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antidepressant addictive

William A Carlezon, Andrew D Krystal
Kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) antagonists are currently being considered for the treatment of a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including depressive, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders. A general ability to mitigate the effects of stress, which can trigger or exacerbate these conditions, may explain their putative efficacy across such a broad array of conditions. The discovery of their potentially therapeutic effects evolved from preclinical research designed to characterize the molecular mechanisms by which experience causes neuroadaptations in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key element of brain reward circuitry...
October 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Claire Cartwright, Kerry Gibson, John Read, Ondria Cowan, Tamsin Dehar
Long-term antidepressant treatment has increased and there is evidence of adverse effects; however, little is known about patients' experiences and views of this form of treatment. This study used mixed methods to examine patients' views and experiences of long-term antidepressant treatment, including benefits and concerns. Data from 180 patients, who were long-term users of antidepressants (3-15 years), were extracted from an anonymous online survey of patients' experiences of antidepressants in New Zealand...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
Katherine Sanchez, Brittany H Eghaneyan, Madhukar H Trivedi
BACKGROUND: Barriers to depression treatment among Hispanic populations include persistent stigma, inadequate doctor patient communication (DPC) and resultant sub-optimal use of anti-depressant medications. Stigma is primarily perpetuated due to inadequate disease literacy and cultural factors. Common concerns about depression treatments among Hispanics include fears about the addictive and harmful properties of antidepressants, worries about taking too many pills, and the stigma attached to taking psychotropic medications...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Tamaki Hayase
Like various stressors, the addictive use of nicotine (NC) is associated with emotional symptoms such as anxiety and depression, although the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated due to the complicated involvement of target neurotransmitter systems. In the elicitation of these emotional symptoms, the fundamental involvement of epigenetic mechanisms such as histone acetylation has recently been suggested. Furthermore, among the interacting neurotransmitter systems implicated in the effects of NC and stressors, the endocannabinoid (ECB) system is considered to contribute indispensably to anxiety and depression...
2016: PloS One
Yu Liu, Deyong Lin, Boliang Wu, Wenhua Zhou
Ketamine is a noncompetitive antagonist of N-methyl-d-asparate (NMDA) receptor and has been long used as an anesthetic agent in humans and veterinary medicine. The present article reviews the epidemiology, pharmacology, neurochemistry, and treatment of ketamine abuse. Ketamine has a unique mood controlling property and a number of studies have demonstrated a significant and rapid antidepressant effect of ketamine. However, the therapeutic value of ketamine to treat psychiatric disorders faces a major challenge that ketamine also owns significant reinforcing and toxic effects...
September 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Mellar P Davis
INTRODUCTION: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a common and difficult illness to manage. Some individuals with CLBP have pain processing disorders and are also at risk for opioid abuse, misuse; addiction and diversion. Guidelines have been published to guide management; neuromodulation, exercise, mindfulness-based stress reduction and cognitive behavior therapies among other non-pharmacological reduce the pain of CLBP with minimal toxicity. Pharmacological management includes acetaminophen, NSAIDs and antidepressants, mainly duloxetine...
July 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Nathan A Holtz, Stephanie E Tedford, Amanda L Persons, Salvatore A Grasso, T Celeste Napier
Pramipexole and ropinirole are dopamine agonists that are efficacious in treating motor disturbances of neuropathologies, e.g., Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome. A significant portion of treated patients develop impulsive/compulsive behaviors. Current treatment is dose reduction or switching to an alternative dopamine replacement, both of which can undermine the motor benefits. Needed is a preclinical model that can assist in identifying adjunct treatments to dopamine agonist therapy that reduce impulsive/compulsive behaviors without interfering with motor benefits of the dopamine agonist...
October 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Vasiliki Mitsi, Venetia Zachariou
The midbrain dopamine center comprises a key network for reward, salience, motivation, and mood. Evidence from various clinical and preclinical settings points to the midbrain dopamine circuit as an important modulator of pain perception and pain-induced anxiety and depression. This review summarizes recent findings that shed light to the neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and molecular adaptations that chronic pain conditions promote in the mesolimbic dopamine system. Chronic pain states induce changes in neuronal plasticity and functional connectivity in several parts of the brain reward center, including nucleus accumbens, the ventral tegmental area and the prefrontal cortex...
May 14, 2016: Neuroscience
L Michel, C Lions, M Winnock, J-P Lang, M-A Loko, E Rosenthal, B Marchou, M-A Valantin, P Morlat, P Roux, P Sogni, B Spire, I Poizot-Martin, K Lacombe, C Lascoux-Combe, C Duvivier, D Neau, F Dabis, D Salmon-Ceron, M P Carrieri
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this nested study was to assess the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a sample of HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients according to their HCV status. METHODS: The nested cross-sectional study, untitled HEPAVIH-Psy survey, was performed in a subset of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients enrolled in the French Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA et les Hépatites Virales (ANRS) CO13 HEPAVIH cohort. Psychiatric disorders were screened for using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI 5...
May 17, 2016: HIV Medicine
Shayan Amiri, Sakineh Alijanpour, Fatemeh Tirgar, Arya Haj-Mirzaian, Hossein Amini-Khoei, Maryam Rahimi-Balaei, Mojgan Rastegar, Marzieh Ghaderi, Mahmoud Ghazi-Khansari, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Amphetamine withdrawal (AW) is accompanied by diminished pleasure and depression which plays a key role in drug relapse and addictive behaviors. There is no efficient treatment for AW-induced depression and underpinning mechanisms were not well determined. Considering both transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1) and N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors contribute to pathophysiology of mood and addictive disorders, in this study, we investigated the role of TRPV1 and NMDA receptors in mediating depressive-like behaviors following AW in male mice...
August 4, 2016: Neuroscience
Silvia Alessi-Severini, James M Bolton, Murray W Enns, Matthew E Dahl, Daniel Chateau, David M Collins, Jitender Sareen
OBJECTIVE: "Antibenzodiazepine" campaigns have been conducted worldwide to limit the prescribing of these drugs because of concerns about inappropriate use and addiction. The causal relationship between long-term use and escalation to high doses has not been proven. This study assessed the extent of dose escalation among individuals who were long-term users of benzodiazepines or Z-hypnotics. METHODS: A population-based study was conducted in the Canadian province of Manitoba using administrative health databases...
September 1, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Linda M Rorick-Kehn, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Conrad J Wong, Jeffrey M Witkin, Maria A Martinez-Grau, Serena Stopponi, Benjamin L Adams, Jason S Katner, Kenneth W Perry, Miguel A Toledo, Nuria Diaz, Celia Lafuente, Alma Jiménez, Ana Benito, Concepción Pedregal, Friedbert Weiss, Michael A Statnick
BACKGROUND: The nociceptin/orphanin-FQ (or opioid receptor-like [ORL1]) receptor (NOP) is localized in the mesolimbic reward pathway and has been suggested to play a role in feeding, mood, stress, and addiction. Since its deorphanization in 1995, there has been a clear dichotomy in the literature regarding whether an agonist or antagonist would provide therapeutic benefit. Specifically, the literature reports indicate that NOP receptor antagonists produce efficacy in animal models of hyperphagia and antidepressant-like activity, whereas NOP agonists produce anxiolytic-like effects and dampen reward/addiction behaviors including ethanol consumption...
May 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Barbara Budzynska, Krystyna Skalicka-Wozniak, Marta Kruk-Slomka, Malgorzata Wydrzynska-Kuzma, Grazyna Biala
RATIONALE: Nicotine, a dominant alkaloid found in tobacco, is responsible for physical dependence, as well as addiction to cigarette smoking; consequently, smoking cessation is a very difficult process. Hepatic cytochrome P-450 2A6 (CYP2A6) is involved in the 70-80 % of the initial metabolism of nicotine and its co-metabolites. As this metabolism is slowed by inhibitors of CYP2A6, this kind of enzymatic inhibition has been proposed as a novel target for smoking cessation. OBJECTIVES: Nicotine administered alone improved memory acquisition and consolidation as well as exerted antidepressive activity in animal models...
June 2016: Psychopharmacology
Angela Regina, Nima Majlesi
On June 18, 2015, a woman aged 30 years was brought to the Staten Island University Hospital Emergency Department (ED) in New York by her mother, who reported that the patient had become acutely confused at home, was repeating herself, and did not recognize her family members. She had a diagnosis of bipolar disorder for which she took lithium, and she had a history notable for polysubstance abuse (use of three or more addictive drugs in the past 12 months). Her other medications included risperidone (an antipsychotic), benztropine (an anticholinergic), and bupropion (an antidepressant)...
April 8, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Sandy Blin, Ismail Ben Soussia, Eun-Jin Kim, Frédéric Brau, Dawon Kang, Florian Lesage, Delphine Bichet
The tandem of pore domain in a weak inwardly rectifying K(+) channel (Twik)-related acid-arachidonic activated K(+) channel (TRAAK) and Twik-related K(+) channels (TREK) 1 and TREK2 are active as homodimers gated by stretch, fatty acids, pH, and G protein-coupled receptors. These two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels are broadly expressed in the nervous system where they control excitability. TREK/TRAAK KO mice display altered phenotypes related to nociception, neuroprotection afforded by polyunsaturated fatty acids, learning and memory, mood control, and sensitivity to general anesthetics...
April 12, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Philippe De Deurwaerdère, Giuseppe Di Giovanni
Since their discovery in the mammalian brain, it has been apparent that serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) interactions play a key role in normal and abnormal behavior. Therefore, disclosure of this interaction could reveal important insights into the pathogenesis of various neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia, depression and drug addiction or neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease and Tourette's syndrome. Unfortunately, this interaction remains difficult to study for many reasons, including the rich and widespread innervations of 5-HT and DA in the brain, the plethora of 5-HT receptors and the release of co-transmitters by 5-HT and DA neurons...
March 21, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
L Lalanne, G Ayranci, D Filliol, C Gavériaux-Ruff, K Befort, B L Kieffer, P-E Lutz
Addiction is a chronic brain disorder that progressively invades all aspects of personal life. Accordingly, addiction to opiates severely impairs interpersonal relationships, and the resulting social isolation strongly contributes to the severity and chronicity of the disease. Uncovering new therapeutic strategies that address this aspect of addiction is therefore of great clinical relevance. We recently established a mouse model of heroin addiction in which, following chronic heroin exposure, 'abstinent' mice progressively develop a strong and long-lasting social avoidance phenotype...
March 22, 2016: Addiction Biology
Valentina Echeverria, J Alex Grizzell, George E Barreto
Neuroinflammation is a common characteristic of several mental health conditions such as major depression, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and schizophrenia (SCHZ). Inflammatory processes trigger and/or further deteriorate mental functions and are regarded as targets for therapeutic drug development. Cotinine is an alkaloid present in tobacco leaves and the main metabolite of nicotine. Cotinine is safe, non-addictive and has pharmacokinetic properties adequate for therapeutic use. Research has shown that cotinine has antipsychotic, anxiolytic, and antidepressant properties and modulates the serotonergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic systems...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Lauren E Hansen, Genevra L Stone, Christopher A Matson, David J Tybor, Mary E Pevear, Eric L Smith
BACKGROUND: Preoperative narcotic use has been associated with poor outcomes after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). The purpose of this study is to compare clinical outcomes of patients undergoing elective TJA while concurrently being treated with methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone for prior heroin addiction to a matched control group. METHODS: From an electronic medical record, we collected age, gender, body mass index, the presence of back pain, smoking status, history of alcohol abuse, preoperative use of a pain clinic, and use of antipsychotics, antidepressants, or systemic corticosteroids...
August 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
Cristiano Chiamulera, Federica Armani, Anna Mutti, Liana Fattore
Methoxetamine (MXE) is a chemical analogue of ketamine. Originally proposed as a ketamine-like fast-acting antidepressant, owing to similar N-methyl-D-aspartate blocker properties, it is now scheduled for reports of hallucinations and psychosis similar to ketamine and lysergic acid. As little is known about the addictive properties of MXE, the aim of this study was to investigate the similarity between discriminative stimuli of MXE and ketamine, as well as to provide data and protocols that could be used in the future for the characterization of novel ketamine-like drugs...
April 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
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