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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050554/natural-variation-and-genetics-of-photoperiodism-in-wyeomyia-smithii
#1
William E Bradshaw, Christina M Holzapfel
Seasonal change in the temperate and polar regions of Earth determines how the world looks around us and, in fact, how we live our day-to-day lives. For biological organisms, seasonal change typically involves complex physiological and metabolic reorganization, the majority of which is regulated by photoperiodism. Photoperiodism is the ability of animals and plants to use day length or night length, resulting in life-historical transformations, including seasonal development, migration, reproduction, and dormancy...
2017: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989013/development-of-a-modified-release-formulation-of-lovastatin-targeted-to-intestinal-methanogens-implicated-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-constipation
#2
Steven Hubert, Alan Chadwick, Vince Wacher, Olivia Coughlin, John Kokai-Kun, Andrew Bristol
There is growing evidence that methane production, predominantly by Methanobrevibacter smithii, in the intestines is a cause of constipation, pain, and bloating in irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). M smithii resides primarily in the large intestine but can also colonize the small intestine. In vitro studies found that the prodrug lactone form of lovastatin, found in cholesterol-lowering drugs, inhibited methane production in stool samples from patients with IBS-C. However, the cholesterol-lowering lovastatin β-hydroxyacid was ineffective at inhibiting methane production in this system...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982164/immunogenic-properties-of-the-human-gut-associated-archaeon-methanomassiliicoccus-luminyensis-and-its-susceptibility-to-antimicrobial-peptides
#3
Corinna Bang, Tim Vierbuchen, Thomas Gutsmann, Holger Heine, Ruth A Schmitz
The methanogenic archaeon Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis strain B10T was isolated from human feces just a few years ago. Due to its remarkable metabolic properties, particularly the degradation of trimethylamines, this strain was supposed to be used as "Archaebiotic" during metabolic disorders of the human intestine. However, there is still no data published regarding adaptations to the natural habitat of M. luminyensis as it has been shown for the other two reported mucosa-associated methanoarchaea. This study aimed at unraveling susceptibility of M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963219/draft-genome-sequence-of-methanobrevibacter-smithii-isolate-wwm1085-obtained-from-a-human-stool-sample
#4
Matthew E Jennings, Nicholas Chia, Lisa A Boardman, William W Metcalf
Methanobrevibacter smithii is a common inhabitant of the human gut. Here, we present a draft genome sequence of M. smithii isolate WWM1085, obtained from a human stool sample. This sequence will improve our understanding of the genetic diversity of this human-associated methanogen.
September 28, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948854/in-vitro-evaluation-of-archaeosome-vehicles-for-transdermal-vaccine-delivery
#5
Yimei Jia, Michael J McCluskie, Dongling Zhang, Robert Monette, Umar Iqbal, Maria Moreno, Janelle Sauvageau, Dean Williams, Lise Deschatelets, Zygmunt J Jakubek, Lakshmi Krishnan
Archaeosomes composed of archaeal total polar lipids (TPL) or semi-synthetic analog vesicles have been used as vaccine adjuvants and delivery systems in animal models for many years. Typically administered by intramuscular or subcutaneous injections, archaeosomes can induce robust, long-lasting humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against entrapped antigens and provide protection in murine models of infectious disease and cancer. Herein, we evaluated various archaeosomes for transdermal delivery, since this route may help eliminate needle-stick injuries and needle re-use, and therefore increase patient compliance...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Liposome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837129/large-scale-comparative-metagenomics-of-blastocystis-a-common-member-of-the-human-gut-microbiome
#6
Francesco Beghini, Edoardo Pasolli, Tin Duy Truong, Lorenza Putignani, Simone M Cacciò, Nicola Segata
The influence of unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms on human gut health and disease is still largely unexplored. Blastocystis spp. commonly colonize the gut, but its clinical significance and ecological role are currently unsettled. We have developed a high-sensitivity bioinformatic pipeline to detect Blastocystis subtypes (STs) from shotgun metagenomics, and applied it to 12 large data sets, comprising 1689 subjects of different geographic origin, disease status and lifestyle. We confirmed and extended previous observations on the high prevalence the microrganism in the population (14...
August 22, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823095/methanobrevibacter-smithii-a-methanogen-consistently-colonising-the-newborn-stomach
#7
G Grine, M A Boualam, M Drancourt
Methanobrevibacter smithii is the main human methanogen almost always found in the digestive tract of adults. Yet, the age at which M. smithii establishes itself as part of the developing intestinal microflora remains unknown. In order to gain insight into this, we developed a polyphasic approach, including microscopic observation by fluorescence in situ hybridisation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing detection, identification and culture, to isolate and genotype M. smithii in one-day-old newborns' gastric juice specimens...
December 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797298/community-characteristics-of-the-gut-microbiomes-of-competitive-cyclists
#8
Lauren M Petersen, Eddy J Bautista, Hoan Nguyen, Blake M Hanson, Lei Chen, Sai H Lek, Erica Sodergren, George M Weinstock
BACKGROUND: Changes in diet and exercise can alter the gut microbiome of humans and mice; however, few studies to date have assessed the microbiomes of highly fit athletes. In this pilot study, we used metagenomic whole genome shotgun (mWGS) and metatranscriptomic (RNA-Seq) sequencing to show what organisms are both present and active in the gut microbiomes of both professional and amateur level competitive cyclists and to determine if any significant differences exist between these two groups...
August 10, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649153/corynespora-exosporium-and-helminthosporium-revisited-new-species-and-generic-reclassification
#9
H Voglmayr, W M Jaklitsch
Molecular phylogenetic analyses of a multigene matrix of partial nuSSU-ITS-LSU rDNA, rpb2 and tef1 sequences were performed to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of Corynespora, Exosporium and Helminthosporium species. Based on phylogenetic analyses and morphology, the genus Exosporium is synonymised with Helminthosporium, and the genus Corynespora is revealed as polyphyletic. Corynespora smithii is confirmed to be closely related to the generic type C. cassiicola and its morphology is described and illustrated...
June 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364028/methanosphaera-stadtmanae-induces-a-type-iv-hypersensitivity-response-in-a-mouse-model-of-airway-inflammation
#10
Emilie Bernatchez, Matthew J Gold, Anick Langlois, Pascale Blais-Lecours, Magali Boucher, Caroline Duchaine, David Marsolais, Kelly M McNagny, Marie-Renée Blanchet
Despite improved awareness of work-related diseases and preventive measures, many workers are still at high risk of developing occupational hypersensitivity airway diseases. This stems from a lack of knowledge of bioaerosol composition and their potential effects on human health. Recently, archaea species were identified in bioaerosols, raising the possibility that they play a major role in exposure-related pathology. Specifically, Methanosphaera stadtmanae (MSS) and Methanobrevibacter smithii (MBS) are found in high concentrations in agricultural environments and respiratory exposure to crude extract demonstrates immunomodulatory activity in mice...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344572/gut-colonization-by-methanogenic-archaea-is-associated-with-organic-dairy-consumption-in-children
#11
Jeroen A A van de Pol, Niels van Best, Catherine A Mbakwa, Carel Thijs, Paul H Savelkoul, Ilja C W Arts, Mathias W Hornef, Monique Mommers, John Penders
The gut microbiota represents a complex and diverse ecosystem with a profound impact on human health, promoting immune maturation, and host metabolism as well as colonization resistance. Important members that have often been disregarded are the methanogenic archaea. Methanogenic archaea reduce hydrogen levels via the production of methane, thereby stimulating food fermentation by saccharolytic bacteria. On the other hand, colonization by archaea has been suggested to promote a number of gastrointestinal and metabolic diseases such as colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and obesity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737924/characteristics-of-a-water-forming-nadh-oxidase-from-methanobrevibacter-smithii-an-archaeon-in-the-human-gut
#12
Mingguang Yan, Weibing Yin, Xiao Fang, Jianjun Guo, Hong Shi
NADH oxidases (NOXs) catalysing the oxidation of NADH to yield NAD(+) and H2O, H2O2, or both play an important role in protecting organisms from oxidative stress and maintaining the balance of NAD(+)/NADH. A gene encoding NOX was identified from Methanobrevibacter smithii (NOX-ms), the predominant archaeon in the human gut ecosystem. Subsequent analyses showed that it is an FAD-containing protein with a subunit molecular mass of 48 kDa. NOX-ms was purified to homogeneity after expression in Escherichia coli NOX-ms catalysed the oxidization of NADH and converted O2 to H2O with an optimal pH of 7...
December 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697372/assessing-methanobrevibacter-smithii-and-clostridium-difficile-as-not-conventional-faecal-indicators-in-effluents-of-a-wastewater-treatment-plant-integrated-with-sludge-anaerobic-digestion
#13
Valeria Romanazzi, Silvia Bonetta, Stefania Fornasero, Margherita De Ceglia, Giorgio Gilli, Deborah Traversi
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are an important source of surface water contamination by enteric pathogens, affecting the role of environmental water as a microbial reservoir. We describe the release to the environment of certain anaerobes of human and environmental concern. The work was focused on emerging microbial targets. They are tracing, by RT-qPCR, on WWTP effluents, both liquid and solid, when an anaerobic digestion step is included. The focus is placed on Clostridium spp. with the specific quantification of Clostridium perfringens, as typical bioindicator, and Clostridium difficile, as emerging pathogen not only confined into nosocomial infection...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631197/decay-kinetics-of-microbial-source-tracking-mst-markers-and-human-adenovirus-under-the-effects-of-sunlight-and-salinity
#14
Liang L, Goh S G, Gin K Y H
Artificial seawater and freshwater microcosms inoculated with raw sewage were set up to compare the persistence of microbial source tracking (MST) markers (i.e. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (B. theta), Methanobrevibacter smithii (M. smithii), human polyomaviruses JC and BK (HPyVs)) and human adenoviruses under different sunlight intensity and salinity. PMA pretreatment successfully eliminated the false-positive detection of dead bacterial cells in the model-development experiment. The results were then validated using real environmental matrices in microcosms inoculated with raw sewage...
January 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559429/complete-genome-sequence-of-thermophilic-bacillus-smithii-type-strain-dsm-4216-t
#15
Elleke F Bosma, Jasper J Koehorst, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Bernadet Renckens, Bastienne Vriesendorp, Antonius H P van de Weijer, Peter J Schaap, Willem M de Vos, John van der Oost, Richard van Kranenburg
Bacillus smithii is a facultatively anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium able to use a variety of sugars that can be derived from lignocellulosic feedstocks. Being genetically accessible, it is a potential new host for biotechnological production of green chemicals from renewable resources. We determined the complete genomic sequence of the B. smithii type strain DSM 4216(T), which consists of a 3,368,778 bp chromosome (GenBank accession number CP012024.1) and a 12,514 bp plasmid (GenBank accession number CP012025...
2016: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458176/irritable-bowel-syndrome-particularly-the-constipation-predominant-form-involves-an-increase-in-methanobrevibacter-smithii-which-is-associated-with-higher-methane-production
#16
Ujjala Ghoshal, Ratnakar Shukla, Deepakshi Srivastava, Uday C Ghoshal
Background/Aims: Because Methanobrevibacter smithii produces methane, delaying gut transit, we evaluated M. smithii loads in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and healthy controls (HC). Methods: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for M. smithii was performed on the feces of 47 IBS patients (Rome III) and 30 HC. On the lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT, done for 25 IBS patients), a fasting methane result ≥10 ppm using 10 g of lactulose defined methane-producers...
November 15, 2016: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401817/dynamic-polarization-vision-in-mantis-shrimps
#17
Ilse M Daly, Martin J How, Julian C Partridge, Shelby E Temple, N Justin Marshall, Thomas W Cronin, Nicholas W Roberts
Gaze stabilization is an almost ubiquitous animal behaviour, one that is required to see the world clearly and without blur. Stomatopods, however, only fix their eyes on scenes or objects of interest occasionally. Almost uniquely among animals they explore their visual environment with a series pitch, yaw and torsional (roll) rotations of their eyes, where each eye may also move largely independently of the other. In this work, we demonstrate that the torsional rotations are used to actively enhance their ability to see the polarization of light...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347377/lovastatin-lactone-may-improve-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-constipation-ibs-c-by-inhibiting-enzymes-in-the-archaeal-methanogenesis-pathway
#18
Steven M Muskal, Joe Sliman, John Kokai-Kun, Mark Pimentel, Vince Wacher, Klaus Gottlieb
UNLABELLED: Methane produced by the methanoarchaeon Methanobrevibacter smithii ( M. smithii) has been linked to constipation, irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C), and obesity. Lovastatin, which demonstrates a cholesterol-lowering effect by the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase, may also have an anti-methanogenesis effect through direct inhibition of enzymes in the archaeal methanogenesis pathway. We conducted protein-ligand docking experiments to evaluate this possibility...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27183876/increased-gut-redox-and-depletion-of-anaerobic-and-methanogenic-prokaryotes-in-severe-acute-malnutrition
#19
Matthieu Million, Maryam Tidjani Alou, Saber Khelaifia, Dipankar Bachar, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Niokhor Dione, Souleymane Brah, Perrine Hugon, Vincent Lombard, Fabrice Armougom, Julien Fromonot, Catherine Robert, Caroline Michelle, Aldiouma Diallo, Alexandre Fabre, Régis Guieu, Cheikh Sokhna, Bernard Henrissat, Philippe Parola, Didier Raoult
Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with inadequate diet, low levels of plasma antioxidants and gut microbiota alterations. The link between gut redox and microbial alterations, however, remains unexplored. By sequencing the gut microbiomes of 79 children of varying nutritional status from three centers in Senegal and Niger, we found a dramatic depletion of obligate anaerobes in malnutrition. This was confirmed in an individual patient data meta-analysis including 107 cases and 77 controls from 5 different African and Asian countries...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27141986/influence-of-periparturient-and-postpartum-diets-on-rumen-methanogen-communities-in-three-breeds-of-primiparous-dairy-cows
#20
Laura M Cersosimo, Melissa L Bainbridge, Jana Kraft, André-Denis G Wright
BACKGROUND: Enteric methane from rumen methanogens is responsible for 25.9 % of total methane emissions in the United States. Rumen methanogens also contribute to decreased animal feed efficiency. For methane mitigation strategies to be successful, it is important to establish which factors influence the rumen methanogen community and rumen volatile fatty acids (VFA). In the present study, we used next-generation sequencing to determine if dairy breed and/or days in milk (DIM) (high-fiber periparturient versus high-starch postpartum diets) affect the rumen environment and methanogen community of primiparous Holstein, Jersey, and Holstein-Jersey crossbreeds...
May 4, 2016: BMC Microbiology
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