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Molecular mimicry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532011/molecularly-imprinted-polymer-for-human-viral-pathogen-detection
#1
REVIEW
Aijaz Ahmad Malik, Chanin Nantasenamat, Theeraphon Piacham
Molecular imprinting has become an attractive synthetic approach for the fabrication of novel functional polymers with pre-designed molecular target selectivity. Such molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been applied in wide range of areas such as chemical and biological sensors, solid phase extraction and drug assays owing to their inherent robustness, reusability and reproducibility. Furthermore, MIPs can also be used as tools for studies concerning antibody/receptor binding site mimicry as well as being used as antibody substitutes for biomedical applications...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520518/arrested-development-infantile-hemangioma-and-the-stem-cell-teratogenic-hypothesis
#2
Shaghayegh Harbi, Hannah Park, Michael Gregory, Peter Lopez, Luis Chiriboga, Paolo Mignatti
BACKGROUND: Early-life programming is defined by the adaptive changes made by the fetus in response to an adverse in utero environment. Infantile hemangioma (IH), a vascular anomaly, is the most common tumor of infancy. Here we take IH as the tumor model to propose the stem cell teratogenic hypothesis of tumorigenesis and the potential involvement of the immune system. OBJECTIVES: Teratogenic agents include chemicals, heavy metals, pathogens, and ionizing radiation...
May 18, 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516867/the-link-between-proteus-mirabilis-environmental-factors-and-autoantibodies-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#3
REVIEW
Taha Rashid, Alan Ebringer, Clyde Wilson
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a relatively common and potentially disabling immune-mediated inflammatory systemic disease, predominantly affecting women and characterised by multiple small joint arthritis. Extensive data supports the roles of genetic, environmental and microbial factors in the triggering and development of this disease. Proteus mirabilis is considered as the main microbial culprit in the causation of RA. The evidence for the role of these microbes in RA and their links with commonly associated autoantibodies such as rheumatoid factors and anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies have been elucidated together with their relations with some of the non-microbial environmental factors which have been implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of RA...
May 8, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498425/gene-silencing-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-hinders-tumor-growth-through-angiogenesis-inhibition
#4
Jinfeng Pan, Keng Yuan, Shanshan Peng, Yanqin Huang, Yujuan Zhang, Yinying Hu, Yuanyuan Feng, Yanmei Shi, Yanling Liu, Hongmei Wang, Nanjin Zhou, Weiping Min
The significance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) has been studied in various types of tumors, but the relationship between IDO1 and tumor angiogenesis needs further delineation. We aimed to clarify the relationship between tumor angiogenesis and IDO1 expression, and to explore the possibility of IDO1-targeting molecular therapy for lung cancer. For the first time, we found that silencing the IDO1 gene using small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibits in vitro cancer cell invasion and migration. We further demonstrated that knockdown of IDO1 decreased the formation of vasculogenic mimicry...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493828/overexpression-of-leptin-receptor-in-human-glioblastoma-correlation-with-vasculogenic-mimicry-and-poor-prognosis
#5
Guosheng Han, Yanan Li, Yiqun Cao, Zhijian Yue, Yuhui Zhang, Laixing Wang, Jianmin Liu
Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) was an important tumor blood supply to complement the endothelial cell-dependent angiogenesis, while leptin and receptor (ObR) involved in angiogenesis in glioblastoma has been reported on previous study, but the relationship between ObR expression and VM formation in human glioblastoma tissues, as well as their prognostic significance still remains unclear. In our study, we found that VM recognized by CD31-/PAS+ immunohistochemical staining in glioblastoma tissues showed a positive correlation with leptin expression (r = 0...
April 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490724/infection-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-similarities-and-differences-with-lupus-flare
#6
REVIEW
Ju-Yang Jung, Chang-Hee Suh
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease with diverse manifestations, and its pathogenesis is unclear and complicated. Infection and SLE are similar in that they both cause inf lammatory reactions in the immune system; however, one functions to protect the body, whereas the other is activated to damage the body. Infection is known as one of the common trigger factors for SLE; there are a number of reports on infectious agents that provoke autoimmune response. Several viruses, bacteria, and protozoa were revealed to cause immune dysfunction by molecular mimicry, epitope spreading, and bystander activation...
May 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487214/eif4e-phosphorylation-by-mst1-reduces-translation-of-a-subset-of-mrnas-but-increases-lncrna-translation
#7
Kyung-Won Min, Sylvia Davila, Richard W Zealy, Lawson T Lloyd, In Young Lee, Rumi Lee, Kyung Hye Roh, Ahjin Jung, Jacek Jemielity, Eui-Ju Choi, Jeong Ho Chang, Je-Hyun Yoon
Post-transcriptional gene regulation is an important step in eukaryotic gene expression. The last step to govern production of nascent peptides is during the process of mRNA translation. mRNA translation is controlled by many translation initiation factors that are susceptible to post-translational modifications. Here we report that one of the translation initiation factors, eIF4E, is phosphorylated by Mammalian Ste20-like kinase (MST1). Upon phosphorylation, eIF4E weakly interacts with the 5' CAP to inhibit mRNA translation...
May 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470667/autoreactive-monoclonal-antibodies-from-patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis-recognize-environmental-xenobiotics
#8
Toshihiro Tanaka, Weici Zhang, Ying Sun, Zongwen Shuai, Asiya Chida, Thomas P Kenny, Guo-Xiang Yang, Ignacio Sanz, Aftab Ansai, Christopher L Bowlus, Gregory C Ippolito, Ross L Coppel, Kazuichi Okazaki, Xiao-Song He, Patrick S C Leung, M Eric Gershwin
A major problem in autoimmunity has been identification of the earliest events that lead to breach of tolerance. Although there have been major advances in dissecting effector pathways and the multi-lineage immune responses to mitochondrial self-antigens in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), the critical links between environmental factors and tolerance remain elusive. We hypothesized that environmental xenobiotic modification of the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDC-E2) inner lipoyl domain can lead to loss of tolerance to genetically susceptible hosts...
May 3, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469092/transcriptional-dissection-of-melanoma-identifies-a-high-risk-subtype-underlying-tp53-family-genes-and-epigenome-deregulation
#9
Brateil Badal, Alexander Solovyov, Serena Di Cecilia, Joseph Minhow Chan, Li-Wei Chang, Ramiz Iqbal, Iraz T Aydin, Geena S Rajan, Chen Chen, Franco Abbate, Kshitij S Arora, Antoine Tanne, Stephen B Gruber, Timothy M Johnson, Douglas R Fullen, Leon Raskin, Robert Phelps, Nina Bhardwaj, Emily Bernstein, David T Ting, Georg Brunner, Eric E Schadt, Benjamin D Greenbaum, Julide Tok Celebi
BACKGROUND: Melanoma is a heterogeneous malignancy. We set out to identify the molecular underpinnings of high-risk melanomas, those that are likely to progress rapidly, metastasize, and result in poor outcomes. METHODS: We examined transcriptome changes from benign states to early-, intermediate-, and late-stage tumors using a set of 78 treatment-naive melanocytic tumors consisting of primary melanomas of the skin and benign melanocytic lesions. We utilized a next-generation sequencing platform that enabled a comprehensive analysis of protein-coding and -noncoding RNA transcripts...
May 4, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445140/triple-negative-breast-cancer-the-kiss-of-death
#10
REVIEW
Adriana-Andreea Jitariu, Anca Maria Cîmpean, Domenico Ribatti, Marius Raica
One of the most controversial women malignancies, triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are critically overviewed here, being focused on data useful in clinical practice or to improve the therapy and patients survival. TNBCs "choose" young women and its "kiss" is, unfortunately deadly in most cases. Currently, few sparse data are available in literature concerning the origins of TNBC. Vasculogenic mimicry detected in TNBCs, seems to be determined by a population of CD133+ cells and may be stimulated by different pharmacological agents such sunitinib...
April 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411240/structural-basis-of-apoptosis-inhibition-by-the-fowlpox-virus-protein-fpv039
#11
Mohd Ishtiaq Anasir, Sofia Caria, Michael A Skinner, Marc Kvansakul
Programmed cell death or apoptosis of infected host cells is an important defense mechanism in response to viral infections. This process is regulated by pro-apoptotic and pro-survival members of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein family. To counter premature death of a virus-infected cell, poxviruses use a range of different molecular strategies, including the mimicry of pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins. One such viral pro-survival protein is the fowlpox virus protein FPV039, which is a potent apoptosis inhibitor, but the precise molecular mechanism by which FPV039 inhibits apoptosis is unknown...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410377/plasma-from-patients-with-anti-glomerular-basement-membrane-disease-could-recognize-microbial-peptides
#12
Jian-Nan Li, Xiaoyu Jia, Yongqiang Wang, Can Xie, Taijiao Jiang, Zhao Cui, Ming-Hui Zhao
Infection has long been suspected as a trigger of autoimmune diseases, and molecular mimicry mechanism was hypothesized in this study. Microbe originated peptides were searched from the Uniprot database based on a previous defined critical amino acid motif within α3129-150, isoleucine137, tryptophan140, glycine142, phenylalanine 143 and phenylalanine 145. 23826 microbial peptides were identified using our searching strategy, among which seven were related with human infections. Circulating IgG and IgM antibodies against the seven microbial peptides were detected using ELISA in 76 patients with anti-GBM disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397481/diagnosis-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-using-a-novel-mouse-monoclonal-antibody-to-detect-serum-hcv-e1-e2-antigens
#13
Iman Touni, Ashraf A Tabll, Shaimaa S Sobieh, Maha A Hewedy, Yasmine S El Abd, Sergei Viazov
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease worldwide and in Egypt. The aim of this study was to detect HCV E1/E2 antigens using a novel mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) designated (7G9) as a diagnostic and alternative approach for HCV detection. METHODS: The detection of HCV-E1/E2 antigens in 138 patients positive for HCV infection tested by RT-PCR and 25 healthy individuals negative for HCV as control group was done by an optimized in-house ELISA and DotELISA (based on the molecular mimicry of E2 to immunoglobulins)...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394824/from-microbiome-to-infectome-in-autoimmunity
#14
Dimitrios P Bogdanos, Lazaros I Sakkas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review discusses the pros and cons of the microbiome studies conducted in search of the association between microbiota and autoimmunity. RECENT FINDINGS: We focus on the role of infectome and autoinfectome as a bridge to link the findings of microbiome studies with those emerging from investigations of the role of specific viruses and antiviral responses as triggers of autoimmunity (through various mechanisms such as molecular mimicry)...
April 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379682/synthetic-random-copolymers-as-a-molecular-platform-to-mimic-host-defense-antimicrobial-peptides
#15
Haruko Takahashi, Gregory A Caputo, Satyavani Vemparala, Kenichi Kuroda
Synthetic polymers have been used as a molecular platform to develop host-defense antimicrobial peptide (AMP) mimetics which are effective in killing drug-resistant bacteria. In this topical review, we will discuss the AMP-mimetic design and chemical optimization strategies as well as the biological and biophysical implications of AMP mimicry by synthetic polymers. Traditionally, synthetic polymers have been used as a chemical means to replicate the chemical functionalities and physicochemical properties of AMPs (e...
April 17, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359286/the-double-edged-sword-of-re-expression-of-genes-by-hypomethylating-agents-from-viral-mimicry-to-exploitation-as-priming-agents-for-targeted-immune-checkpoint-modulation
#16
REVIEW
Florian Wolff, Michael Leisch, Richard Greil, Angela Risch, Lisa Pleyer
Hypomethylating agents (HMAs) have been widely used over the last decade, approved for use in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The proposed central mechanism of action of HMAs, is the reversal of aberrant methylation in tumor cells, thus reactivating CpG-island promoters and leading to (re)expression of tumor suppressor genes. Recent investigations into the mode of action of azacitidine (AZA) and decitabine (DAC) have revealed new molecular mechanisms that impinge on tumor immunity via induction of an interferon response, through activation of endogenous retroviral elements (ERVs) that are normally epigenetically silenced...
March 31, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342734/integration-of-microbiome-and-epigenome-to-decipher-the-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Beidi Chen, Luxi Sun, Xuan Zhang
The interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental factors are of great significance in the pathogenesis and development of autoimmune diseases (AIDs). The human mucosa is the most frequent site that interacts with the exterior environment, and commensal microbiota at the gut and other human mucosal cavities play a crucial role in the regulation of immune system. Growing evidence has shown that the compositional and functional changes of mucosal microbiota are closely related to AIDs. Gut dysbiosis not only influence the expression level of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) of antigen presenting cells, but also contribute to Th17/Treg imbalance...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284719/hypoxia-mediated-mechanisms-associated-with-antiangiogenic-treatment-resistance-in-glioblastomas
#18
REVIEW
Sean Mahase, Rachel N Rattenni, Pieter Wesseling, William Leenders, Clarissa Baldotto, Rajan Jain, David Zagzag
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are malignant tumors characterized by their vascularity and invasive capabilities. Antiangiogenic therapy (AAT) is a treatment option that targets GBM-associated vasculature to mitigate the growth of GBMs. However, AAT demonstrates transient effects because many patients eventually develop resistance to this treatment. Several recent studies attempt to explain the molecular and biochemical basis of resistance to AAT in GBM patients. Experimental investigations suggest that the induction of extensive intratumoral hypoxia plays a key role in GBM escape from AAT...
May 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245427/microbe-microbe-and-host-microbe-interactions-drive-microbiome-dysbiosis-and-inflammatory-processes
#19
Amy D Proal, Inge A Lindseth, Trevor G Marshall
An extensive microbiome comprised of bacteria, viruses, bacteriophages, and fungi is now understood to persist in nearly every human body site, including tissue and blood. The genomes of these microbes continually interact with the human genome in order to regulate host metabolism. Many components of this microbiome are capable of both commensal and pathogenic activity. They are additionally able to persist in both 'acute' and chronic forms. Inflammatory conditions historically studied separately (autoimmune, neurological and malignant) are now repeatedly tied to a common trend: imbalance or dysbiosis of these microbial ecosystems...
January 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240004/gut-microbiota-and-pancreatic-diseases
#20
Marianna Signoretti, Roberta Roggiolani, Caterina Stornello, Gianfranco Delle Fave, Gabriele Capurso
Changes in diet, lifestyle and exposition to environmental risk factors account for the increased incidence of pancreatic disorders, including acute and chronic pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. The role of the microbiome in the development of pancreatic disorders is increasingly recognized. The translocation of gut bacteria and endotoxins following gut barrier failure is a key event contributing to the severity of acute pancreatitis, while small intestine bacterial overgrowth is common in patients with chronic pancreatitis and further worsens their symptoms and malnutrition...
February 24, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
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