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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092168/associations-between-at-risk-alcohol-use-substance-use-and-smoking-with-lipohypertrophy-and-lipoatrophy-among-patients-living-with-hiv
#1
Marisela Noorhasan, Daniel Drozd, Carl Grunfeld, Joe Merrill, Greer Burkholder, Michael J Mugavero, James H Willig, Amanda Willig, Karen L Cropsey, Kenneth Mayer, Aaron Blashill, Matthew Mimiaga, Mary E McCaul, Heidi Hutton, Geetanjali Chander, William C Matthews, Sonia Napravnik, Joseph J Eron, Katerina Christopoulos, Rob Fredericksen, Robin Nance, Joseph Chris Delaney, Paul Crane, Michael Saag, Mari M Kitahata, Heidi Crane
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy and illicit drug use, smoking, and at-risk alcohol use among a large diverse cohort of persons living with HIV (PLWH) in clinical care. METHODS: 7,931 PLWH at 6 sites across the US completed 21,279 clinical assessments including lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy, drug/alcohol use, physical activity level, and smoking. Lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy were measured using the FRAM body morphology instrument and associations were assessed with generalized estimating equations...
January 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090605/domain-adaptation-methods-for-improving-lab-to-field-generalization-of-cocaine-detection-using-wearable-ecg
#2
Annamalai Natarajan, Gustavo Angarita, Edward Gaiser, Robert Malison, Deepak Ganesan, Benjamin M Marlin
Mobile health research on illicit drug use detection typically involves a two-stage study design where data to learn detectors is first collected in lab-based trials, followed by a deployment to subjects in a free-living environment to assess detector performance. While recent work has demonstrated the feasibility of wearable sensors for illicit drug use detection in the lab setting, several key problems can limit lab-to-field generalization performance. For example, lab-based data collection often has low ecological validity, the ground-truth event labels collected in the lab may not be available at the same level of temporal granularity in the field, and there can be significant variability between subjects...
September 2016: Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088742/patterns-of-drug-use-and-hiv-infection-among-adults-in-a-nationally-representative-sample
#3
Stephanie Shiau, Stephen M Arpadi, Michael T Yin, Silvia S Martins
BACKGROUND: Little is known about drug use patterns among people living with HIV in comparison to an uninfected group in the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between legal and illegal drug use and HIV infection in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. METHODS: Public use data files (2005-2014) from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) were used. Respondents were asked whether a medical professional had ever told them that they had HIV/AIDS...
January 7, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088741/prevalence-and-correlates-of-fentanyl-contaminated-heroin-exposure-among-young-adults-who-use-prescription-opioids-non-medically
#4
Alexandria Macmadu, Jennifer J Carroll, Scott E Hadland, Traci C Green, Brandon D L Marshall
BACKGROUND: The rate of overdose deaths caused by fentanyl-contaminated heroin (FCH) use is increasing rapidly in the United States. We examined risk factors for exposure to FCH and experiences with FCH use among young adult non-medical prescription opioids (NMPO) users. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Rhode Island Young Adult Prescription Drug Study (RAPiDS), which enrolled young adults aged 18 to 29 reporting prior 30day NMPO use between January 2015 and February 2016...
January 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088739/the-effects-of-rurality-on-substance-use-disorder-diagnosis-a-multiple-groups-latent-class-analysis
#5
Billy Brooks, Matthew McBee, Robert Pack, Arsham Alamian
BACKGROUND: Rates of accidental overdose mortality from substance use disorder (SUD) have risen dramatically in the United States since 1990. Between 1999 and 2004 alone rates increased 62% nationwide, with rural overdose mortality increasing at a rate 3 times that seen in urban populations. Cultural differences between rural and urban populations (e.g., educational attainment, unemployment rates, social characteristics, etc.) affect the nature of SUD, leading to disparate risk of overdose across these communities...
January 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079721/an-exploratory-study-to-assess-individual-and-structural-level-barriers-associated-with-poor-retention-and-re-engagement-in-care-among-persons-living-with-hiv-aids
#6
Jonathan Colasanti, Natalie Stahl, Eugene W Farber, Carlos Del Rio, Wendy S Armstrong
BACKGROUND: Retention in care is the most challenging step along the HIV care continuum. Many patients who engage in care and achieve viral suppression have care interruptions, characterized by moving in and out of care ("churn"). Poor retention has clinical consequences and contributes to new HIV transmissions, but how to predict or prevent it remains elusive. This study sought to understand the relationship between individual- and structural-level barriers, and poor retention for persons living with HIV/AIDS in Atlanta, GA...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079530/can-intoxication-status-be-used-as-a-prediction-tool-for-manner-of-death-a-comparison-of-the-intoxication-status-in-violent-suicides-and-homicides
#7
D Kimberley Molina, Veronica M Hargrove
Determining the manner of death in medicolegal death investigations can be difficult. The investigator relies on many facets of death investigation, including the circumstances of death and autopsy examination. A study was designed to analyze whether the intoxication status of the decedent could be used as another tool in death investigations. The intoxication status of violent (nonoverdose or poisoning) suicides and homicides was retrospectively reviewed and compared. A total of 625 deaths were identified, including 366 suicides and 259 homicides...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077487/calcium-permeable-ampa-receptors-and-silent%C3%A2-synapses-in-cocaine-conditioned-place-preference
#8
Avani Shukla, Anna Beroun, Myrto Panopoulou, Peter A Neumann, Seth Gn Grant, M Foster Olive, Yan Dong, Oliver M Schlüter
Exposure to cocaine generates silent synapses in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), whose eventual unsilencing/maturation by recruitment of calcium-permeable AMPA-type glutamate receptors (CP-AMPARs) after drug withdrawal results in profound remodeling of NAc neuro-circuits. Silent synapse-based NAc remodeling was shown to be critical for several drug-induced behaviors, but its role in acquisition and retention of the association between drug rewarding effects and drug-associated contexts has remained unclear. Here, we find that the postsynaptic proteins PSD-93, PSD-95, and SAP102 differentially regulate excitatory synapse properties in the NAc...
January 11, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076917/multi-organ-dysfunction-due-to-bath-salts-are-we-aware-of-this-entity
#9
Rohith Valsalan, Benoj Varghese, Diya Soman, Jonathan Buckmaster, Steven Yew, David Cooper
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a synthetic, cathinone-derivative, central nervous system stimulant taken to produce a cocaine- or methamphetamine-like high. Physical manifestations include tachycardia, hypertension, arrhythmias, hyperthermia, sweating, rhabdomyolysis, hyperkalaemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, oliguria and seizures. We report a patient who presented with severe metabolic acidosis, multi-organ dysfunction, rhabdomyolysis, hyperkalaemia and seizures. This case highlights that even though a urine drug screen for routine psychostimulant drugs is negative, clinicians need to be vigilant about the adverse effects of MDPV as a possible cause of multi-organ dysfunction...
January 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076672/prenatal-psychostimulant-and-antidepressant-exposure-and-risk-of-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy
#10
D Jeffrey Newport, Amy L Hostetter, Sarah H Juul, Sunny M Porterfield, Bettina T Knight, Zachary N Stowe
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association, if any, of prenatal mental illness and psychotropic exposure with the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). METHODS: A case-cohort analysis was conducted of 686 pregnant women participating in prospective, longitudinal observational studies in a tertiary referral center between January 1998 and May 2012. Risk estimates were produced using multivariate logistic regression modeling. Medication- and diagnosis-specific data were utilized to conduct post hoc confirmatory analyses of the risk estimates...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076644/main-mental-disorders-in-crack-cocaine-users-treated-at-psychosocial-care-centers-for-alcohol-and-drugs-in-the-city-of-recife-brazil
#11
Antonio Gomes de Castro, Diego César Nunes da Silva, Magda da Silva Figueiroa
Introduction: Brazil's Northeast region has the highest crack-cocaine consumption in the country. Crack-cocaine has more intense effects than cocaine powder and can cause greater chemical dependence. Psychosocial Care Centers for Alcohol and Drugs (CAPSad) are public health services that provide treatment for drug dependence. It is common for drug users, and particularly crack-cocaine users, to develop mental disorders. Objective: To evaluate the most common mental disorders in crack-cocaine dependents in treatment at CAPSad in the city of Recife, Brazil...
October 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076533/similarities-and-differences-in-crack-cocaine-use-patterns-in-santa-catarina-brazil-capital-vs-midwest
#12
Maria Terezinha Zeferino, Vivian Costa Fermo, Marcelo Brandt Fialho, Francisco Inácio Bastos
Crack cocaine has been a major public health problem in Brazil due to the individual and social harms and risks deriving from its use. This article aims to assess the characteristics of drug scenes in the capital and Midwest of Santa Catarina state. The project used the Time-Location Sampling. Between January and June 2011, 41 crack cocaine scenes were mapped in capital of Santa Catarina, whereas 33 were mapped in the Midwest of that state. Such scenes were randomly selected to be observed, as well as their days and shifts (time periods/day) for in-depth observation...
January 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076527/-on-the-sidelines-of-society-crack-use-deviation-criminalization-and-social-exclusion-a-narrative-review
#13
Lidiane Toledo, Andrés Góngora, Francisco Inácio P M Bastos
The article comprises a narrative review of the scientific literature, aiming to identify and discuss the contexts of vulnerability and social exclusion faced by users of crack cocaine and other substances who live on the sidelines of society in the Brazilian and international context. The paper summarizes insights from different theoretical frameworks, focusing on an integrated perspective of substance use and abuse, with an emphasis on the use of crack and its inter-relationships with social vulnerability, marginalization, social exclusion and deviation...
January 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074543/low-distress-tolerance-predicts-heightened-drug-seeking-and-taking-after-extended-abstinence-from-cocaine-self-administration
#14
Travis M Moschak, Douglas R Terry, Stacey B Daughters, Regina M Carelli
Distress tolerance (DT), defined as the ability to persist in goal-directed behavior while experiencing psychological distress, is associated with greater frequency of substance use and poor treatment outcomes. To examine a potential causal role substance use may play in DT, we developed a rodent model of DT in which rats had to press a lever within a continuously decreasing time window for reward while receiving negative feedback on failure trials. DT was defined as the time rats continued to seek reward before quitting the task...
January 11, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074533/netrin-g1-its-downregulation-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-cocaine-conditioned-mice-and-genetic-association-in-human-cocaine-dependence
#15
Sabah Kelaï, Nicolas Ramoz, Jean-Marie Moalic, Florence Noble, Naguib Mechawar, Sandrine Imbeaud, Gustavo Turecki, Michel Simonneau, Philip Gorwood, Gilles Maussion
Netrin G1 is a presynaptic ligand involved in axonal projection. Although molecular mechanisms underlying cocaine addiction are still poorly understood, Netrin G1 might have a role as a regulator of anxiety, fear and spatial memory, behavioural traits impaired in the context of cocaine exposure. In this study, the Netrin G1 (Ntng1) expression was investigated in the nucleus accumbens of mice primarily conditioned to cocaine using a place preference paradigm. A genetic association study was then conducted on 146 multiplex families of the Collaborative study on Genetics of Alcoholism, in which seven single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the NTNG1 gene were genotyped...
January 11, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072417/dopaminergic-dynamics-underlying-sex-specific-cocaine-reward
#16
Erin S Calipari, Barbara Juarez, Carole Morel, Deena M Walker, Michael E Cahill, Efrain Ribeiro, Ciorana Roman-Ortiz, Charu Ramakrishnan, Karl Deisseroth, Ming-Hu Han, Eric J Nestler
Although both males and females become addicted to cocaine, females transition to addiction faster and experience greater difficulties remaining abstinent. We demonstrate an oestrous cycle-dependent mechanism controlling increased cocaine reward in females. During oestrus, ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neuron activity is enhanced and drives post translational modifications at the dopamine transporter (DAT) to increase the ability of cocaine to inhibit its function, an effect mediated by estradiol. Female mice conditioned to associate cocaine with contextual cues during oestrus have enhanced mesolimbic responses to these cues in the absence of drug...
January 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070621/behavioral-evidence-for-the-abuse-potential-of-the-novel-synthetic-cathinone-alpha-pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone-pvt-in-rodents
#17
Jae Hoon Cheong, Mee Jung Choi, Choon-Gon Jang, Yong Sup Lee, Sooyeun Lee, Hee Jin Kim, Joung-Wook Seo, Seong Shoon Yoon
RATIONALE: Synthetic cathinones are chemical derivatives of cathinone that are pharmacologically similar to cocaine and methamphetamine. Recently, abuse of synthetic cathinones among young people has increased. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to characterize the behavioral effects of alpha-pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone (PVT), an analog of alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone and second-generation synthetic cathinone, as well as to evaluate its abuse potential, using conditioned place preference, intravenous self-administration (SA), and drug discrimination paradigms in rodent models...
January 9, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070538/lack-of-effects-of-toll-like-receptor-4-antagonists-on-the-reinforcing-effects-of-cocaine-and-remifentanil
#18
COMMENT
Takato Hiranita
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070254/the-efficacy-of-contingency-management-on-cocaine-craving-using-prize-based-reinforcement-of-abstinence-in-cocaine-users
#19
Bijan Pirnia, Seyed Kazem Rasoulzadeh Tabatabaei, Abbas Tavallaii, Ali Akbar Soleimani, Kambiz Pirnia
INTRODUCTION: Contingency management (CM) is one of the most common therapies in the domain of drug addiction. This study has been carried out with the purpose of evaluating the efficacy of contingency management intervention. METHOD: In an experimental design, between December 15, 2014 and November 20, 2015, fifty men (between 18 and 31 with an average age of 24.6) with a history of cocaine use, were selected voluntarily and were randomly assigned into two groups of CM and control group...
November 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065934/brain-cannabinoid-receptor-2-expression-function-and-modulation
#20
REVIEW
De-Jie Chen, Ming Gao, Fen-Fei Gao, Quan-Xi Su, Jie Wu
Cannabis sativa (marijuana) is a fibrous flowering plant that produces an abundant variety of molecules, some with psychoactive effects. At least 4% of the world's adult population uses cannabis annually, making it one of the most frequently used illicit drugs in the world. The psychoactive effects of cannabis are mediated primarily through cannabinoid receptor (CBR) subtypes. The prevailing view is that CB1Rs are mainly expressed in the central neurons, whereas CB2Rs are predominantly expressed in peripheral immune cells...
January 9, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
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