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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178034/pharmacotherapy-for-neuropathic-pain-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Diego Fornasari
Neuropathic pain, comprising a range of heterogeneous conditions, is often severe and difficult to manage, and this may result in a chronic condition that negatively affects the overall functioning and quality of life in patients. The pharmacotherapy of neuropathic pain is challenging and for many patients effective treatment is lacking; therefore, evidence-based recommendations are essential. Currently, there is general agreement on which drugs are appropriate for the first-line treatment of neuropathic pain, whereas debate continues regarding second- and third-line treatments...
December 2017: Pain and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162499/metabolic-strategies-for-the-degradation-of-the-neuromodulator-agmatine-in-mammals
#2
REVIEW
José Benítez, David García, Nicol Romero, Arlette González, José Martinez, Maximiliano Figueroa, Mónica Salas, Vasthi López, Peter R Dodd, Gerhard Schenk, Nelson Carvajal, Elena Uribe
Agmatine (1-amino-4-guanidinobutane), a precursor for polyamine biosynthesis, has been identified as an important neuromodulator with anticonvulsant, antineurotoxic and antidepressant actions in the brain. In this context it has emerged as an important mediator of addiction/satiety pathways associated with alcohol misuse. Consequently, the regulation of the activity of key enzymes in agmatine metabolism is an attractive strategy to combat alcoholism and related addiction disorders. Agmatine results from the decarboxylation of L-arginine in a reaction catalyzed by arginine decarboxylase (ADC), and can be converted to either guanidine butyraldehyde by diamine oxidase (DAO) or putrescine and urea by the enzyme agmatinase (AGM) or the more recently identified AGM-like protein (ALP)...
November 18, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076955/knowledge-and-preferences-regarding-antidepressant-medication-among-depressed-latino-patients-in-primary-care
#3
Bonnie L Green, Maria Rosa Watson, Stacey I Kaltman, Adriana Serrano, Nicholas Talisman, Laura Kirkpatrick, Marcela Campoli
US Latinos are less likely to utilize mental health services than non-Latino whites and to take antidepressant medications. This mixed-method study followed a subset (N = 28) of a research sample of depressed Latino immigrant primary care patients, who took depression medication, with a telephone interview to study their knowledge about and experiences with antidepressant medications. Most (82%) reported taking medication for 2 months or more, and 75% reported feeling better, whereas more than half reported side effects...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948570/ketamine-self-administration-elevates-%C3%AE-camkii-autophosphorylation-in-mood-and-reward-related-brain-regions-in-rats
#4
Lucia Caffino, Alessandro Piva, Francesca Mottarlini, Marzia Di Chio, Giuseppe Giannotti, Cristiano Chiamulera, Fabio Fumagalli
Modulation of αCaMKII expression and phosphorylation is a feature shared by drugs of abuse with different mechanisms of action. Accordingly, we investigated whether αCaMKII expression and activation could be altered by self-administration of ketamine, a non-competitive antagonist of the NMDA glutamate receptor, with antidepressant and psychotomimetic as well as reinforcing properties. Rats self-administered ketamine at a sub-anesthetic dose for 43 days and were sacrificed 24 h after the last drug exposure; reward-related brain regions, such as medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), ventral striatum (vS), and hippocampus (Hip), were used for the measurement of αCaMKII-mediated signaling...
September 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935766/serotonin-2b-receptors-in-mesoaccumbens-dopamine-pathway-regulate-cocaine-responses
#5
Stéphane Doly, Emily Quentin, Raphaël Eddine, Stefania Tolu, Sebastian P Fernandez, Jesus Bertran-Gonzalez, Emmanuel Valjent, Arnauld Belmer, Xavier Viñals, Jacques Callebert, Philippe Faure, Frank J Meye, Denis Hervé, Patricia Robledo, Manuel Mameli, Jean-Marie Launay, Rafael Maldonado, Luc Maroteaux
Addiction is a maladaptive pattern of behavior following repeated use of reinforcing drugs in predisposed individuals, leading to lifelong changes. Common among these changes are alterations of neurons releasing dopamine in the ventral and dorsal territories of the striatum. The serotonin 5-HT2B receptor has been involved in various behaviors, including impulsivity, response to antidepressants, and response to psychostimulants, pointing toward putative interactions with the dopamine system. Despite these findings, it remains unknown whether 5-HT2B receptors directly modulate dopaminergic activity and the possible mechanisms involved...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828702/-intoxication-with-psychotropic-drugs
#6
R Bellmann, M Joannidis
Psychotropic drugs are medications that are indicated for treatment of psychiatric disorders. Attempted suicide is the major reason for intoxication but inadvertent overdosing may also occur. Other psychotropic agents are taken because of their stimulating and hallucinogenic effects and many have a high addictive potential. Poisoning is usually due to accidental overdosing. For treatment of benzodiazepine and opioid intoxication, flumazenil and naloxone, respectively, are used as specific antagonists. For intoxication by tricyclic antidepressants, sodium bicarbonate is the treatment of choice...
September 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774339/measurement-education-and-tracking-in-integrated-care-metric-use-of-a-culturally-adapted-education-tool-versus-standard-education-to-increase-engagement-in-depression-treatment-among-hispanic-patients-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-control-trial
#7
Katherine Sanchez, Brittany H Eghaneyan, Michael O Killian, Leopoldo Cabassa, Madhukar H Trivedi
BACKGROUND: Significant mental health disparities exist for Hispanic populations, especially with regard to depression treatment. Stigma and poor communication between patients and their providers result in low use of antidepressant medications and early treatment withdrawal. Cultural factors which influence treatment decisions among Hispanics include fears about the addictive and harmful properties of antidepressants, worries about taking too many pills, and the stigma attached to taking medications...
August 3, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763183/-the-most-cited-themes-in-the-research-in-the-field-of-mental-health-analyses-of-six-international-nursing-and-medical-journals
#8
Laura Cunico, Susanna Fredo, Massimo Bernini
INTRODUCTION: The review aimed to identify and analyse the future development on the topic by analysing the main themes discussed in number of scientific journal focused on Mental Health both by nurses and physicians.. METHOD: 4 international journals focused on Mental health and psychiatry International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, American Journal of Psychiatry, Australian and New Zeland Journal of Psychiatry as well as two journal focused generically on health, Journal of Advanced Nursing and Lancet were scrutinized...
April 2017: Professioni Infermieristiche
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749641/factors-affecting-mental-patients%C3%A2-behaviors-and-attitudes-regarding-smoking
#9
Michael Kourakos, Maria Saridi, Theodora Kafkia, Maria Rekleiti, Kyriakos Souliotis, Hero Brokalaki, Evmorfia Koukia
Background: Patients with mental health problems are in high risk to develop addiction, since smoking incidence is three times higher than that of the general population. The aim of the study was to investigate the factors affecting mental health patients’ smoking habits. Methods: The sample of study were 356 patients out of 403 initially approached, with 142 hospitalized in hospital facilities and 214 in community settings. The «Smoking in psychiatric hospitals” and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) questionnaires were used...
July 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731336/triple-reuptake-inhibitors-as-potential-therapeutics-for-depression-and-other-disorders-design-paradigm-and-developmental-challenges
#10
Murugaiah A M Subbaiah
Although first-line antidepressants offer therapeutic benefit, about 35% of depressed patients are not adequately treated, creating a large unmet medical need. These medicines mostly enhance the synaptic levels of serotonin and/or norepinephrine. Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies implicate dopamine hypofunction in the pathophysiology of depression. Triple reuptake inhibitors (TRIs), which elevate dopamine in addition to serotonin and norepinephrine, may demonstrate greater efficacy, with the reversal of anhedonia and improved tolerability...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675762/management-of-mood-and-anxiety-disorders-in-patients-receiving-opioid-agonist-therapy-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Ahmed N Hassan, Aaron S Howe, Andriy V Samokhvalov, Bernard Le Foll, Tony P George
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with opioid use disorders and mood and anxiety symptoms have a variable prognosis. Few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have evaluated treatment of depression or anxiety in patients receiving opioid agonist therapies (OAT). This review evaluates studies of pharmacotherapy/psychotherapy for treating symptoms of depression or anxiety in patients receiving OAT. METHODS: Public databases were searched for clinical trials of pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy for managing depression or anxiety symptoms in adults receiving OAT...
September 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662295/%C3%AE-9-containing-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-the-modulation-of-pain
#12
REVIEW
Arik J Hone, Denis Servent, J Michael McIntosh
Neuropathic pain is a complex and debilitating syndrome for which there are few effective pharmacological treatments. Opioid-based medications are initially effective for acute pain but tolerance to their analgesic effects quickly develops and long-term use often leads to physical dependence and addiction. Furthermore, neuropathic pain is generally resistant to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Other classes of medications including antidepressants, antiepileptics, and voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) inhibitors are only partially effective in most patients, may be associated with significant side effects, and have few disease modifying effects on the underlying pathology...
June 29, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646714/synthetic-cathinones-and-stereochemistry-s-enantiomer-of-mephedrone-reduces-anxiety-and-depressant-like-effects-in-cocaine-or-mdpv-abstinent-rats
#13
Helene L Philogene-Khalid, Callum Hicks, Allen B Reitz, Lee-Yuan Liu-Chen, Scott M Rawls
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The neuropharmacological profile of the synthetic cathinone mephedrone (MEPH) is influenced by stereochemistry. Both MEPH enantiomers are monoamine transporter substrates, but R-MEPH is primarily responsible for rewarding effects of MEPH as it produces greater locomotor activation and intracranial self-stimulation than S-MEPH. S-MEPH is a 50-fold more potent 5-HT releaser than R-MEPH and does not place preference in rats. MEPH is also structurally similar to the cathinone derivative bupropion, an antidepressant and smoking cessation medication, suggesting MEPH has therapeutic and addictive properties...
September 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617565/psychotropic-medications-in-swedish-homicide-victims-and-offenders-a-forensic-toxicological-case-control-study-of-adherence-and-recreational-use
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jonatan Hedlund, Jonas Forsman, Joakim Sturup, Thomas Masterman
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the extent to which adherence to, and recreational use of, psychotropic medications influence the risk of homicide offending and victimization. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study by way of linking a nationwide registry of dispensed prescriptions with a forensic-toxicological database. Homicide victims (n = 200) and offenders (n = 105) were identified for the years 2007-2009 and vehicle-accident controls (n = 1,643) for the years 2006-2013...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591669/bupropion-induces-social-anxiety-in-adolescent-mice-influence-of-housing-conditions
#15
Carmen Gómez, Rosa Redolat, Carmen Carrasco
BACKGROUND: The antidepressant bupropion has received increasing attention as a pharmacological tool to treat addiction although little is known about its effects on social behaviour in adolescents. The present study aimed to evaluate if environmental housing conditions influence bupropion's actions on social behaviour of adolescent mice. METHODS: Mice were either group- or individually housed for 2-weeks and then randomly divided into 2 cohorts: half of the mice remained in the initial housing condition and the other half were changed to isolated conditions for further 2-weeks...
March 22, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584050/allosteric-modulation-of-human-dopamine-transporter-activity-under-conditions-promoting-its-dimerization
#16
Mary Hongying Cheng, Jennie Garcia-Olivares, Steven Wasserman, Jennifer DiPietro, Ivet Bahar
The human dopamine (DA) transporter (hDAT) is a key regulator of neurotransmission and a target for antidepressants and addictive drugs. Despite the recent resolution of dDAT structures from Drosophila melanogaster, complete understanding of its mechanism of function and even information on its biological assembly is lacking. The resolved dDAT structures are monomeric, but growing evidence suggests that hDAT might function as a multimer, and its oligomerization may be relevant to addictive drug effects. Here, using structure-based computations, we examined the possible mechanisms of hDAT dimerization and its dynamics in a lipid bilayer...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550455/-effects-of-the-novel-relatively-short-acting-kappa-opioid-receptor-antagonist-ly2444296-in-behaviors-observed-after-chronic-extended-access-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#17
Marta Valenza, Eduardo R Butelman, Mary Jeanne Kreek
RATIONALE: The recruitment of the stress circuitry contributes to a shift from positive to negative reinforcement mechanisms sustaining long-term cocaine addiction. The kappa opioid receptor (KOPr) signaling is upregulated by stress and chronic cocaine exposure. While KOPr agonists induce anhedonia and dysphoria, KOPr antagonists display antidepressant and anxiolytic properties. Most of the knowledge on KOPr antagonism is based on drugs with unusual pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, complicating interpretation of results...
August 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537967/nortriptyline-enhances-morphine-conditioned-place-preference-in-neuropathic-rats-role-of-the-central-noradrenergic-system
#18
Wenli Mi, Shuxing Wang, Zerong You, Grewo Lim, Michael F McCabe, Hyangin Kim, Lucy Chen, Jianren Mao
BACKGROUND: Combination drug therapy is commonly used to treat chronic pain conditions such as neuropathic pain, and antidepressant is often used together with opioid analgesics. While rewarding is an intrinsic property of opioid analgesics, it is unknown whether the use of an antidepressant would influence opioid reward, which may contribute to opioid addiction. In this study, we examined whether nortriptyline (a tricyclic antidepressant and a first-line medication for neuropathic pain) would enhance the morphine rewarding property in both naive and chronic constriction sciatic nerve injury (CCI) rats...
September 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492960/dual-diagnosis-in-depression-treatment-recommendations
#19
Judit Tirado Muñoz, Adriana Farré, Joan Mestre-Pintó, Nestor Szerman, Marta Torrens
Comorbidity between substance use disorders (SUD) and major depression (MD) is the most common dual pathology in the field of addiction to substances and has prevalence rates ranging between 12% and 80%, which complicates the response to treatment and worsens the prognosis of patients. Differentiating between diagnoses of induced depressive episodes and primary depressive episodes concurrent to substance use is especially relevant for therapeutic management. This article presents the state of the art of the currently available pharmacologic treatments of comorbid depression in patients with SUD, taking into account the safety and risk of abuse of antidepressant drugs...
July 14, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484990/behavioral-and-biochemical-impact-of-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-on-the-acquisition-of-nicotine-conditioned-place-preference-in-rats
#20
G Biala, K Pekala, A Boguszewska-Czubara, A Michalak, M Kruk-Slomka, K Grot, B Budzynska
Addiction is a chronic psychiatric disease which represents a global problem, and stress can increase drug addiction and relapse. Taking into account frequent concomitance of nicotine dependence and stress, the purpose of the present study was to assess behavioral and biochemical effects of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) exposure on nicotine reward in rats measured in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Rats were submitted to the CUMS for 3 weeks and conditioned with nicotine (0.175 mg/kg) for 2 or 3 days...
May 8, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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