated α-fetoprotein (AFP). STUDY DESIGN: The sample included California singleton live births in 2005 to 2010 contained within a hospital discharge database linked to the Prenatal Screening Program. A selection of mothers who did not use drugs was selected at a ratio of 4:1. Risk of PTB was calculated using adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for women who did or did not use drugs by their AFP percentile...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929348/shallow-discounting-of-delayed-cocaine-by-male-rhesus-monkeys-when-immediate-food-is-the-choice-alternative
#5
Sally L Huskinson, Joel Myerson, Leonard Green, James K Rowlett, William L Woolverton, Kevin B Freeman
Huskinson et al. (2015) recently examined delay discounting in monkeys choosing between an immediate drug (cocaine) reinforcer and a delayed nondrug (food) reinforcer. The present experiment examined the reverse situation: choice between immediate nondrug (food) and delayed drug (cocaine) reinforcers. Whereas the former choice situation exemplifies drug abuse from a delay-discounting perspective, our interest in the latter choice situation is derived from the observation that drug abusers, who characteristically are associated with impulsive choice, typically must devote considerable time to procuring drugs, often at the expense of immediate nondrug alternatives...
December 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929347/comparing-exponential-and-exponentiated-models-of-drug-demand-in-cocaine-users
#6
Justin C Strickland, Joshua A Lile, Craig R Rush, William W Stoops
Drug purchase tasks provide rapid and efficient measurement of drug demand. Zero values (i.e., prices with zero consumption) present a quantitative challenge when using exponential demand models that exponentiated models may resolve. We aimed to replicate and advance the utility of using an exponentiated model by demonstrating construct validity (i.e., association with real-world drug use) and generalizability across drug commodities. Participants (N = 40 cocaine-using adults) completed Cocaine, Alcohol, and Cigarette Purchase Tasks evaluating hypothetical consumption across changes in price...
December 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929345/directed-forgetting-of-memories-in-cocaine-users
#7
Manuel J Ruiz, Daniela Paolieri, Lorenza S Colzato, María Teresa Bajo
Memory retrieval requires an effective recruitment of inhibitory control to successfully reject unnecessary memories. The use of cocaine is associated with poor cognitive control processes, but little is known about the impact of chronic and recreational use of cocaine on inhibitory control during intentional forgetting. We studied whether chronic and recreational users of cocaine show impairments on the mechanism responsible for intentional forgetting of memories. Two experiments were carried out on chronic cocaine users in rehabilitation (Experiment 1) and recreational cocaine polydrug users (Experiment 2) performing a directed forgetting (DF) task, an index of memory suppression...
December 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927933/disparities-and-guideline-adherence-in-drugs-of-abuse-screening-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#8
Laura M Tormoehlen, Ashley D Blatsioris, Elizabeth A S Moser, Ravan J L Carter, Alec Stevenson, Susan Ofner, Abigail L Hulin, Darren P O'Neill, Aaron A Cohen-Gadol, Thomas J Leipzig, Linda S Williams, Jason Mackey
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the pattern of urine drug screening in a cohort of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients at our academic centers. METHODS: We identified cases of primary ICH occurring from 2009 to 2011 in our academic centers. Demographic data, imaging characteristics, processes of care, and short-term outcomes were ascertained. We performed logistic regression to identify predictors for screening and evaluated preguideline and postguideline reiteration screening patterns...
December 7, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926573/further-delineation-between-typical-and-atypical-dopamine-uptake-inhibitors-effects-on-food-maintained-behavior-and-food-consumption
#9
Jonathan M Slezak, Rajeev I Desai, Jonathan L Katz
The present studies compared the acute effects of benztropine analogs (4-Cl-BZT, JHW 007, AHN 1-055), which are atypical dopamine uptake inhibitors, with those of the standard dopamine uptake inhibitors GBR 12909 and cocaine, on the reinforcing efficacy of food and food intake in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Repeated drug effects of JHW 007 on food intake were also determined. The number of ratios completed under a progressive-ratio schedule of food delivery was used as an index of reinforcing efficacy. Food intake was determined by measuring powdered laboratory-chow consumption during daily 40 min food-availability time periods...
December 6, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924950/molecular-gated-nanoporous-anodic-alumina-for-the-detection-of-cocaine
#10
Àngela Ribes, Elisabet Xifré-Pérez, Elena Aznar, Félix Sancenón, Teresa Pardo, Lluís F Marsal, Ramόn Martínez-Máñez
We present herein the use of nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) as a suitable support to implement "molecular gates" for sensing applications. In our design, a NAA support is loaded with a fluorescent reporter (rhodamine B) and functionalized with a short single-stranded DNA. Then pores are blocked by the subsequent hybridisation of a specific cocaine aptamer. The response of the gated material was studied in aqueous solution. In a typical experiment, the support was immersed in hybridisation buffer solution in the absence or presence of cocaine...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923637/hypothalamic-neuronal-origin-of-neuropeptide-y-npy-or-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-cart-fibers-projecting-to-the-tuberomammillary-nucleus-of-the-rat
#11
Eun Y Lee, Young G Hwang, Hyun S Lee
Based on the importance of tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) as a target for feeding/arousal-related functions, we aimed in the present study to investigate hypothalamic neuronal origin of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) fibers projecting to the histaminergic nucleus. In the first series of experiments, we examined NPY (or CART) fiber distribution within the boundary of adenosine deaminase (ADA)-immunoreactive (ir) TMN regions; extensive NPY (or CART)-ir axon terminals were observed in E4 (TMMd), E3 (TMMv), and E2 (TMVr) subdivisions...
December 3, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923200/a-quantitative-lc-ms-ms-method-for-simultaneous-determination-of-cocaine-and-its-metabolites-in-whole-blood
#12
Xiabin Chen, Xirong Zheng, Kai Ding, Ziyuan Zhou, Chang-Guo Zhan, Fang Zheng
As new metabolic pathways of cocaine were recently identified, a high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to simultaneously determine cocaine and nine cocaine-related metabolites in whole blood samples. One-step solid phase extraction was used to extract all of the ten compounds and corresponding internal standards from blood samples. All compounds and internal standards extracted were separated on an Atlantis T3 (100Å, 3μm, 2.1mm×150mm I.D) column and detected in positive ion and high sensitivity mode with multiple reaction monitoring...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922639/mesolimbic-leptin-signaling-negatively-regulates-cocaine-conditioned-reward
#13
M Shen, C Jiang, P Liu, F Wang, L Ma
The regulatory mechanisms underlying the response to addictive drugs are complex, and increasing evidence indicates that there is a role for appetite-regulating pathways in substance abuse. Leptin, an important adipose hormone that regulates energy balance and appetite, exerts its physiological functions via leptin receptors. However, the role of leptin signaling in regulating the response to cocaine remains unclear. Here we examined the potential role of leptin signaling in cocaine reward using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921312/the-prevalence-of-paraphernalia-found-at-the-scene-of-drug-related-deaths
#14
Jason G Lozano, Nicole L Healy, D Kimberley Molina
Many illicit drugs involve the use of paraphernalia, and the presence of paraphernalia found at the scene of death may suggest that the death is drug-related. Few sources of objective data are available regarding the prevalence of drug paraphernalia found at the scene of drug-related deaths or the likelihood of a death with drug paraphernalia found at the scene to be drug-related. This study reviews the deaths which were investigated by the Bexar County Medical Examiner's Office in an attempt to provide objective data...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921140/cocaine-administration-dose-dependently-increases-sexual-desire-and-decreases-condom-use-likelihood-the-role-of-delay-and-probability-discounting-in-connecting-cocaine-with-hiv
#15
Matthew W Johnson, Evan S Herrmann, Mary M Sweeney, Robert S LeComte, Patrick S Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Although cocaine use has been linked to sexual HIV risk behavior for decades, the direct effects of cocaine on sexual desire and sexual decision-making are unexamined. Research suggests delay discounting (devaluation of future outcomes) and probability discounting (devaluation of uncertain outcomes) play roles in condom use decisions. This study examined the effect of cocaine administration on sexual desire, hypothetical condom use, and discounting tasks. METHODS: This double-blind, within-subjects study compared the effects of 0, 125, and 250 mg/70 kg oral cocaine HCl in 12 cocaine users...
December 5, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920946/insights-in-public-health-substance-use-in-pregnant-women-in-hawai-i-extending-our-capacity-and-compassion
#16
Rebecca Delafield, Tricia E Wright
Substance use can have serious consequences for the health and well-being of individuals. The problem is of particular concern when it involves pregnant women due to health risks for the mother and the fetus. In utero exposure to either legal (eg, alcohol, cigarettes, and certain prescription drugs) or illicit (eg, amphetamines, cocaine, and opioids) substances can result in potentially serious and long-lasting health problems for infants. Available data from Hawai'i indicate that substance use among pregnant women is higher than national targets, which reflect the fact that there is essentially no acceptable rate of use of these substances...
November 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920147/accumbens-nnos-interneurons-regulate-cocaine-relapse
#17
Alexander C W Smith, Michael D Scofield, Jasper A Heinsbroek, Cassandra D Gipson, Daniela Neuhofer, Doug J Roberts-Wolfe, Sade Spencer, Neringa M Stankeviciute, Rachel Smith, Nicholas P Allen, Melissa R Lorang, William C Griffin, Heather A Boger, Peter W Kalivas
: Relapse to drug use can be initiated by drug-associated cues. The intensity of cue-induced relapse is correlated with the induction of transient synaptic potentiation (t-SP) at glutamatergic synapses on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore), and requires spillover of glutamate from prefrontal cortical afferents. We used a rodent self-administration/reinstatement model of relapse to show that cue-induced t-SP and reinstated cocaine-seeking result from glutamate spillover initiating a metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-dependent increase in nitric oxide (NO) production...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918282/conditioned-object-preference-an-alternative-approach-to-measuring-reward-learning-in-rats
#18
Bruce C Kennedy, Maulika Kohli, Jamie J Maertens, Paulina S Marell, Jonathan C Gewirtz
Pavlovian conditioned approach behavior can be directed as much toward discrete cues as it is toward the environmental contexts in which those cues are encountered. The current experiments characterized a tendency of rats to approach object cues whose prior exposure had been paired with reward (conditioned object preference, COP). To demonstrate the phenomenon, rats were conditioned to associate cocaine or saline with two different objects. Rats acquired a preference, assessed using investigation times directed toward each object, for the cocaine-paired object following conditioning...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917260/integrative-bayesian-analysis-of-neuroimaging-genetic-data-through-hierarchical-dimension-reduction
#19
S Azadeh, B P Hobbs, L Ma, D A Nielsen, F G Moeller, V Baladandayuthapani
Advances in neuromedicine have emerged from endeavors to elucidate the distinct genetic factors that influence the changes in brain structure that underlie various neurological conditions. We present a framework for examining the extent to which genetic factors impact imaging phenotypes described by voxel-wise measurements organized into collections of functionally relevant regions of interest (ROIs) that span the entire brain. Statistically, the integration of neuroimaging and genetic data is challenging. Because genetic variants are expected to impact different regions of the brain, an appropriate method of inference must simultaneously account for spatial dependence and model uncertainty...
April 2016: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: from Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914279/identification-and-quantification-of-4-methylethcathinone-4-mec-and-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-in-hair-by-lc-ms-ms-after-chronic-administration
#20
Jean Claude Alvarez, Isabelle Etting, Emuri Abe, Antoine Villa, Nicolas Fabresse
4-Methylethcathinone (4-MEC) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) are synthetic cathinones. The objective of this study was to develop a method in order to measure these compounds in hair of a patient. After decontamination, 20mg of hair were grinded and incubated in phosphate buffer pH 5.0 in presence of 100ng of MDMA-d5 used as internal standard. Double basic liquid-liquid extraction was performed. Samples were separated on a 1.9μm Hypersil GOLD PFP column (100×2.1mm) using gradient elution. Compounds were detected by a LCQ TSQ Vantage XP triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer...
November 24, 2016: Forensic Science International
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