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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551713/atomoxetine-effects-on-attentional-bias-to-drug-related-cues-in-cocaine-dependent-individuals
#1
Luca Passamonti, M Luijten, H Ziauddeen, I T S Coyle-Gilchrist, T Rittman, S A E Brain, R Regenthal, I H A Franken, B J Sahakian, E T Bullmore, T W Robbins, K D Ersche
RATIONALE: Biased attention towards drug-related cues and reduced inhibitory control over the regulation of drug-intake characterize drug addiction. The noradrenaline system has been critically implicated in both attentional and response inhibitory processes and is directly affected by drugs such as cocaine. OBJECTIVES: We examined the potentially beneficial effects of the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine in improving cognitive control during two tasks that used cocaine- and non-cocaine-related stimuli...
May 27, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551458/maternal-substance-use-and-child-protection-a-rapid-evidence-assessment-of-factors-associated-with-loss-of-child-care
#2
REVIEW
Martha Canfield, Polly Radcliffe, Sally Marlow, Marggie Boreham, Gail Gilchrist
This article reviews the literature on the factors associated with mothers who use substances losing care of their children. A rapid evidence assessment was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses. Medline and PsycINFO databases were searched to identify primary research studies published in English during January 2000-September 2016. Studies were included if they presented individual, formal support (e.g., receiving substance use treatment) or informal support (e...
May 25, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550519/drug-abuse-associated-mortality-across-the-lifespan-a-population-based-longitudinal-cohort-and-co-relative-analysis
#3
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Kristina Sundquist, Jan Sundquist
PURPOSE: Nationwide data have been lacking on drug abuse (DA)-associated mortality. We do not know the degree to which this excess mortality results from the characteristics of drug-abusing individuals or from the effects of DA itself. METHOD: DA was assessed from medical, criminal, and prescribed drug registries. Relative pairs discordant for DA were obtained from the Multi-Generation and Twin Registers. Mortality was obtained from the Swedish Mortality registry...
May 26, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550455/-effects-of-the-novel-relatively-short-acting-kappa-opioid-receptor-antagonist-ly2444296-in-behaviors-observed-after-chronic-extended-access-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#4
Marta Valenza, Eduardo R Butelman, Mary Jeanne Kreek
RATIONALE: The recruitment of the stress circuitry contributes to a shift from positive to negative reinforcement mechanisms sustaining long-term cocaine addiction. The kappa opioid receptor (KOPr) signaling is upregulated by stress and chronic cocaine exposure. While KOPr agonists induce anhedonia and dysphoria, KOPr antagonists display antidepressant and anxiolytic properties. Most of the knowledge on KOPr antagonism is based on drugs with unusual pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, complicating interpretation of results...
May 27, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550378/longitudinal-modeling-of-depressive-trajectories-among-hiv-infected-men-using-cocaine
#5
Shibani Mukerji, Roxanna Haghighat, Vikas Misra, David R Lorenz, Alex Holman, Anupriya Dutta, Dana Gabuzda
Cocaine use is prevalent among HIV-infected individuals. While cross-sectional studies suggest that cocaine users may be at increased risk for depression, long-term effects of cocaine on depressive symptoms remain unclear. This is a longitudinal study of 341 HIV-infected and uninfected men (135 cocaine users and 206 controls) ages 30-60 enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study during 1996-2009. The median baseline age was 41; 73% were African-American. In mixed-effects models over a median of 4.8 years of observation, cocaine use was associated with higher depressive symptoms independent of age, education level, and smoking (n = 288; p = 0...
May 26, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549664/role-of-glucocorticoid-receptor-mediated-mechanisms-in-cocaine-memory-enhancement
#6
S J Stringfield, J A Higginbotham, R Wang, A L Berger, R J McLaughlin, R A Fuchs
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a critical site for the reconsolidation of labile contextual cocaine memories following retrieval-induced reactivation/destabilization. Here, we examined whether glucocorticoid receptors (GR), which are abundant in the BLA, mediate this phenomenon. Rats were trained to lever press for cocaine reinforcement in a distinct environmental context, followed by extinction training in a different context. Rats were then briefly exposed to the cocaine-paired context (to elicit memory reactivation and reconsolidation) or their home cages (no reactivation control)...
May 23, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547130/extracellular-dopamine-acetylcholine-and-activation-of-dopamine-d1-and-d2-receptors-after-selective-breeding-for-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#7
Haiyang Xu, Sasmita Das, Marc Sturgill, Colin Hodgkinson, Qiaoping Yuan, David Goldman, Kenneth Grasing
RATIONALE: The low self-administration (LS)/Kgras (LS) and high self-administration (HS)/Kgras (HS) rat lines were generated by selective breeding for low- and high-intravenous cocaine self-administration, respectively, from a common outbred Wistar stock (Crl:WI). This trait has remained stable after 13 generations of breeding. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study is to compare cocaine preference, neurotransmitter release, and dopamine receptor activation in LS and HS rats...
May 26, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545678/rapid-synaptogenesis-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-is-induced-by-a-single-cocaine-administration-and-stabilized-by-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-interacting-kinase-1-activity
#8
Marc Dos Santos, Marine Salery, Benoit Forget, Maria Alexandra Garcia Perez, Sandrine Betuing, Thomas Boudier, Peter Vanhoutte, Jocelyne Caboche, Nicolas Heck
BACKGROUND: Repeated cocaine exposure produces new spine formation in striatal projection neurons (SPNs) of the nucleus accumbens. However, an acute exposure to cocaine can trigger long-lasting synaptic plasticity in SPNs leading to behavioral alterations. This raises the intriguing question as to whether a single administration of cocaine could enduringly modify striatal connectivity. METHODS: A three-dimensional morphometric analysis of presynaptic glutamatergic boutons and dendritic spines was performed on SPNs 1 hour and 1 week after a single cocaine administration...
March 29, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544995/intrauterine-exposure-to-tobacco-and-executive-functioning-in-high-school
#9
Ruth Rose-Jacobs, Mark A Richardson, Kathryn Buchanan-Howland, Clara A Chen, Howard Cabral, Timothy C Heeren, Jane Liebschutz, Leah Forman, Deborah A Frank
BACKGROUND: Executive functioning (EF), an umbrella construct encompassing gradual maturation of cognitive organization/management processes, is important to success in multiple settings including high school. Intrauterine tobacco exposure (IUTE) correlates with negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes, but little is known about its association with adolescent EF and information from real-life contexts is sparse. We evaluated the impact of IUTE on teacher-reported observations of EF in urban high school students controlling for covariates including other intrauterine and adolescent substance exposures...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544993/muscarinic-receptor-m4-positive-allosteric-modulators-attenuate-central-effects-of-cocaine
#10
Camilla Dall, Pia Weikop, Ditte Dencker, Anna C Molander, Gitta Wörtwein, P Jeffrey Conn, Anders Fink-Jensen, Morgane Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Cocaine addiction is a chronic brain disease affecting neurotransmission. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors modulate dopaminergic signaling in the reward system, and muscarinic receptor stimulation can block direct reinforcing effects of cocaine. Here, we tested the hypothesis that specific muscarinic M4 receptor stimulation can attenuate the discriminative stimulus effects and conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine, measures believed to predict the ability of cocaine and cocaine-associated cues to elicit relapse to drug taking...
May 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543168/a-new-tool-to-tackle-the-opioid-epidemic-description-utility-and-results-from-the-maine-diversion-alert-program
#11
Brian J Piper, Clare E Desrosiers, Harriet C Fisher, Kenneth L McCall, Stephanie D Nichols
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The opioid epidemic continues to impact the United States, and new strategies are needed to combat this epidemic. The objective of this study was to analyze 2015 drug arrest data from Maine's Diversion Alert program (diversionalert. org), compare arrest data between the first quarters of 2015 and 2016, and provide an analysis of the sex differences in the arrests as well as information about DA use. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based, descriptive study using data from the Maine Diversion Alert Program...
May 19, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541461/screening-with-quantification-for-64-drugs-and-metabolites-in-human-urine-using-uplc-ms-ms-analysis-and-a-threshold-accurate-calibration
#12
Thomas G Rosano, Patrice Y Ohouo, Michelle Wood
Drug and metabolite (analytes) identification together with quantification is an important analytical tool in forensic and clinical toxicology. We report the development and validation of a definitive detection and quantification method (UPLC-MS-MS) for initial screening of 64 analytes in urine. The principle of the method is a quantitative extension of a recently reported threshold accurate calibration (TAC) technique which employs a rapid dual-specimen analysis i.e., with and without addition of a reference-analyte standard for normalization of matrix effects...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540927/regional-differences-in-striatal-neuronal-ensemble-excitability-following-cocaine-and-extinction-memory-retrieval-in-fos-gfp-mice
#13
Joseph Ziminski, Meike C Sieburg, Gabriella Margetts-Smith, Hans S Crombag, Eisuke Koya
Learned associations between drugs of abuse and the drug administration environment play an important role in addiction. In rodents, exposure to a drug-associated environment elicits conditioned psychomotor activation, which may be weakened following extinction learning. While widespread drug-induced changes in neuronal excitability have been observed, little is known about specific changes within neuronal ensembles activated during the recall of drug-environment associations. Using a cocaine conditioned locomotion procedure, the present study assessed the excitability of neuronal ensembles in the nucleus accumbens core and shell (NAc(core) and NAc(shell)), and dorsal striatum (DS) following cocaine conditioning and extinction in Fos-GFP mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in activated neurons (GFP+)...
May 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539416/the-extinction-of-cocaine-seeking-requires-a-window-of-infralimbic-pyramidal-neuron-activity-after-unreinforced-lever-presses
#14
Andrea L Gutman, Kelle E Nett, Caitlin V Cosme, Wensday R Worth, Subhash C Gupta, John A Wemmie, Ryan T LaLumiere
The infralimbic cortex (IL) mediates the extinction learning and active suppression of cocaine-seeking behavior. However, the precise temporal relationship among IL activity, lever pressing, and extinction learning is unclear. To address this issue, we employed activity-guided optogenetics in male Sprague-Dawley rats to optically silence IL pyramidal neurons for 20 s immediately following unreinforced lever presses during early extinction training after cocaine self-administration. Optical inhibition of the IL increased active lever pressing during shortened extinction sessions but did not alter the retention of the extinction learning as assessed in ensuing extinction sessions with no optical inhibition...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538757/brazilian-cross-cultural-adaptation-and-validation-of-the-list-of-threatening-events-questionnaire-lte-q
#15
Patrícia B de Abreu, Hugo Cogo-Moreira, Regina A Pose, Ronaldo Laranjeira, Raul Caetano, Carolina M Gaya, Clarice S Madruga
Objective: To perform a construct validation of the List of Threatening Events Questionnaire (LTE-Q), as well as convergence validation by identifying its association with drug use in a sample of the Brazilian population. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of the Second Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey (II BNADS), which used a cross-cultural adaptation of the LTE-Q in a probabilistic sample of 4,607 participants aged 14 years and older. Latent class analysis was used to validate the latent trait adversity (which considered the number of events from the list of 12 item in the LTE experienced by the respondent in the previous year) and logistic regression was performed to find its association with binge drinking and cocaine use...
May 22, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537688/prevalence-of-alcohol-and-other-drugs-in-injured-drivers-and-their-association-with-clinical-outcomes
#16
F Cittadini, N De Giovanni, L Caradonna, G Vetrugno, A Oliva, N Fucci, C Zuppi, V L Pascali, M Covino
OBJECTIVE: Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs is a risk factor for motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). This issue has become an increasing concern for the governments of many European and North American countries, thereby encouraging the adoption of preventive policies. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between major clinical outcomes and alcohol or drug abuse among drivers involved in MVAs who were referred to an Italian Emergency Department. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of consecutive injured drivers who were admitted to the Emergency Department following an MVA during a period of one year...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536865/the-c-2-derivatives-of-salvinorin-a-ethoxymethyl-ether-sal-b-and-%C3%AE-tetrahydropyran-sal-b-have-anti-cocaine-properties-with-minimal-side-effects
#17
Amy W M Ewald, Peter J Bosch, Aimee Culverhouse, Rachel Saylor Crowley, Benjamin Neuenswander, Thomas E Prisinzano, Bronwyn M Kivell
RATIONALE: Kappa-opioid receptor (KOPr) agonists have pre-clinical anti-cocaine and analgesic effects. However, side effects including sedation, dysphoria, aversion, anxiety and depression limit their therapeutic development. The unique structure of salvinorin A has been used to develop longer acting KOPr agonists. OBJECTIVES: We evaluate two novel C-2 analogues of salvinorin A, ethoxymethyl ether Sal B (EOM Sal B) and β-tetrahydropyran Sal B (β-THP Sal B) alongside U50,488 for their ability to modulate cocaine-induced behaviours and side effects, pre-clinically...
May 23, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535798/using-kalirin-conditional-knockout-mice-to-distinguish-its-role-in-dopamine-receptor-mediated-behaviors
#18
Taylor P LaRese, Yan Yan, Betty A Eipper, Richard E Mains
BACKGROUND: Mice lacking Kalirin-7 (Kal7(KO)), a Rho GDP/GTP exchange factor, self-administer cocaine at a higher rate than wildtype mice, and show an exaggerated locomotor response to experimenter-administered cocaine. Kal7, which localizes to post-synaptic densities at glutamatergic synapses, interacts directly with the GluN2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA; GluN) receptor. Consistent with these observations, Kal7 plays an essential role in NMDA receptor dependent long term potentiation and depression, and glutamatergic transmission plays a key role in the response to chronic cocaine...
May 23, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535456/effectiveness-of-treatment-for-opioid-use-disorder-a-national-five-year-prospective-observational-study-in-england
#19
Brian Eastwood, John Strang, John Marsden
BACKGROUND: This the first 5-year effectiveness study of publicly funded treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) in England. METHODS: All adults initiating treatment in 2008/09 in all 149 local treatment systems reporting to the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (n=54,347). Admission polydrug use sub-populations were identified by Latent Class Analysis. The treatment outcome measure was 'successful completion and no re-presentation within six months' (SCNR) analysed by multilevel, multivariable logistic regression and funnel plots to contrast outcome by treatment system...
May 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532517/expression-of-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-cart-in-hen-ovary
#20
Pengfei Li, Xuejing Yu, Jianshan Xie, Xiaolei Yao, Wenzhong Liu, Jianbo Yao, Zhiwei Zhu, Lihua Lyu
BACKGROUND: Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), discovered initially by via differential display RT-PCR analysis of brains of rats administered cocaine, is expressed mainly in central nervous system or neuronal origin cells, and is involved in a wide range of behaviors, such as regulation of food intake, energy homeostasis, and reproduction. The hens egg-laying rate mainly depends on the developmental status of follicles, expression of CART have not been identified from hen follicles, the regulatory mechanisms of CART biological activities are still unknown...
May 22, 2017: Biological Research
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