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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784435/pulmonary-renal-syndrome-secondary-to-cocaine-levamisole-induced-vasculitis-a-case-report
#1
Mauricio Restrepo-Escobar, Dayana Sylva, Juan Guillermo Gamboa, Andrés Echeverri, Javier Márquez, Luis Fernando Pinto
Pulmonary-renal syndrome has rarely been reported as the clinical presentation of vasculitis caused by the consumption of cocaine adulterated with levamisole. We report the case of a patient in whom we detected the clinical manifestations and indicate the difficulties that arose in relation to the diagnostic and therapeutic approach.
May 18, 2018: Reumatología Clinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784374/polymer-platforms-for-selective-detection-of-cocaine-in-street-samples-adulterated-with-levamisole
#2
Anca Florea, Todd Cowen, Sergey Piletsky, Karolien De Wael
Accurate drug detection is of utmost importance for fighting against drug abuse. With a high number of cutting agents and adulterants being added to cut or mask drugs in street powders the number of false results is increasing. We demonstrate for the first time the usefulness of employing polymers readily synthesized by electrodeposition to selectively detect cocaine in the presence of the commonly used adulterant levamisole. The polymers were selected by computational modelling to exhibit high binding affinity towards cocaine and deposited directly on the surface of graphene-modified electrodes via electropolymerization...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784213/knowledge-and-perceptions-of-undergraduate-nurses-towards-the-use-of-cocaine-smoked-in-a-brazilian-context
#3
Sérgia Cristina Cavalcante Pereira, Luciana Marques Andreto, Ariani Impieri Souza, Iracema da Silva Frazão, Goolan Hussein Rassool, Sandra Cristina Pillon
The aim of the study was to evaluate the perceptions and knowledge of nursing students on the identification and intervention care among users of cocaine (smoked) patients. A cross-sectional survey design was conducted with 164 undergraduate nursing students of two nursing school from Northeast of Brazil. A questionnaire on knowledge and attitudes and therapeutic commitment towards the use of cocaine (smoked) were used. The students stated that they received contents of substance misuse in the curriculum of nursing...
June 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782427/clinical-profile-of-levamisole-adulterated-cocaine-induced-vasculitis-vasculopathy-a-30-case-series
#4
Carlos Horacio Muñoz-Vahos, Sebastián Herrera-Uribe, Álvaro Arbeláez-Cortés, Daniel Jaramillo-Arroyave, Luis Alonso González-Naranjo, Gloria Vásquez-Duque, Mauricio Restrepo-Escobar, Luis Alfonso Correa-Londoño, Luis Fernando Arias-Restrepo, Adriana Lucía Vanegas-García
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to describe clinical and laboratory manifestations of patients with levamisole-adulterated cocaine-induced vasculitis/vasculopathy and to propose a skin classification according to the distribution and severity of lesions. METHODS: We report the characteristics of 30 patients admitted with levamisole-adulterated cocaine-induced vasculitis/vasculopathy in 4 high-complexity institutions in Colombia, from December 2010 to May 2017...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781600/electrified-soft-interface-as-a-selective-sensor-for-cocaine-detection-in-street-samples
#5
Lukasz Poltorak, Irene Eggink, Marnix Hoitink, Ernst J R Sudholter, Marcel de Puit
A straightforward, direct and selective method is presented for electrochemical cocaine identification in street samples. The sensing mechanism is based on a simple ion transfer reaction across the polarized liquid-liquid interface. The interfacial behavior of a number of cutting agents is also reported. Interfacial miniaturization has lead to improved electro-analytical properties of the liquid-liquid interface based sensor as compared with the macroscopic analogue. The reported method holds great potential to replace colorimetric tests with poor selectivity for on-site street sample analysis...
May 21, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778770/age-related-prevalence-and-twelve-month-incidence-of-illicit-drug-use-in-a-cohort-of-australian-gay-and-bisexual-men-results-from-the-flux-study
#6
Fengyi Jin, Mohamed A Hammoud, Lisa Maher, Louisa Degenhardt, Adam Bourne, Toby Lea, Stefanie Vaccher, Jeffrey Grierson, Bridget Haire, Garrett P Prestage
BACKGROUND: We report prevalence and incidence of drug use initiation in Australian gay and bisexual men (GBM) participating in an online cohort study. METHODS: Between September 2014 and June 2015, 1,710 GBM were enrolled in the Following Lives Undergoing Change Study and followed-up six monthly. Participants were asked about measures of lifetime use at baseline and recent use (last six months) at all visits. Drug use initiation was defined as men who reported having never used a specific drug prior to baseline and reported recent use at follow-up...
May 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777699/cart-peptide-activates-the-nrf2-ho-1-antioxidant-pathway-and-protects-hippocampal-neurons-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Wenyu Jiao, Yongchen Wang, Linghong Kong, Tao Ou-Yang, Qing Meng, Qiang Fu, Zhenzhen Hu
The accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and oxidative stress damage in the brain are recognized as early features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide may possibly play an antioxidative role in neurons. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antioxidant mechanism of CART peptide in a rat model of AD. We microinjected of Aβ1-42 (2μl/4μg/hemisphere) into rat hippocampus to set a rat model of AD. A pre-microinjection of CART peptide (1μl/0...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777165/hiv-1-proteins-dysregulate-motivational-processes-and-dopamine-circuitry
#8
Sarah J Bertrand, Charles F Mactutus, Steven B Harrod, Landhing M Moran, Rosemarie M Booze
Motivational alterations, such as apathy, in HIV-1+ individuals are associated with decreased performance on tasks involving frontal-subcortical circuitry. We used the HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat to assess effect of long-term HIV-1 protein exposure on motivated behavior using sucrose (1-30%, w/v) and cocaine (0.01-1.0 mg/kg/infusion) maintained responding with fixed-ratio (FR) and progressive-ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. For sucrose-reinforced responding, HIV-1 Tg rats displayed no change in EC50 relative to controls, suggesting no change in sucrose reinforcement but had a downward shifted concentration-response curves, suggesting a decrease in response vigor...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776789/transdiagnostic-effects-of-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-cue-reactivity
#9
Tonisha E Kearney-Ramos, Logan T Dowdle, Daniel H Lench, Oliver J Mithoefer, William H Devries, Mark S George, Raymond F Anton, Colleen A Hanlon
BACKGROUND: Elevated frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues is a transdiagnostic hallmark of substance use disorders. The goal of these experiments was to determine if it is possible to decrease frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues in both cocaine users and heavy alcohol users through continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). METHODS: Two single-blinded, within-subject, active sham-controlled experiments were performed wherein neural reactivity to drug/alcohol cues versus neutral cues was evaluated immediately before and after receiving real or sham cTBS (110% resting motor threshold, 3600 pulses, Fp1 location; N = 49: 25 cocaine users [experiment 1], 24 alcohol users [experiment 2]; 196 total functional magnetic resonance imaging scans)...
April 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776355/can-deep-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-dtms-be-used-to-treat-substance-use-disorders-sud-a-systematic-review
#10
Karina Karolina Kedzior, Imke Gerkensmeier, Maria Schuchinsky
BACKGROUND: Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (DTMS) is a non-invasive method of stimulating widespread cortical areas and, presumably, deeper neural networks. The current study assessed the effects of DTMS in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUD) using a systematic review. METHODS: Electronic literature search (PsycInfo, Medline until April 2017) identified k = 9 studies (k = 4 randomized-controlled trials, RCTs, with inactive sham and k = 5 open-label studies)...
May 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775957/how-treatment-improvement-in-adhd-and-cocaine-dependence-are-related-to-one-another-a-secondary-analysis
#11
Frances R Levin, C Jean Choi, Martina Pavlicova, John J Mariani, Amy Mahony, Daniel J Brooks, Edward V Nunes, John Grabowski
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is overrepresented among individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. We previously reported that treatment with extended release mixed amphetamine salts (MAS-XR) increased abstinence, compared to placebo, among patients with co-occurring ADHD and cocaine dependence. This secondary analysis investigates the temporal relationship between ADHD improvement and cocaine abstinence in the first six weeks of the trial...
May 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775956/typology-of-new-psychoactive-substance-use-among-the-general-australian-population
#12
Rachel Sutherland, Amy Peacock, Amanda Roxburgh, Monica J Barratt, Lucinda Burns, Raimondo Bruno
AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the typology of Australian illicit drug consumers to determine whether those who use new psychoactive substances (NPS) differ from those using other illicit substances. METHODS: Data were from the 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey, a representative population study; analyses were limited to participants reporting past year illicit drug use (including NPS; n = 3309). Latent class analysis identified groups based on past year substance use, and a weighted multivariable, multinomial regression model was used to examine characteristics associated with group membership...
May 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775923/determination-of-hydroxy-metabolites-of-cocaine-from-hair-samples-and-comparison-with-street-cocaine-samples
#13
Thomas Franz, Frank Scheufler, Klaus Stein, Michael Uhl, Torsten Dame, Gerlinde Schwarz, Hans Sachs, Gisela Skopp, Frank Musshoff
Drugs which are commonly smoked or sniffed (e.g. cocaine), can contaminate hair through smoke or dust; therefore testing for metabolites, especially hydroxy metabolites, is highly recommended. The presence of hydroxy metabolites in street-cocaine (COC) has been discussed. To check if detection of hydroxy metabolites definitely proves ingestion, the presence of these metabolites in street COC samples has to be checked. It is expected that the more hydrophilic hydroxy metabolites of COC are incorporated into the hair-matrix to a lesser extent...
April 12, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775921/toxicological-investigation-in-blood-samples-from-suspected-impaired-driving-cases-in-the-milan-area-possible-loss-of-evidence-due-to-late-blood-sampling
#14
Davide Ferrari, Monica Manca, Simone Premaschi, Giuseppe Banfi, Massimo Locatelli
Driving under the influence of illicit drugs (DUID) represents a significant menace to public safety and is therefore sanctioned with severe fines and penalties such as driving disqualification or even arrest in case the accident has caused serious injury or death. In Italy, DUID is regulated by the article 187 of the National Street Code, however, the list of the substances to be searched and their threshold concentrations are left to the 20 Italian regional authorities. A further lack of legislative standardization concerns the type of detection methods and moreover the time gap between the car accident and blood sampling...
May 1, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775565/a-role-of-neuropeptide-cart-in-hyperphagia-and-weight-gain-induced-by-olanzapine-treatment-in-rats
#15
Kartik T Nakhate, Nishikant K Subhedar, Dadasaheb M Kokare
Although olanzapine is highly efficacious and most widely used second generation antipsychotic drug, the success of treatment has been hampered by its propensity to induce weight gain. While the underlying neuronal mechanisms are unclear, their elucidation may help to target alternative pathways regulating energy balance. The present study was undertaken to define the role of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), a well-known anorexic peptide, in olanzapine-induced hyperphagia and body weight gain in rats...
May 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773910/the-l-type-calcium-channel-blocker-isradipine-attenuates-cue-induced-cocaine-seeking-by-enhancing-dopaminergic-activity-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-to-nucleus-accumbens-pathway
#16
Nii A Addy, Eric J Nunes, Shannon M Hughley, Keri M Small, Sarah J Baracz, Joshua L Haight, Anjali M Rajadhyaksha
Previous preclinical and clinical investigations have focused on the L-type calcium channel (LTCC) as a potential therapeutic target for substance abuse. While some clinical studies have examined the ability of LTCC blockers to alter cocaine's subjective effects, very few LTCC studies have examined cocaine relapse. Here, we examined whether ventral tegmental area (VTA)-specific or systemic administration of the LTCC inhibitor, isradipine, altered cocaine-seeking behavior in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats first received 10 days of cocaine self-administration training (2 h sessions), where active lever depression resulted in delivery of a ∼0...
May 3, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773909/an-unsuspected-role-for-organic-cation-transporter-3-in-the-actions-of-amphetamine
#17
Felix P Mayer, Diethart Schmid, W Anthony Owens, Georgianna G Gould, Mia Apuschkin, Oliver Kudlacek, Isabella Salzer, Stefan Boehm, Peter Chiba, Piper H Williams, Hsiao-Huei Wu, Ulrik Gether, Wouter Koek, Lynette C Daws, Harald H Sitte
Amphetamine abuse is a major public health concern for which there is currently no effective treatment. To develop effective treatments, the mechanisms by which amphetamine produces its abuse-related effects need to be fully understood. It is well known that amphetamine exerts its actions by targeting high-affinity transporters for monoamines, in particular the cocaine-sensitive dopamine transporter. Organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) has recently been found to play an important role in regulating monoamine signaling...
April 6, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773359/-psychoactive-substances-use-in-r%C3%A3-union-island-and-mayotte-french-departments-in-indian-ocean
#18
Amélie Daveluy, Françoise Haramburu
INTRODUCTION: The government plan for the fight against drugs and addictive behaviors 2013-2017 includes several actions concerning French overseas territories, in particular to strengthen information on drug addiction. The Interministerial mission for combating drugs and addictive behaviors (MILD&CA) has commissioned the Bordeaux addictovigilance center to strengthen exchanges on addictovigilance with Réunion Island and Mayotte and to make an inventory of problematic drug use in these two French departments of Indian Ocean...
February 27, 2018: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772331/surgical-treatment-of-a-high-flow-femoro-femoral-arteriovenous-fistula-in-an-intravenous-drug-abuser
#19
Pietro Rossetti, Paolo Perini, Alessandro Ucci, Gaetano Carolla, Antonio Freyrie, Roberto Quintavalla
OBJECTIVE: To report the surgical treatment of a high-flow femoro-femoral arteriovenous fistula (AVF), a rare complication of intravenous drug abuse. CASE REPORT: A 36-year-old woman with history of intravenous heroin and cocaine abuse presented with right lower limb oedema, inguinal bruit and heart failure. Duplex ultrasound examination and CT-angiography showed a large, high-flow AVF involving the common femoral vein and the superficial femoral artery, associated with thrombosis of the great saphenous vein and an important inflammation in the right groin, without active bleeding...
May 14, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768586/gender-stereotypes-in-psychosocial-care-for-female-crack-and-powder-cocaine-users
#20
Érika Barbosa de Oliveira Silva, Adriana Lenho de Figueiredo Pereira, Lúcia Helena Garcia Penna
The study analyzed health professionals' conceptions toward female users of crack and powder cocaine currently receiving psychosocial care, based on a gender perspective. Seventeen health professionals were interviewed, and systematic observations were made of the spaces for collective care in a Center for Psychosocial Care specializing in alcohol and drug addiction in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Analysis of the interviews and field diaries using the hermeneutic-dialectic method revealed three categories: frailty as a constitutive attribute of women's condition, the women's emotional addiction to crack and powder cocaine use, and gender stereotypes during psychosocial care...
May 10, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
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