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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627310/understanding-antidepressant-discontinuation-syndrome-ads-through-preclinical-experimental-models
#1
REVIEW
Konstantin N Zabegalov, Tatiana O Kolesnikova, Sergey L Khatsko, Andrey D Volgin, Oleg A Yakovlev, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Polina A Alekseeva, Darya A Meshalkina, Ashton J Friend, Wandong Bao, Konstantin A Demin, Raul R Gainetdinov, Allan V Kalueff
Antidepressant drugs are currently one of the most prescribed medications. In addition to treatment resistance and side effects of antidepressants, their clinical use is further complicated by antidepressant discontinuation syndrome (ADS). ADS is a common problem in patients following the interruption, dose reduction, or discontinuation of antidepressant drugs. Clinically, ADS resembles a classical drug withdrawal syndrome, albeit differing from it because antidepressants generally do not induce addiction. The growing clinical importance and prevalence of ADS necessitate novel experimental (animal) models of this disorder...
April 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587564/mirtazapine-attenuates-nicotine-seeking-behavior-in-rats
#2
Susana Barbosa-Méndez, Alberto Salazar-Juárez
BACKGROUND: Nicotine is the major psychoactive component of tobacco. A number of pharmacological therapies have been evaluated, with poor results. Given the lack of success of these therapies, several authors have proposed alternative therapeutic strategies. One of these is the use of antidepressant drugs that may have a specific effect on the neural pathways or receptors underlying nicotine addiction. Mirtazapine is an antagonist of α2 NE receptors (noradrenergic receptor), 5-HT2A/C and 5-HT3 receptors and has demonstrated efficacy in reducing behavioral effects induced by drugs of abuse in human and animal models...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562618/transdermal-and-topical-drug-administration-in-the-treatment-of-pain
#3
REVIEW
Wojciech Leppert, Malgorzata Malec-Milewska, Renata Zajaczkowska, Jerzy Wordliczek
The comprehensive treatment of pain is multidimodal, with pharmacotherapy playing a key role. An effective therapy for pain depends on the intensity and type of pain, the patients' age, comorbidities, and appropriate choice of analgesic, its dose and route of administration. This review is aimed at presenting current knowledge on analgesics administered by transdermal and topical routes for physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and other health care professionals dealing with patients suffering from pain. Analgesics administered transdermally or topically act through different mechanisms...
March 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496589/association-of-translocator-protein-total-distribution-volume-with-duration-of-untreated-major-depressive-disorder-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Elaine Setiawan, Sophia Attwells, Alan A Wilson, Romina Mizrahi, Pablo M Rusjan, Laura Miler, Cynthia Xu, Sarita Sharma, Stephen Kish, Sylvain Houle, Jeffrey H Meyer
BACKGROUND: People with major depressive disorder frequently exhibit increasing persistence of major depressive episodes. However, evidence for neuroprogression (ie, increasing brain pathology with longer duration of illness) is scarce. Microglial activation, which is an important component of neuroinflammation, is implicated in neuroprogression. We examined the relationship of translocator protein (TSPO) total distribution volume (VT ), a marker of microglial activation, with duration of untreated major depressive disorder, and with total illness duration and antidepressant exposure...
February 26, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494783/tianeptine-abuse-and-dependence-in-psychiatric-patients-a-review-of-18-case-reports-in-the-literature
#5
Janusz Springer, Wiesław Jerzy Cubała
Tianeptine is an atypical antidepressant approved in 25 countries for the treatment of depressive syndromes. Tianeptine abuse among psychiatric patients in the community and at inpatient wards has been increasingly reported in recent years. The purpose of this article is to alert clinicians to tianeptine abuse potential and identify any patterns in the literature. We searched the Academic Search Complete, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, Science Citation Index, Scopus, and the Social Sciences Citation Index for articles published between 1960-2017 in any language containing the keywords: "tianeptine abuse," "tianeptine misuse," "tianeptine dependence...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452175/replacement-treatment-during-extinction-training-with-the-atypical-dopamine-uptake-inhibitor-jhw-007-reduces-relapse-to-methamphetamine-seeking
#6
Ashlea F Dassanayake, Juan J Canales
There are currently no approved medications to effectively counteract the effects of methamphetamine (METH), reduce its abuse and prolong abstinence from it. Data accumulated in recent years have shown that a range of N-substituted benztropine (BZT) analogues possesses psychopharmacological features consistent with those of a potential replacement or "substitute" treatment for stimulant addiction. On the other hand, the evidence that antidepressant therapy may effectively prevent relapse to stimulant seeking is controversial...
February 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339292/selective-hcn1-block-as-a-strategy-to-control-oxaliplatin-induced-neuropathy
#7
F Resta, L Micheli, A Laurino, V Spinelli, T Mello, L Sartiani, L Di Cesare Mannelli, E Cerbai, C Ghelardini, M N Romanelli, G Mannaioni, A Masi
Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy (CIPN) is the most frequent adverse effect of pharmacological cancer treatments. The occurrence of neuropathy prevents the administration of fully-effective drug regimen, affects negatively the quality of life of patients, and may lead to therapy discontinuation. CIPN is currently treated with anticonvulsants, antidepressants, opioids and non-opioid analgesics, all of which are flawed by insufficient anti-hyperalgesic efficacy or addictive potential. Understandably, developing new drugs targeting CIPN-specific pathogenic mechanisms would dramatically improve efficacy and tolerability of anti-neuropathic therapies...
March 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332567/nociceptin-orphanin-fq-peptide-nop-receptor-modulators-an-update-in-structure-activity-relationships
#8
Carlo Mustazza, Stefano Pieretti, Francesca Marzoli
Nociceptin /Orphanin FQ Peptide" receptor (NOPr) is a G-protein-coupled receptor with the nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (N/OFQ) as endogenous agonist. It is expressed in the nervous system as well as in some non-neural tissues. Its activation has pronociceptive effect at the supraspinal level, whereas at the spinal level it produces nociceptive effects at low doses and antinociceptive effects at higher doses. NOPr is also involved in mood and blood pressure regulation, immunoregulation, airway constriction, feeding, urination, bowel motility, learning and memory...
January 10, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178034/pharmacotherapy-for-neuropathic-pain-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Diego Fornasari
Neuropathic pain, comprising a range of heterogeneous conditions, is often severe and difficult to manage, and this may result in a chronic condition that negatively affects the overall functioning and quality of life in patients. The pharmacotherapy of neuropathic pain is challenging and for many patients effective treatment is lacking; therefore, evidence-based recommendations are essential. Currently, there is general agreement on which drugs are appropriate for the first-line treatment of neuropathic pain, whereas debate continues regarding second- and third-line treatments...
December 2017: Pain and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162499/metabolic-strategies-for-the-degradation-of-the-neuromodulator-agmatine-in-mammals
#10
REVIEW
José Benítez, David García, Nicol Romero, Arlette González, José Martinez, Maximiliano Figueroa, Mónica Salas, Vasthi López, Peter R Dodd, Gerhard Schenk, Nelson Carvajal, Elena Uribe
Agmatine (1-amino-4-guanidinobutane), a precursor for polyamine biosynthesis, has been identified as an important neuromodulator with anticonvulsant, antineurotoxic and antidepressant actions in the brain. In this context it has emerged as an important mediator of addiction/satiety pathways associated with alcohol misuse. Consequently, the regulation of the activity of key enzymes in agmatine metabolism is an attractive strategy to combat alcoholism and related addiction disorders. Agmatine results from the decarboxylation of L-arginine in a reaction catalyzed by arginine decarboxylase (ADC), and can be converted to either guanidine butyraldehyde by diamine oxidase (DAO) or putrescine and urea by the enzyme agmatinase (AGM) or the more recently identified AGM-like protein (ALP)...
November 18, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076955/knowledge-and-preferences-regarding-antidepressant-medication-among-depressed-latino-patients-in-primary-care
#11
Bonnie L Green, Maria Rosa Watson, Stacey I Kaltman, Adriana Serrano, Nicholas Talisman, Laura Kirkpatrick, Marcela Campoli
US Latinos are less likely to utilize mental health services than non-Latino whites and to take antidepressant medications. This mixed-method study followed a subset (N = 28) of a research sample of depressed Latino immigrant primary care patients, who took depression medication, with a telephone interview to study their knowledge about and experiences with antidepressant medications. Most (82%) reported taking medication for 2 months or more, and 75% reported feeling better, whereas more than half reported side effects...
December 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948570/ketamine-self-administration-elevates-%C3%AE-camkii-autophosphorylation-in-mood-and-reward-related-brain-regions-in-rats
#12
Lucia Caffino, Alessandro Piva, Francesca Mottarlini, Marzia Di Chio, Giuseppe Giannotti, Cristiano Chiamulera, Fabio Fumagalli
Modulation of αCaMKII expression and phosphorylation is a feature shared by drugs of abuse with different mechanisms of action. Accordingly, we investigated whether αCaMKII expression and activation could be altered by self-administration of ketamine, a non-competitive antagonist of the NMDA glutamate receptor, with antidepressant and psychotomimetic as well as reinforcing properties. Rats self-administered ketamine at a sub-anesthetic dose for 43 days and were sacrificed 24 h after the last drug exposure; reward-related brain regions, such as medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), ventral striatum (vS), and hippocampus (Hip), were used for the measurement of αCaMKII-mediated signaling...
September 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935766/serotonin-2b-receptors-in-mesoaccumbens-dopamine-pathway-regulate-cocaine-responses
#13
Stéphane Doly, Emily Quentin, Raphaël Eddine, Stefania Tolu, Sebastian P Fernandez, Jesus Bertran-Gonzalez, Emmanuel Valjent, Arnauld Belmer, Xavier Viñals, Jacques Callebert, Philippe Faure, Frank J Meye, Denis Hervé, Patricia Robledo, Manuel Mameli, Jean-Marie Launay, Rafael Maldonado, Luc Maroteaux
Addiction is a maladaptive pattern of behavior following repeated use of reinforcing drugs in predisposed individuals, leading to lifelong changes. Common among these changes are alterations of neurons releasing dopamine in the ventral and dorsal territories of the striatum. The serotonin 5-HT2B receptor has been involved in various behaviors, including impulsivity, response to antidepressants, and response to psychostimulants, pointing toward putative interactions with the dopamine system. Despite these findings, it remains unknown whether 5-HT2B receptors directly modulate dopaminergic activity and the possible mechanisms involved...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828702/-intoxication-with-psychotropic-drugs
#14
R Bellmann, M Joannidis
Psychotropic drugs are medications that are indicated for treatment of psychiatric disorders. Attempted suicide is the major reason for intoxication but inadvertent overdosing may also occur. Other psychotropic agents are taken because of their stimulating and hallucinogenic effects and many have a high addictive potential. Poisoning is usually due to accidental overdosing. For treatment of benzodiazepine and opioid intoxication, flumazenil and naloxone, respectively, are used as specific antagonists. For intoxication by tricyclic antidepressants, sodium bicarbonate is the treatment of choice...
September 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774339/measurement-education-and-tracking-in-integrated-care-metric-use-of-a-culturally-adapted-education-tool-versus-standard-education-to-increase-engagement-in-depression-treatment-among-hispanic-patients-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-control-trial
#15
Katherine Sanchez, Brittany H Eghaneyan, Michael O Killian, Leopoldo Cabassa, Madhukar H Trivedi
BACKGROUND: Significant mental health disparities exist for Hispanic populations, especially with regard to depression treatment. Stigma and poor communication between patients and their providers result in low use of antidepressant medications and early treatment withdrawal. Cultural factors which influence treatment decisions among Hispanics include fears about the addictive and harmful properties of antidepressants, worries about taking too many pills, and the stigma attached to taking medications...
August 3, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763183/-the-most-cited-themes-in-the-research-in-the-field-of-mental-health-analyses-of-six-international-nursing-and-medical-journals
#16
Laura Cunico, Susanna Fredo, Massimo Bernini
INTRODUCTION: The review aimed to identify and analyse the future development on the topic by analysing the main themes discussed in number of scientific journal focused on Mental Health both by nurses and physicians.. METHOD: 4 international journals focused on Mental health and psychiatry International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, American Journal of Psychiatry, Australian and New Zeland Journal of Psychiatry as well as two journal focused generically on health, Journal of Advanced Nursing and Lancet were scrutinized...
April 2017: Professioni Infermieristiche
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749641/factors-affecting-mental-patients%C3%A2-behaviors-and-attitudes-regarding-smoking
#17
Michael Kourakos, Maria Saridi, Theodora Kafkia, Maria Rekleiti, Kyriakos Souliotis, Hero Brokalaki, Evmorfia Koukia
Background: Patients with mental health problems are in high risk to develop addiction, since smoking incidence is three times higher than that of the general population. The aim of the study was to investigate the factors affecting mental health patients’ smoking habits. Methods: The sample of study were 356 patients out of 403 initially approached, with 142 hospitalized in hospital facilities and 214 in community settings. The «Smoking in psychiatric hospitals” and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) questionnaires were used...
July 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731336/triple-reuptake-inhibitors-as-potential-therapeutics-for-depression-and-other-disorders-design-paradigm-and-developmental-challenges
#18
Murugaiah A M Subbaiah
Although first-line antidepressants offer therapeutic benefit, about 35% of depressed patients are not adequately treated, creating a large unmet medical need. These medicines mostly enhance the synaptic levels of serotonin and/or norepinephrine. Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies implicate dopamine hypofunction in the pathophysiology of depression. Triple reuptake inhibitors (TRIs), which elevate dopamine in addition to serotonin and norepinephrine, may demonstrate greater efficacy, with the reversal of anhedonia and improved tolerability...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675762/management-of-mood-and-anxiety-disorders-in-patients-receiving-opioid-agonist-therapy-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Ahmed N Hassan, Aaron S Howe, Andriy V Samokhvalov, Bernard Le Foll, Tony P George
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with opioid use disorders and mood and anxiety symptoms have a variable prognosis. Few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have evaluated treatment of depression or anxiety in patients receiving opioid agonist therapies (OAT). This review evaluates studies of pharmacotherapy/psychotherapy for treating symptoms of depression or anxiety in patients receiving OAT. METHODS: Public databases were searched for clinical trials of pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy for managing depression or anxiety symptoms in adults receiving OAT...
September 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662295/%C3%AE-9-containing-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-the-modulation-of-pain
#20
REVIEW
Arik J Hone, Denis Servent, J Michael McIntosh
Neuropathic pain is a complex and debilitating syndrome for which there are few effective pharmacological treatments. Opioid-based medications are initially effective for acute pain, but tolerance to their analgesic effects quickly develops, and long-term use often leads to physical dependence and addiction. Furthermore, neuropathic pain is generally resistant to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Other classes of medications including antidepressants, antiepileptics and voltage-gated calcium channel inhibitors are only partially effective in most patients, may be associated with significant side effects and have few disease-modifying effects on the underlying pathology...
June 29, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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