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Molecular mimicry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637753/structural-mimicry-of-the-dengue-virus-envelope-glycoprotein-revealed-by-the-crystallographic-study-of-an-idiotype-anti-idiotype-fab-complex
#1
Yee Hwa Wong, Boon Chong Goh, She Yah Lim, En Wei Teo, Angeline P C Lim, Pete C Dedon, Brendon J Hanson, Paul A MacAry, Julien Lescar
A detailed understanding of the fine specificity of serotype-specific human antibodies is vital for the development and evaluation of new vaccines for pathogenic Flaviviruses such as Dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus. In this study, we thoroughly characterize the structural footprint of an anti-idiotype antibody (E1) specific for a potent, fully human DENV serotype 1-specific antibody termed HM14c10, derived from a recovered patient. The crystal structure at a resolution of 2.5 Å of a complex between the Fab fragments of E1 and HM14c10 provides the first detailed molecular comparison of an anti-idiotype paratope specific for a human antibody with its analogous epitope- a discontinuous quaternary structure located at the surface of the viral particle that spans adjacent envelope (E) proteins...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636951/structure-of-cc-chemokine-receptor-5-with-a-potent-chemokine-antagonist-reveals-mechanisms-of-chemokine-recognition-and-molecular-mimicry-by-hiv
#2
Yi Zheng, Gye Won Han, Ruben Abagyan, Beili Wu, Raymond C Stevens, Vadim Cherezov, Irina Kufareva, Tracy M Handel
CCR5 is the primary chemokine receptor utilized by HIV to infect leukocytes, whereas CCR5 ligands inhibit infection by blocking CCR5 engagement with HIV gp120. To guide the design of improved therapeutics, we solved the structure of CCR5 in complex with chemokine antagonist [5P7]CCL5. Several structural features appeared to contribute to the anti-HIV potency of [5P7]CCL5, including the distinct chemokine orientation relative to the receptor, the near-complete occupancy of the receptor binding pocket, the dense network of intermolecular hydrogen bonds, and the similarity of binding determinants with the FDA-approved HIV inhibitor Maraviroc...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610419/gene-expression-profiling-of-chemokines-and-their-receptors-in-low-and-high-grade-astrocytoma
#3
Ira Sharma, Avninder Singh, Karam Chand Sharma, Sunita Saxena
Background: Despite intense interest in molecular characterization and searches for novel therapeutic targets, the glioblastoma remains a formidable clinical challenge. Among many contributors to gliomagenesis, chemokines have drawn special attention due to their involvement in a plethora of biological processes and pathological conditions. In the present study we aimed to elucidate any pro-gliomagenic chemokine axis and probable roles in development of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Method: An array of 84 chemokines, chemokine receptors and related genes were studied by real time PCR with comparison between low grade astrocytoma (diffuse astrocytoma – grade II) and high grade astrocytoma (glioblastoma multiforme – grade IV)...
May 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609943/-i-mimaporia-i-a-new-genus-of-epicopeiidae-lepidoptera-with-description-of-a-new-species-from-vietnam
#4
Chia-Hsuan Wei, Shen-Horn Yen
The Epicopeiidae is a small geometroid family distributed in the East Palaearctic and Oriental regions. It exhibits high morphological diversity in body size and wing shape, while their wing patterns involve in various complex mimicry rings. In the present study, we attempted to describe a new genus, and a new species from Vietnam, with comments on two assumed congeneric novel species from China and India. To address its phylogenetic affinity, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the family by using sequence data of COI, EF-1α, and 28S gene regions obtained from seven genera of Epicopeiidae with Pseudobiston pinratanai as the outgroup...
April 20, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601640/functional-evidence-that-the-self-renewal-gene-nanog-regulates-esophageal-squamous-cancer-development
#5
Deng Li, Xiaocong Xiang, Fei Yang, Dongqin Xiao, Kang Liu, Zhu Chen, Ruolan Zhang, Gang Feng
Cancer cell molecular mimicry of stem cells (SC) follows with enhanced proliferative and renewal capacities. In support, numerous mediators of SC self-renewal have been evinced to exhibit oncogenic potential. More and more researches showed that the embryonic stem cell self-renewal genes express in various cancer cells. In this study, we sought to test the tumorigenic functions of NANOG, particularly, in esophageal cancer (EC). Using quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, we confirmed that EC cells highly express NANOG mRNA and protein...
June 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579973/conflicting-role-of-mycobacterium-species-in-multiple-sclerosis
#6
REVIEW
Davide Cossu, Kazumasa Yokoyama, Nobutaka Hattori
Mycobacterium is a genus of aerobic and acid-fast bacteria, which include several pathogenic organisms that cause serious diseases in mammals. Previous studies have associated the immune response against mycobacteria with multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with unknown etiology. The role of mycobacteria in the pathological process has been controversial and often conflicting. We provide a detailed review of the mycobacteria that have been linked to MS over the last three decades, with a focus on Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine for human and oral exposure to Mycobacterium avium subsp...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561588/protein-domain-mimics-as-modulators-of-protein-protein-interactions
#7
Nicholas Sawyer, Andrew M Watkins, Paramjit S Arora
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are ubiquitous in biological systems and often misregulated in disease. As such, specific PPI modulators are desirable to unravel complex PPI pathways and expand the number of druggable targets available for therapeutic intervention. However, the large size and relative flatness of PPI interfaces make them challenging molecular targets. This Account describes our systematic approach using secondary and tertiary protein domain mimics (PDMs) to specifically modulate PPIs. Our strategy focuses on mimicry of regular secondary and tertiary structure elements from one of the PPI partners to inspire rational PDM design...
May 31, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549714/the-enigmatic-role-of-viruses-in-multiple-sclerosis-molecular-mimicry-or-disturbed-immune-surveillance
#8
REVIEW
Jens Geginat, Moira Paroni, Massimiliano Pagani, Daniela Galimberti, Raffaele De Francesco, Elio Scarpini, Sergio Abrignani
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a T cell driven autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Despite its association with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), how viral infections promote MS remains unclear. However, there is increasing evidence that the CNS is continuously surveyed by virus-specific T cells, which protect against reactivating neurotropic viruses. Here, we discuss how viral infections could lead to the breakdown of self-tolerance in genetically predisposed individuals, and how the reactivations of viruses in the CNS could induce the recruitment of both autoaggressive and virus-specific T cell subsets, causing relapses and progressive disability...
May 23, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548243/cross-reactive-saliva-iga-antibodies-to-oxidized-ldl-and-periodontal-pathogens-in-humans
#9
Ramin Akhi, Chunguang Wang, Mikael Kyrklund, Outi Kummu, S Pauliina Turunen, Kati Hyvärinen, Arja Kullaa, Tuula Salo, Pirkko J Pussinen, Sohvi Hörkkö
AIM: Oxidized Low-Density Lipoproteins (oxLDL) are formed as a result of lipid peroxidation and are highly immunogenic and proatherogenic. In this study, saliva antibodies binding to oxLDL, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), were characterized and their cross reactivity was evaluated. MATERIAL & METHODS: Resting and stimulated saliva samples were collected from 36 healthy adults (mean age 26 years). Saliva IgA, IgG and IgM autoantibody levels to copper oxidized LDL (CuOx-LDL) and malondialdehyde acetaldehyde modified LDL (MAA-LDL), were determined with chemiluminescence immunoassay...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532011/molecularly-imprinted-polymer-for-human-viral-pathogen-detection
#10
REVIEW
Aijaz Ahmad Malik, Chanin Nantasenamat, Theeraphon Piacham
Molecular imprinting has become an attractive synthetic approach for the fabrication of novel functional polymers with pre-designed molecular target selectivity. Such molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been applied in wide range of areas such as chemical and biological sensors, solid phase extraction and drug assays owing to their inherent robustness, reusability and reproducibility. Furthermore, MIPs can also be used as tools for studies concerning antibody/receptor binding site mimicry as well as being used as antibody substitutes for biomedical applications...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520518/arrested-development-infantile-hemangioma-and-the-stem-cell-teratogenic-hypothesis
#11
Shaghayegh Harbi, Hannah Park, Michael Gregory, Peter Lopez, Luis Chiriboga, Paolo Mignatti
BACKGROUND: Early-life programming is defined by the adaptive changes made by the fetus in response to an adverse in utero environment. Infantile hemangioma (IH), a vascular anomaly, is the most common tumor of infancy. Here we take IH as the tumor model to propose the stem cell teratogenic hypothesis of tumorigenesis and the potential involvement of the immune system. OBJECTIVES: Teratogenic agents include chemicals, heavy metals, pathogens, and ionizing radiation...
June 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516867/the-link-between-proteus-mirabilis-environmental-factors-and-autoantibodies-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#12
REVIEW
Taha Rashid, Alan Ebringer, Clyde Wilson
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a relatively common and potentially disabling immune-mediated inflammatory systemic disease, predominantly affecting women and characterised by multiple small joint arthritis. Extensive data supports the roles of genetic, environmental and microbial factors in the triggering and development of this disease. Proteus mirabilis is considered as the main microbial culprit in the causation of RA. The evidence for the role of these microbes in RA and their links with commonly associated autoantibodies such as rheumatoid factors and anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies have been elucidated together with their relations with some of the non-microbial environmental factors which have been implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of RA...
May 8, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498425/gene-silencing-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-hinders-tumor-growth-through-angiogenesis-inhibition
#13
Jinfeng Pan, Keng Yuan, Shanshan Peng, Yanqin Huang, Yujuan Zhang, Yinying Hu, Yuanyuan Feng, Yanmei Shi, Yanling Liu, Hongmei Wang, Nanjin Zhou, Weiping Min
The significance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) has been studied in various types of tumors, but the relationship between IDO1 and tumor angiogenesis needs further delineation. We aimed to clarify the relationship between tumor angiogenesis and IDO1 expression, and to explore the possibility of IDO1-targeting molecular therapy for lung cancer. For the first time, we found that silencing the IDO1 gene using small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibits in vitro cancer cell invasion and migration. We further demonstrated that knockdown of IDO1 decreased the formation of vasculogenic mimicry...
June 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493828/overexpression-of-leptin-receptor-in-human-glioblastoma-correlation-with-vasculogenic-mimicry-and-poor-prognosis
#14
Guosheng Han, Yanan Li, Yiqun Cao, Zhijian Yue, Yuhui Zhang, Laixing Wang, Jianmin Liu
Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) was an important tumor blood supply to complement the endothelial cell-dependent angiogenesis, while leptin and receptor (ObR) involved in angiogenesis in glioblastoma has been reported on previous study, but the relationship between ObR expression and VM formation in human glioblastoma tissues, as well as their prognostic significance still remains unclear. In our study, we found that VM recognized by CD31-/PAS+ immunohistochemical staining in glioblastoma tissues showed a positive correlation with leptin expression (r = 0...
April 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490724/infection-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-similarities-and-differences-with-lupus-flare
#15
REVIEW
Ju-Yang Jung, Chang-Hee Suh
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease with diverse manifestations, and its pathogenesis is unclear and complicated. Infection and SLE are similar in that they both cause inf lammatory reactions in the immune system; however, one functions to protect the body, whereas the other is activated to damage the body. Infection is known as one of the common trigger factors for SLE; there are a number of reports on infectious agents that provoke autoimmune response. Several viruses, bacteria, and protozoa were revealed to cause immune dysfunction by molecular mimicry, epitope spreading, and bystander activation...
May 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487214/eif4e-phosphorylation-by-mst1-reduces-translation-of-a-subset-of-mrnas-but-increases-lncrna-translation
#16
Kyung-Won Min, Sylvia Davila, Richard W Zealy, Lawson T Lloyd, In Young Lee, Rumi Lee, Kyung Hye Roh, Ahjin Jung, Jacek Jemielity, Eui-Ju Choi, Jeong Ho Chang, Je-Hyun Yoon
Post-transcriptional gene regulation is an important step in eukaryotic gene expression. The last step to govern production of nascent peptides is during the process of mRNA translation. mRNA translation is controlled by many translation initiation factors that are susceptible to post-translational modifications. Here we report that one of the translation initiation factors, eIF4E, is phosphorylated by Mammalian Ste20-like kinase (MST1). Upon phosphorylation, eIF4E weakly interacts with the 5' CAP to inhibit mRNA translation...
May 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470667/autoreactive-monoclonal-antibodies-from-patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis-recognize-environmental-xenobiotics
#17
Toshihiro Tanaka, Weici Zhang, Ying Sun, Zongwen Shuai, Asiya Chida, Thomas P Kenny, Guo-Xiang Yang, Ignacio Sanz, Aftab Ansai, Christopher L Bowlus, Gregory C Ippolito, Ross L Coppel, Kazuichi Okazaki, Xiao-Song He, Patrick S C Leung, M Eric Gershwin
A major problem in autoimmunity has been identification of the earliest events that lead to breach of tolerance. Although there have been major advances in dissecting effector pathways and the multi-lineage immune responses to mitochondrial self-antigens in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), the critical links between environmental factors and tolerance remain elusive. We hypothesized that environmental xenobiotic modification of the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDC-E2) inner lipoyl domain can lead to loss of tolerance to genetically susceptible hosts...
May 3, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469092/transcriptional-dissection-of-melanoma-identifies-a-high-risk-subtype-underlying-tp53-family-genes-and-epigenome-deregulation
#18
Brateil Badal, Alexander Solovyov, Serena Di Cecilia, Joseph Minhow Chan, Li-Wei Chang, Ramiz Iqbal, Iraz T Aydin, Geena S Rajan, Chen Chen, Franco Abbate, Kshitij S Arora, Antoine Tanne, Stephen B Gruber, Timothy M Johnson, Douglas R Fullen, Leon Raskin, Robert Phelps, Nina Bhardwaj, Emily Bernstein, David T Ting, Georg Brunner, Eric E Schadt, Benjamin D Greenbaum, Julide Tok Celebi
BACKGROUND: Melanoma is a heterogeneous malignancy. We set out to identify the molecular underpinnings of high-risk melanomas, those that are likely to progress rapidly, metastasize, and result in poor outcomes. METHODS: We examined transcriptome changes from benign states to early-, intermediate-, and late-stage tumors using a set of 78 treatment-naive melanocytic tumors consisting of primary melanomas of the skin and benign melanocytic lesions. We utilized a next-generation sequencing platform that enabled a comprehensive analysis of protein-coding and -noncoding RNA transcripts...
May 4, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445140/triple-negative-breast-cancer-the-kiss-of-death
#19
REVIEW
Adriana-Andreea Jitariu, Anca Maria Cîmpean, Domenico Ribatti, Marius Raica
One of the most controversial women malignancies, triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are critically overviewed here, being focused on data useful in clinical practice or to improve the therapy and patients survival. TNBCs "choose" young women and its "kiss" is, unfortunately deadly in most cases. Currently, few sparse data are available in literature concerning the origins of TNBC. Vasculogenic mimicry detected in TNBCs, seems to be determined by a population of CD133+ cells and may be stimulated by different pharmacological agents such sunitinib...
April 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411240/structural-basis-of-apoptosis-inhibition-by-the-fowlpox-virus-protein-fpv039
#20
Mohd Ishtiaq Anasir, Sofia Caria, Michael A Skinner, Marc Kvansakul
Programmed cell death or apoptosis of infected host cells is an important defense mechanism in response to viral infections. This process is regulated by proapoptotic and prosurvival members of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein family. To counter premature death of a virus-infected cell, poxviruses use a range of different molecular strategies including the mimicry of prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins. One such viral prosurvival protein is the fowlpox virus protein FPV039, which is a potent apoptosis inhibitor, but the precise molecular mechanism by which FPV039 inhibits apoptosis is unknown...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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