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Severs disease

Lyndon da Cruz, Kate Fynes, Odysseas Georgiadis, Julie Kerby, Yvonne H Luo, Ahmad Ahmado, Amanda Vernon, Julie T Daniels, Britta Nommiste, Shazeen M Hasan, Sakina B Gooljar, Amanda-Jayne F Carr, Anthony Vugler, Conor M Ramsden, Magda Bictash, Mike Fenster, Juliette Steer, Tricia Harbinson, Anna Wilbrey, Adnan Tufail, Gang Feng, Mark Whitlock, Anthony G Robson, Graham E Holder, Mandeep S Sagoo, Peter T Loudon, Paul Whiting, Peter J Coffey
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) remains a major cause of blindness, with dysfunction and loss of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) central to disease progression. We engineered an RPE patch comprising a fully differentiated, human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived RPE monolayer on a coated, synthetic basement membrane. We delivered the patch, using a purpose-designed microsurgical tool, into the subretinal space of one eye in each of two patients with severe exudative AMD. Primary endpoints were incidence and severity of adverse events and proportion of subjects with improved best-corrected visual acuity of 15 letters or more...
March 19, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
Jacqueline Cloos, Jeffrey R Harris, Jeroen J W M Janssen, Angele Kelder, F Huang, Gerrit Sijm, Maike Vonk, Alexander N Snel, Jennifer R Scheick, Willemijn J Scholten, Jannemieke Carbaat-Ham, Dennis Veldhuizen, Diana Hanekamp, Yvonne J M Oussoren-Brockhoff, Gertjan J L Kaspers, Gerrit J Schuurhuis, A Kate Sasser, Gert Ossenkoppele
Response criteria in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has recently been re-established, with morphologic examination utilized to determine whether patients have achieved complete remission (CR). Approximately half of the adult patients who entered CR will relapse within 12 months due to the outgrowth of residual AML cells in the bone marrow. The quantitation of these remaining leukemia cells, known as minimal or measurable residual disease (MRD), can be a robust biomarker for the prediction of these relapses. Moreover, retrospective analysis of several studies has shown that the presence of MRD in the bone marrow of AML patients correlates with poor survival...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Shereen M Hamza, John E Hall
Renal sympathetic nerves contribute significantly to both physiological and pathophysiological phenomena. Evaluating renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) is of great interest in many areas of research such as chronic kidney disease, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes and obesity. Unequivocal assessment of the role of the sympathetic nervous system is thus imperative for proper interpretation of experimental results and understanding of disease processes. RSNA has been traditionally measured in anesthetized rodents, including mice...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Andrew K Fuller, Benjamin D Bice, Ashlee R Venancio, Olivia M Crowley, Ambur M Staab, Stephanie J Georges, Julio R Hidalgo, Annika V Warncke, Melinda L Angus-Hill
Several recent studies have illustrated the beneficial effects of living in an enriched environment on improving human disease. In mice, environmental enrichment (EE) reduces tumorigenesis by activating the mouse immune system, or affects tumor bearing animal survival by stimulating the wound repair response, including improved microbiome diversity, in the tumor microenvironment. Provided here is a detailed procedure to assess the effects of environmental enrichment on the biodiversity of the microbiome in a mouse colon tumor model...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Chiara Assunta Pilato, Ilaria Stadiotti, Angela Serena Maione, Valentina Saverio, Valentina Catto, Fabrizio Tundo, Antonio Dello Russo, Claudio Tondo, Giulio Pompilio, Michela Casella, Elena Sommariva
A normal adult heart is composed of several different cell types, among which cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells represent an abundant population. The isolation of these cells offers the possibility of studying their involvement in cardiac diseases, and, in addition, provides a useful primary cell model to investigate biological mechanisms. Here, the method for the isolation of C-MSC from arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy patients' bioptic samples is described. The endomyocardial biopsy sampling is guided in the right ventricular areas adjacent to the scar visualized by electro-anatomical mapping...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Se Eun Ha, Lai Wei, Brian G Jorgensen, Moon Young Lee, Paul J Park, Sandra M Poudrier, Seungil Ro
Intestinal obstructions, that impede or block peristaltic movement, can be caused by abdominal adhesions and most gastrointestinal (GI) diseases including tumorous growths. However, the cellular remodeling mechanisms involved in, and caused by, intestinal obstructions are poorly understood. Several animal models of intestinal obstructions have been developed, but the mouse model is the most cost/time effective. The mouse model uses the surgical implantation of an intestinal partial obstruction (PO) that has a high mortality rate if it is not performed correctly...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ariel Finkielsztein, Lorraine Mascarenhas, Veronika Butin-Israeli, Ronen Sumagin
Polymorphonuclear neutrophil-derived microparticles (PMN)-MPs) are lipid bilayer, spherical microvesicles with sizes ranging from 50-1,000 nm in diameter. MPs are a newly evolving, important part of cell-to-cell communication and signaling machinery. Because of their size and the nature of their release, until recently MP existence was overlooked. However, with improved technology and analytical methods their function in health and disease is now emerging. The protocols presented here are aimed at isolating and characterizing PMN-MPs by flow cytometry and immunoblotting...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
María Andrea Hernández-Castañeda, Smart Mbagwu, Kehinde Adebayo Babatunde, Michael Walch, Luis Filgueira, Pierre-Yves Mantel
Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by Plasmodium parasites, with P. falciparum being the most prevalent on the African continent and responsible for most malaria-related deaths globally. Several factors including parasite sequestration in tissues, vascular dysfunction, and inflammatory responses influence the evolution of the disease in malaria-infected people. P. falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBCs) release small extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing different kinds of cargo molecules that mediate pathogenesis and cellular communication between parasites and host...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Kavi Devraj, Sylvaine Guérit, Jakranka Macas, Yvonne Reiss
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a specialized barrier that protects the brain microenvironment from toxins and pathogens in the circulation and maintains brain homeostasis. The principal sites of the barrier are endothelial cells of the brain capillaries whose barrier function results from tight intercellular junctions and efflux transporters expressed on the plasma membrane. This function is regulated by pericytes and astrocytes that together form the neurovascular unit (NVU). Several neurological diseases such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease (AD), brain tumors are associated with an impaired BBB function...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Maha Al-Faqawi, Yousef Abuowda, Alaa Eldeen Elmassry, Bettina Böttcher
BACKGROUND: The frequency and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are the most important determinants of prognosis in COPD. The aim of this study was to assess the management of patients presenting with COPD exacerbations at the Nasser Medical Complex in the Gaza Strip and to compare the management with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines (GOLD 2015). METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of all patients admitted to Nasser Medical Complex and diagnosed with COPD exacerbation between Jan 1, 2014, and Dec 31, 2016...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Suha Al-Butmeh, Njah Al-Khataib
BACKGROUND: The focus of this study was quality of life and mental health in elderly people living in the Bethlehem district. The aim of this study was to identify the most prevalent mental health problems and how they affect quality of life. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was done in June and July, 2010. We recruited a convenience sample of elderly people (aged 65 years and older) living in the Bethlehem district of occupied Palestinian territory. Using a structured questionnaire, we assessed quality of life with the WHOQOL-BREF and current psychological status and distress with the Brief Symptom Inventor...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Samah W Al-Jabi, Ansam Sous, Fatimah Jorf, Mahmoud Taqatqa, Mahdi Allan, Lamees Sawalha, Enas Lubadeh, Sa'ed H Zyoud, Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of end-stage renal disease in the Palestinian population and the effect of the disease on the psychological status of the patient underlie the importance of increasing knowledge about the mental health status of patients with end-stage renal disease. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of depression in Palestinian patients treated with haemodialysis and its correlation with patients' clinical characteristics, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and adherence to medications...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Said Alyacoubi, Yousef Abuowda, Loai Albarqouni, Bettina Böttcher, Khamis Elessi
BACKGROUND: Disease severity scores such as CURB-65 are often used to guide the management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Early and adequate empirical antibiotic treatment reduces mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the severity assessment and management of patients presenting with community-acquired pneumonia at the European Gaza Hospital in the Gaza Strip and to compare this to the best available evidence. METHODS: Medical records of all patients admitted to the European Gaza Hospital with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia between Dec 1, 2015, and March 31, 2016, were reviewed retrospectively...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Khaled Abu Saman, Salwa Massad, Ali Abu Ibaid, Huda Anan, Mamhoud Daher, Rand Salman, Saleh Aldeqes
BACKGROUND: About 9% of the world's population has diabetes. Most people with diabetes live in developing countries. Diabetes is the fourth leading cause of death in the occupied Palestinian territory. The likelihood of diabetes complications increases with depression. Worldwide, about half of patients with diabetes have severe depression that has been misidentified by health providers. The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with depression in patients with type 2 diabetes in the Gaza governorate...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Yi Chen, Zhenzhu Tang, Shuai Tang, Zhiyong Shen, Qiuying Zhu, Rongjian Li, Wenbo Huang, Yuman Huang, Fuxiong Liang, Lu Wang, Huanhuan Chen, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao, Sian Hsiang-Te Tsuei, Guanghua Lan
OBJECTIVE: Since 2003, the Chinese central government has implemented several harm reduction and preventive measures to control HIV. We aim to describe epidemiological trends of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis in Guangxi drug users after the policy implementation. METHOD: A total of 12,161-15,870 drug users in Guangxi, China, were recruited annually from 2009 to 2015 through community outreach or snowball sampling. The participants' demographics, behavior, and infection status were used to characterize rates of protective behaviors and disease prevalence (HIV, syphilis, and HCV)...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Nguyen To Anh, Le Nguyen Truc Nhu, Hoang Minh Tu Van, Nguyen Thi Thu Hong, Tran Tan Thanh, Vu Thi Ty Hang, Nguyen Thi Han Ny, Lam Anh Nguyet, Tran Thi Lan Phuong, Le Nguyen Thanh Nhan, Nguyen Thanh Hung, Truong Huu Khanh, Ha Manh Tuan, Ho Lu Viet, Nguyen Tran Nam, Do Chau Viet, Phan Tu Qui, Bridget Wills, Sarawathy Sabanathan, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Louise Thwaites, H Rogier van Doorn, Guy Thwaites, Maia A Rabaa, Le Van Tan
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a major public health issue in Asia and has global pandemic potential. Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) was detected in 514/2,230 (23%) of HFMD patients admitted to 3 major hospitals in southern Vietnam during 2011-2015. Of these patients, 93 (18%) had severe HFMD. Phylogenetic analysis of 98 genome sequences revealed they belonged to cluster A and had been circulating in Vietnam for 2 years before emergence. CV-A6 movement among localities within Vietnam occurred frequently, whereas viral movement across international borders appeared rare...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Qinglan Guo, Mustapha M Mustapha, Mingliang Chen, Di Qu, Xi Zhang, Min Chen, Yohei Doi, Minggui Wang, Lee H Harrison
The expansion of hypervirulent sequence type 4821 clonal complex (CC4821) lineage Neisseria meningitidis bacteria has led to a shift in meningococcal disease epidemiology in China, from serogroup A (MenA) to MenC. Knowledge of the evolution and genetic origin of the emergent MenC strains is limited. In this study, we subjected 76 CC4821 isolates collected across China during 1972-1977 and 2005-2013 to phylogenetic analysis, traditional genotyping, or both. We show that successive recombination events within genes encoding surface antigens and acquisition of quinolone resistance mutations possibly played a role in the emergence of CC4821 as an epidemic clone in China...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Julia Ae Walters, Daniel J Tan, Clinton J White, Richard Wood-Baker
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend that patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) should be treated with systemic corticosteroid for seven to 14 days. Intermittent systemic corticosteroid use is cumulatively associated with adverse effects such as osteoporosis, hyperglycaemia and muscle weakness. Shorter treatment could reduce adverse effects. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of short-duration (seven or fewer days) and conventional longer-duration (longer than seven days) systemic corticosteroid treatment of adults with acute exacerbations of COPD...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Zhiyan Wang, Chaochao Lv, Xin Xu, Xiangdong Li, Yali Yao, Xiaojing Gao, Zhe Sun, Yuzhou Wang, Yujie Sun, Yan Xiao, Kegong Tian
Rotavirus A (RVA) G9 genotype is recognized as an emerging genotype which is spreading worldwide, however, our knowledge on pathogenicity of this virus is limited. In this study, porcine RVA strain HN03 was successfully isolated on MA-104 cells, and the isolate was propagated continuously for 7 passages after a virus cloning at passage 3. The virus titers from 4 to 10 passages ranged from 107.1 to 108.1 TCID50 /ml. The growth curve of HN03 strain in cell culture was determined, and the virus production dynamics was confirmed by immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Wen Tan, Lin Chen, Ya-Xin Wang, Li-Sha Hu, Wei Xiong, You Shang, Shang-Long Yao
Background: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe disease with high mortality and poor prognosis. Protectin DX (PDX), a pro-resolving lipid mediator, exhibits protective effects in ALI. Our experiment aimed to explore the effects and related mechanisms of PDX in mice with ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: BALB/c mice were randomly divided into five groups: sham, LPS, LPS plus 1 ng of PDX (LPS + PDX-1 ng), LPS plus 10 ng of PDX (LPS + PDX-10 ng), and LPS plus 100 ng of PDX (LPS + PDX-100 ng)...
March 19, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
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