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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644945/quantitative-evaluation-of-ruminal-methane-and-carbon-dioxide-formation-from-formate-through-c-13-stable-isotope-analysis-in-a-batch-culture-system
#1
Z X He, J Y Qiao, Q X Yan, Z L Tan, M Wang
Methane produced from formate is one of the important methanogensis pathways in the rumen. However, quantitative information of CH4 production from formate has been rarely reported. The aim of this study was to characterize the conversion rate (CR) of formic acid into CH4 and CO2 by rumen microorganisms. Ground lucerne hay was incubated with buffered ruminal fluid for 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. Before the incubation, 13C-labeled H13COOH was also supplied into the incubation bottle at a dose of 0, 1.5, 2.2 or 2.9 mg/g of DM substrate...
April 12, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464911/cd-obesity-prone-rats-but-not-obesity-resistant-rats-robustly-ferment-resistant-starch-without-increased-weight-or-fat-accretion
#2
Diana Obanda, Ryan Page, Justin Guice, Anne M Raggio, Claudia Husseneder, Brian Marx, Rhett W Stout, David A Welsh, Christopher M Taylor, Meng Luo, Eugene E Blanchard, Zach Bendiks, Diana Coulon, Michael J Keenan
OBJECTIVE: This study used CD obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rats to examine how weight gain and fat accretion relate to fermentation levels and microbiota composition after feeding resistant starch (RS). METHODS: After feeding OP rats and OR rats a high-fat (HF) diet for 4 weeks, rats were stratified into three groups: they were fed either an HF diet (group 1: HF-HF) or were switched to a low-fat (LF) diet (group 2: HF-LF) or an LF diet supplemented with 20% RS by weight for 4 weeks (group 3: HF-LFRS)...
March 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449383/complete-genome-sequence-of-methanobrevibacter-smithii-strain-kb11-isolated-from-a-korean-fecal-sample
#3
Byoung-Chan Kim, Haeyoung Jeong
The archaeon Methanobrevibacter smithii is a major colonizer of the human gut. Methanobrevibacter smithii strain KB11 was newly isolated from a Korean fecal sample. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of strain KB11 and a brief comparison with that of M. smithii type strain ATCC 35061T .
February 15, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446765/gut-microbiota-based-therapies-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#4
Emily K Stern, Darren M Brenner
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, heterogeneous disorder characterized by abdominal pain associated with changes in bowel habits. The pathogenesis of IBS is multifactorial and may relate to alterations in the gut microbiota, changes in visceral sensation and motility, and genetic and environmental factors. Administration of systemic antibiotics may increase the risk of IBS by altering gastrointestinal homeostasis. Therapeutic interventions for IBS with diarrhea that are thought to target alterations in the gut microbiota include the nonsystemic antibiotic rifaximin, the medical food serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin, prebiotics, probiotics, and dietary modification...
February 15, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297964/elevated-co-2-induces-substantial-and-persistent-declines-in-forage-quality-irrespective-of-warming-in-mixedgrass-prairie
#5
David J Augustine, Dana M Blumenthal, Tim L Springer, Daniel R LeCain, Stacey A Gunter, Justin D Derner
Increasing atmospheric [CO2 ] and temperature are expected to affect the productivity, species composition, biogeochemistry, and therefore the quantity and quality of forage available to herbivores in rangeland ecosystems. Both elevated CO2 (eCO2 ) and warming affect plant tissue chemistry through multiple direct and indirect pathways, such that the cumulative outcomes of these effects are difficult to predict. Here, we report on a 7-yr study examining effects of CO2 enrichment (to 600 ppm) and infrared warming (+1...
January 3, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285550/symbiont-mediated-host-parasite-dynamics-in-a-fungus-gardening-ant
#6
Katrin Kellner, M R Kardish, J N Seal, T A Linksvayer, U G Mueller
Group-living can promote the evolution of adaptive strategies to prevent and control disease. Fungus-gardening ants must cope with two sets of pathogens, those that afflict the ants themselves and those of their symbiotic fungal gardens. While much research has demonstrated the impact of specialized fungal pathogens that infect ant fungus gardens, most of these studies focused on the so-called higher attine ants, which are thought to coevolve diffusely with two clades of leucocoprinaceous fungi. Relatively few studies have addressed disease ecology of lower Attini, which are thought to occasionally recruit (domesticate) novel leucocoprinaceous fungi from free-living populations; coevolution between lower-attine ants and their fungi is therefore likely weaker (or even absent) than in the higher Attini, which generally have many derived modifications...
December 28, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050554/natural-variation-and-genetics-of-photoperiodism-in-wyeomyia-smithii
#7
William E Bradshaw, Christina M Holzapfel
Seasonal change in the temperate and polar regions of Earth determines how the world looks around us and, in fact, how we live our day-to-day lives. For biological organisms, seasonal change typically involves complex physiological and metabolic reorganization, the majority of which is regulated by photoperiodism. Photoperiodism is the ability of animals and plants to use day length or night length, resulting in life-historical transformations, including seasonal development, migration, reproduction, and dormancy...
2017: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989013/development-of-a-modified-release-formulation-of-lovastatin-targeted-to-intestinal-methanogens-implicated-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-constipation
#8
Steven Hubert, Alan Chadwick, Vince Wacher, Olivia Coughlin, John Kokai-Kun, Andrew Bristol
There is growing evidence that methane production, predominantly by Methanobrevibacter smithii, in the intestines is a cause of constipation, pain, and bloating in irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). M smithii resides primarily in the large intestine but can also colonize the small intestine. In vitro studies found that the prodrug lactone form of lovastatin, found in cholesterol-lowering drugs, inhibited methane production in stool samples from patients with IBS-C. However, the cholesterol-lowering lovastatin β-hydroxyacid was ineffective at inhibiting methane production in this system...
February 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982164/immunogenic-properties-of-the-human-gut-associated-archaeon-methanomassiliicoccus-luminyensis-and-its-susceptibility-to-antimicrobial-peptides
#9
Corinna Bang, Tim Vierbuchen, Thomas Gutsmann, Holger Heine, Ruth A Schmitz
The methanogenic archaeon Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis strain B10T was isolated from human feces just a few years ago. Due to its remarkable metabolic properties, particularly the degradation of trimethylamines, this strain was supposed to be used as "Archaebiotic" during metabolic disorders of the human intestine. However, there is still no data published regarding adaptations to the natural habitat of M. luminyensis as it has been shown for the other two reported mucosa-associated methanoarchaea. This study aimed at unraveling susceptibility of M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963219/draft-genome-sequence-of-methanobrevibacter-smithii-isolate-wwm1085-obtained-from-a-human-stool-sample
#10
Matthew E Jennings, Nicholas Chia, Lisa A Boardman, William W Metcalf
Methanobrevibacter smithii is a common inhabitant of the human gut. Here, we present a draft genome sequence of M. smithii isolate WWM1085, obtained from a human stool sample. This sequence will improve our understanding of the genetic diversity of this human-associated methanogen.
September 28, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948854/in-vitro-evaluation-of-archaeosome-vehicles-for-transdermal-vaccine-delivery
#11
Yimei Jia, Michael J McCluskie, Dongling Zhang, Robert Monette, Umar Iqbal, Maria Moreno, Janelle Sauvageau, Dean Williams, Lise Deschatelets, Zygmunt J Jakubek, Lakshmi Krishnan
Archaeosomes composed of archaeal total polar lipids (TPL) or semi-synthetic analog vesicles have been used as vaccine adjuvants and delivery systems in animal models for many years. Typically administered by intramuscular or subcutaneous injections, archaeosomes can induce robust, long-lasting humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against entrapped antigens and provide protection in murine models of infectious disease and cancer. Herein, we evaluated various archaeosomes for transdermal delivery, since this route may help eliminate needle-stick injuries and needle re-use, and therefore increase patient compliance...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Liposome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837129/large-scale-comparative-metagenomics-of-blastocystis-a-common-member-of-the-human-gut-microbiome
#12
Francesco Beghini, Edoardo Pasolli, Tin Duy Truong, Lorenza Putignani, Simone M Cacciò, Nicola Segata
The influence of unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms on human gut health and disease is still largely unexplored. Blastocystis spp. commonly colonize the gut, but its clinical significance and ecological role are currently unsettled. We have developed a high-sensitivity bioinformatic pipeline to detect Blastocystis subtypes (STs) from shotgun metagenomics, and applied it to 12 large data sets, comprising 1689 subjects of different geographic origin, disease status and lifestyle. We confirmed and extended previous observations on the high prevalence the microrganism in the population (14...
December 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823095/methanobrevibacter-smithii-a-methanogen-consistently-colonising-the-newborn-stomach
#13
G Grine, M A Boualam, M Drancourt
Methanobrevibacter smithii is the main human methanogen almost always found in the digestive tract of adults. Yet, the age at which M. smithii establishes itself as part of the developing intestinal microflora remains unknown. In order to gain insight into this, we developed a polyphasic approach, including microscopic observation by fluorescence in situ hybridisation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing detection, identification and culture, to isolate and genotype M. smithii in one-day-old newborns' gastric juice specimens...
December 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797298/community-characteristics-of-the-gut-microbiomes-of-competitive-cyclists
#14
Lauren M Petersen, Eddy J Bautista, Hoan Nguyen, Blake M Hanson, Lei Chen, Sai H Lek, Erica Sodergren, George M Weinstock
BACKGROUND: Changes in diet and exercise can alter the gut microbiome of humans and mice; however, few studies to date have assessed the microbiomes of highly fit athletes. In this pilot study, we used metagenomic whole genome shotgun (mWGS) and metatranscriptomic (RNA-Seq) sequencing to show what organisms are both present and active in the gut microbiomes of both professional and amateur level competitive cyclists and to determine if any significant differences exist between these two groups...
August 10, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649153/corynespora-exosporium-and-helminthosporium-revisited-new-species-and-generic-reclassification
#15
H Voglmayr, W M Jaklitsch
Molecular phylogenetic analyses of a multigene matrix of partial nuSSU-ITS-LSU rDNA, rpb2 and tef1 sequences were performed to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of Corynespora, Exosporium and Helminthosporium species. Based on phylogenetic analyses and morphology, the genus Exosporium is synonymised with Helminthosporium, and the genus Corynespora is revealed as polyphyletic. Corynespora smithii is confirmed to be closely related to the generic type C. cassiicola and its morphology is described and illustrated...
June 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364028/-methanosphaera-stadtmanae-induces-a-type-iv-hypersensitivity-response-in-a-mouse-model-of-airway-inflammation
#16
Emilie Bernatchez, Matthew J Gold, Anick Langlois, Pascale Blais-Lecours, Magali Boucher, Caroline Duchaine, David Marsolais, Kelly M McNagny, Marie-Renée Blanchet
Despite improved awareness of work-related diseases and preventive measures, many workers are still at high risk of developing occupational hypersensitivity airway diseases. This stems from a lack of knowledge of bioaerosol composition and their potential effects on human health. Recently, archaea species were identified in bioaerosols, raising the possibility that they play a major role in exposure-related pathology. Specifically, Methanosphaera stadtmanae (MSS) and Methanobrevibacter smithii (MBS) are found in high concentrations in agricultural environments and respiratory exposure to crude extract demonstrates immunomodulatory activity in mice...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344572/gut-colonization-by-methanogenic-archaea-is-associated-with-organic-dairy-consumption-in-children
#17
Jeroen A A van de Pol, Niels van Best, Catherine A Mbakwa, Carel Thijs, Paul H Savelkoul, Ilja C W Arts, Mathias W Hornef, Monique Mommers, John Penders
The gut microbiota represents a complex and diverse ecosystem with a profound impact on human health, promoting immune maturation, and host metabolism as well as colonization resistance. Important members that have often been disregarded are the methanogenic archaea. Methanogenic archaea reduce hydrogen levels via the production of methane, thereby stimulating food fermentation by saccharolytic bacteria. On the other hand, colonization by archaea has been suggested to promote a number of gastrointestinal and metabolic diseases such as colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and obesity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737924/characteristics-of-a-water-forming-nadh-oxidase-from-methanobrevibacter-smithii-an-archaeon-in-the-human-gut
#18
Mingguang Yan, Weibing Yin, Xiao Fang, Jianjun Guo, Hong Shi
NADH oxidases (NOXs) catalysing the oxidation of NADH to yield NAD+ and H2 O, H2 O2 , or both play an important role in protecting organisms from oxidative stress and maintaining the balance of NAD+ /NADH. A gene encoding NOX was identified from Methanobrevibacter smithii (NOX-ms), the predominant archaeon in the human gut ecosystem. Subsequent analyses showed that it is an FAD-containing protein with a subunit molecular mass of 48 kDa. NOX-ms was purified to homogeneity after expression in Escherichia coli NOX-ms catalysed the oxidization of NADH and converted O2 to H2 O with an optimal pH of 7...
December 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697372/assessing-methanobrevibacter-smithii-and-clostridium-difficile-as-not-conventional-faecal-indicators-in-effluents-of-a-wastewater-treatment-plant-integrated-with-sludge-anaerobic-digestion
#19
Valeria Romanazzi, Silvia Bonetta, Stefania Fornasero, Margherita De Ceglia, Giorgio Gilli, Deborah Traversi
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are an important source of surface water contamination by enteric pathogens, affecting the role of environmental water as a microbial reservoir. We describe the release to the environment of certain anaerobes of human and environmental concern. The work was focused on emerging microbial targets. They are tracing, by RT-qPCR, on WWTP effluents, both liquid and solid, when an anaerobic digestion step is included. The focus is placed on Clostridium spp. with the specific quantification of Clostridium perfringens, as typical bioindicator, and Clostridium difficile, as emerging pathogen not only confined into nosocomial infection...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631197/decay-kinetics-of-microbial-source-tracking-mst-markers-and-human-adenovirus-under-the-effects-of-sunlight-and-salinity
#20
Liang L, Goh S G, Gin K Y H
Artificial seawater and freshwater microcosms inoculated with raw sewage were set up to compare the persistence of microbial source tracking (MST) markers (i.e. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (B. theta), Methanobrevibacter smithii (M. smithii), human polyomaviruses JC and BK (HPyVs)) and human adenoviruses under different sunlight intensity and salinity. PMA pretreatment successfully eliminated the false-positive detection of dead bacterial cells in the model-development experiment. The results were then validated using real environmental matrices in microcosms inoculated with raw sewage...
January 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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