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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156634/an-overview-of-chitosan-nanoparticles-and-its-application-in-non-parenteral-drug-delivery
#1
REVIEW
Munawar A Mohammed, Jaweria T M Syeda, Kishor M Wasan, Ellen K Wasan
The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the chitosan based nanoparticles for various non-parenteral applications and also to put a spotlight on current research including sustained release and mucoadhesive chitosan dosage forms. Chitosan is a biodegradable, biocompatible polymer regarded as safe for human dietary use and approved for wound dressing applications. Chitosan has been used as a carrier in polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery through various routes of administration. Chitosan has chemical functional groups that can be modified to achieve specific goals, making it a polymer with a tremendous range of potential applications...
November 20, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156583/new-paradigms-for-the-study-of-ocular-alphaherpesvirus-infections-insights-into-the-use-of-non-traditional-host-model-systems
#2
REVIEW
Matthew R Pennington, Eric C Ledbetter, Gerlinde R Van de Walle
Ocular herpesviruses, most notably human alphaherpesvirus 1 (HSV-1), canid alphaherpesvirus 1 (CHV-1) and felid alphaherpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), infect and cause severe disease that may lead to blindness. CHV-1 and FHV-1 have a pathogenesis and induce clinical disease in their hosts that is similar to HSV-1 ocular infections in humans, suggesting that infection of dogs and cats with CHV-1 and FHV-1, respectively, can be used as a comparative natural host model of herpesvirus-induced ocular disease. In this review, we discuss both strengths and limitations of the various available model systems to study ocular herpesvirus infection, with a focus on the use of these non-traditional virus-natural host models...
November 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156348/development-of-photoprotective-antiphototoxic-and-antiphotogenotoxic-formulations-of-ocular-drugs-with-fluoroquinolones
#3
Anna Zgadzaj, Joanna Kornacka, Anita Jastrzębska, Andrzej Parzonko, Sylwester Sommer, Grzegorz Nałęcz-Jawecki
The development of innovative solutions in photosafety of photolabile pharmaceutical products may help to reduce the adverse effects of these products, caused by light exposure. Providing new data in this area of study is particularly important in case of drugs applied topically on sensitive organs such as eyes. The main goal of this research is to investigate whether two potential excipients, namely: p-coumaric acid and benzophenone-4, affect the photodegradation, phototoxicity and photogenotoxicity of water solutions of four fluoroquinolones: ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, fleroxacin and clinafloxacin...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156063/traumatic-ruptured-globe-from-a-22-cartridge-casing-in-a-2-year-old-girl
#4
Jacob S Martin, Devasis N Reddy, Heather A D Potter, Cat N Burkat
The authors report the case of a 2-year-old girl who presented with an acute ruptured globe secondary to penetration by the casing of a .22 caliber cartridge that was ignited by a car cigarette lighter. Although penetrating injuries are a common mechanism of ocular trauma, open globe induced by cartridge casing represents an unusual and preventable cause. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54:e88-e90.].
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156060/three-cases-of-associated-persistent-fetal-vasculature-and-ocular-coloboma-posterior-segment-dysgenesis
#5
Sudarshan Khokhar, Brijesh Takkar, Ganesh Pillay, Pradeep Venkatesh
The authors discuss the association of persistent fetal vasculature and ocular coloboma in three children. They explore the possibility of a cause-effect relationship between these disorders, and link them together as a broader posterior dysgenesis. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54:e77-e80.].
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156059/clinical-pearl-the-rule-of-8
#6
Kevin Lu Shen, Amit R Bhatt
Preschool-aged children typically perform worse than 20/20 on visual acuity testing in the absence of ocular or visual pathway abnormalities due to non-ocular issues, including concentration, cooperation, and/or confidence. As a result, vision screening for this age group can be a challenge. The "Rule of 8" is an easy-to-remember, highly effective mnemonic that clinicians can use to help differentiate children who are performing visual acuity testing at age-appropriate levels from those who may need further evaluation...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155856/treatment-with-solubilized-silk-derived-protein-sdp-enhances-rabbit-corneal-epithelial-wound-healing
#7
Waleed Abdel-Naby, Brigette Cole, Aihong Liu, Jingbo Liu, Pengxia Wan, Ryan Schreiner, David W Infanger, Nicholas B Paulson, Brian D Lawrence, Mark I Rosenblatt
There is a significant clinical need to improve current therapeutic approaches to treat ocular surface injuries and disease, which affect hundreds of millions of people annually worldwide. The work presented here demonstrates that the presence of Silk-Derived Protein (SDP) on the healing rabbit corneal surface, administered in an eye drop formulation, corresponds with an enhanced epithelial wound healing profile. Rabbit corneas were denuded of their epithelial surface, and then treated for 72-hours with either PBS or PBS containing 5 or 20 mg/mL SDP in solution four times per day...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155693/clostridium-perfringens-panophthalmitis-after-intravitreal-anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-injection
#8
Swarupa Kancherla, Ahmara Ross, Susan T Stefko, Joseph N Martel
PURPOSE: This report describes a fulminant infection with Clostridium perfringens after an intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injection. METHODS: This is a retrospective case review. RESULTS: Our patient's rapid infection eventually led to enucleation, despite broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. CONCLUSION: Reporting rare causes and common clinical findings of C. perfringens ocular infection may lead to earlier detection and intervention...
November 16, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155634/how-does-imaging-of-congenital-zika-compare-with-imaging-of-other-torch-infections
#9
Deborah Levine, Jacques C Jani, Ilse Castro-Aragon, Mieke Cannie
The acronym TORCH is used to refer to congenital infections, such as toxoplasmosis, other infections (such as syphillis, varicella-zoster, and parvovirus B19), cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus. The classic findings in patients with TORCH infections include rash in the mother during pregnancy and ocular findings in the newborn. Zika virus has emerged as an important worldwide congenital infection. It fits well with other congenital TORCH infections since there is a rash in the mother and there are commonly ocular abnormalities in the newborn...
December 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155620/role-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-spaceflight-induced-ocular-changes-and-visual-impairment-in-astronaut
#10
Noam Alperin, Ahmet M Bagci, Carlos J Oliu, Sang H Lee, Byron L Lam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155129/nervonoylceramide-c24-1cer-a-lipid-biomarker-for-ocular-irritants-released-from-the-3d-reconstructed-human-cornea-like-epithelium-mctt-hce%C3%A2
#11
Miri Lee, Kyung-Mi Joo, Seunghye Choi, Su-Hyon Lee, Seol Yeong Kim, Young-Jin Chun, Dalwoong Choi, Kyung-Min Lim
Due to invasive and painful procedures during in vivo rabbit eye irritation test, in vitro alternative methods have been widely investigated. Recently, 3D reconstructed human cornea-like epitheliums (RhCE) garner a huge attention. RhCEs employ the tissue viability as a primary endpoint to determine ocular irritancy but additional biomarkers may improve its predictive capacity. Here, we explored lipid biomarkers for ocular irritants in MCTT HCE™ RhCE model. Three irritants; sodium lauryl sulfate, benzalkonium chloride and triton X-100 were selected to represent anionic, cationic and non-ionic detergent respectively...
November 15, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154878/nanogel-based-natural-polymers-as-smart-carriers-for-the-controlled-delivery-of-timolol-maleate-through-the-cornea-for-glaucoma
#12
Roya Ilka, Mojdeh Mohseni, Mehran Kianirad, Masood Naseripour, Khadijeh Ashtari, Bita Mehravi
Despite frequent scientific efforts, efficient ocular drug delivery is a major challenge for pharmaceutical scientists. Poor bioavailability of ophthalmic solutions can be overcome by using smart ophthalmic drug-delivery systems. In this research, loading and delivery of Timolol Maleate (TM) through the cornea by synthesized nanoparticles based on biopolymers (chitosan-alginate) were studied. The physico-chemical properties of these nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS)...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154698/phacoemulsification-of-bilateral-mature-cataracts-in-a-texas-rat-snake-elaphe-obsoleta-lindheimeri
#13
Eric C Ledbetter, Ricardo de Matos, Rebekah M Riedel, Teresa L Southard
CASE DESCRIPTION A 10-year-old sexually intact male client-owned Texas rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri) was referred for evaluation because of a 5-month history of progressive bilateral ocular opacities and abnormal behavior. CLINICAL FINDINGS On ophthalmic examination, the snake had bilateral mature cataracts and uveal cysts. No additional ophthalmic or physical abnormalities were detected. Results of CBC, serum biochemical analysis, and ocular ultrasonography were unremarkable. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Bilateral spectaculotomy was performed, followed by bilateral phacoemulsification and uveal cyst aspiration, without complication...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154484/memantine-loaded-pegylated-biodegradable-nanoparticles-for-the-treatment-of-glaucoma
#14
Elena Sánchez-López, Maria Antonia Egea, Benjamin Michael Davis, Li Guo, Marta Espina, Amelia Maria Silva, Ana Cristina Calpena, Eliana Maria Barbosa Souto, Nivedita Ravindran, Miren Ettcheto, Antonio Camins, Maria Luisa García, Maria Francesca Cordeiro
Glaucoma is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease associated with retinal ganglion cells (RGC) loss. Increasing reports of similarities in glaucoma and other neurodegenerative conditions have led to speculation that therapies for brain neurodegenerative disorders may also have potential as glaucoma therapies. Memantine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist approved for Alzheimer's disease treatment. Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity is implicated in glaucoma and NMDA receptor antagonism is advocated as a potential strategy for RGC preservation...
November 20, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153927/1hz-rtms-of-the-right-orbitofrontal-cortex-for-major-depression-safety-tolerability-and-clinical-outcomes
#15
Kfir Feffer, Peter Fettes, Peter Giacobbe, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger, Jonathan Downar
Conventional rTMS in major depressive disorder (MDD) targets the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). However, many patients do not respond to DLPFC-rTMS. Recent evidence suggests that the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) plays a key role in 'non-reward' functions and shows hyperconnectivity in MDD. OFC-rTMS has been used successfully in obsessive-compulsive disorder, and achieved remission in an MDD case nonresponsive to DLPFC- and DMPFC-rTMS. Here, we assess the safety and tolerability of right OFC-rTMS, and examine the effectiveness of inhibitory right OFC-rTMS in MDD, particularly among patients with previous nonresponse to DMPFC-rTMS...
November 16, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153458/thigh-cuffs-as-a-countermeasure-for-ocular-changes-in-simulated-weightlessness
#16
Siva Balasubramanian, Tudor Tepelus, Michael B Stenger, Stuart M C Lee, Steven S Laurie, John H K Liu, Alan H Feiveson, SriniVas R Sadda, Alex S Huang, Brandon R Macias
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153456/association-of-mortality-with-ocular-diseases-and-visual-impairment-in-the-age-related-eye-disease-study-2-age-related-eye-disease-study-2-report-number-13
#17
Chandana Papudesu, Traci E Clemons, Elvira Agrón, Emily Y Chew
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association of mortality with visual acuity (VA) impairment, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and cataract surgery. DESIGN: Cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Participants with at least intermediate AMD enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial of lutein/zeaxanthin and/or omega-3 fatty acids, the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2), for treatment of AMD and cataract. METHODS: Baseline and annual eye examinations included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) assessments, slit-lamp examinations, and stereoscopic fundus photographs that were centrally graded for development of late AMD (central geographic atrophy or neovascular AMD) or pseudophakia...
November 16, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153066/-age-related-prevalence-of-toxoplasmosis-among-pregnant-women-in-hatay-estimation-depending-on-model
#18
Meryem Çetin, Şirin Çetin
Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is a common parasitic infection affecting approximately one-third of the world population. T.gondii infections are usually acquired by ingesting raw or insufficiently cooked meat and from unwashed fruits and vegetables contaminated with soil or water with cat feces. Primary infection acquired during pregnancy can cause severe congenital abnormalities in the fetus such as neurologic and ocular malformations, abortion, or stillbirth according to the degree of infection...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152599/a-novel-clinical-sign-in-intraocular-tuberculosis-active-chorioretinitis-within-chorioretinal-atrophy
#19
Avinash Pathengay, Bhavik Panchal, Himadri Choudhury, Soumyava Basu, Nidhi Relhan, Harry W Flynn
Purpose: To report a novel clinical sign in patients with intraocular tuberculosis. The current study is an observational consecutive case series of patients diagnosed with intraocular tuberculosis managed at a tertiary eye care centre from June 1, 2012 to December 31, 2015. Observations: The diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis was made in 6 patients based on ocular features suggestive of tuberculosis along with a positive tuberculin skin testing and chest X-ray consistent with tuberculosis...
September 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152562/fast-dissolving-dendrimer-nanofiber-mats-as-alternative-to-eye-drops-for-more-efficient-antiglaucoma-drug-delivery
#20
Michael G Lancina, Sudha Singh, Uday B Kompella, Shahid Husain, Hu Yang
Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers have been investigated as a potential platform for a number of ocular drugs, but only in aqueous solution. In this work we have developed fast dissolving dendrimer-based nanofibers (DNF) as a topical delivery vehicle for the glaucoma drug brimonidine tartrate (BT). The safety and drug release kinetics of these nanofiber mats were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. DNF caused no toxicity at therapeutic levels in cultured cells or ocular irritation in animal tests using a normotensive rat model...
August 14, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
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