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Molecular mimicry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917626/association-of-new-putative-epitopes-of-myelin-proteolipid-protein-58-74-with-pathogenesis-of-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Zahra Zamanzadeh, Ghasem Ahangari, Mitra Ataei, Samie Pouragahi, Seyed Massood Nabavi, Mehdi Sadeghi, Mohammad Hossein Sanati
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which auto-reactive T cells react with self-antigens expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). The main cause of MS is unknown. Nonetheless, the most probable theory is based on molecular mimicry, which suggests that some infections can activate T cells against brain auto-antigens like myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) and initiate the disease cascade. This study is conducted to evaluate the activatory effects of PLP58-74 on T lymphocytes and humoral immunity...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895415/factoring-the-intestinal-microbiome-into-the-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-hepatitis
#2
EDITORIAL
Albert J Czaja
The intestinal microbiome is a reservoir of microbial antigens and activated immune cells. The aims of this review were to describe the role of the intestinal microbiome in generating innate and adaptive immune responses, indicate how these responses contribute to the development of systemic immune-mediated diseases, and encourage investigations that improve the understanding and management of autoimmune hepatitis. Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microflora (dysbiosis) can disrupt intestinal and systemic immune tolerances for commensal bacteria...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884623/relationship-between-toxoplasma-gondii-seropositivity-and-acoustic-startle-response-in-an-inner-city-population
#3
Nick M Massa, Erica Duncan, Tanja Jovanovic, Kimberly Kerley, Lei Weng, Lauren Gensler, Samuel S Lee, Seth Norrholm, Abigail Powers, Lynn M Almli, Charles F Gillespie, Kerry Ressler, Bradley D Pearce
Toxoplasma gondii (TOXO) is a neuroinvasive protozoan parasite that induces the formation of persistent cysts in mammalian brains. It infects approximately 1.1 million people in the United States annually. Latent TOXO infection is implicated in the etiology of psychiatric disorders, especially schizophrenia (Scz), and has been correlated with modestly impaired cognition. The acoustic startle response (ASR) is a reflex seen in all mammals. It is mediated by a simple subcortical circuit, and provides an indicator of neural function...
November 21, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881000/microrna-584-3p-reduces-the-vasculogenic-mimicry-of-human-glioma-cells-by-regulating-hypoxia-induced-rock1-dependent-stress-fiber-formation
#4
S Xu, J Zhang, H Xue, X Guo, X Han, T Li, X Guo, X Gao, Q Liu, G Li
We report in this study that microRNA-584-3p (miR-584-3p) is related to the vasculogenic mimicry (VM) of human glioma cells. Unsurprisingly, the postoperative survival time was significantly prolonged in those glioma patients without VM phenomena compared with those with positive VM. miR-584-3p may function as a potent tumor suppressor by inhibiting VM of malignant glioma. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain poorly understood. Our preliminary mechanistic studies revealed that miR-584-3p suppressed the VM by disturbing hypoxia-induced stress fiber formation and migration of glioma cells...
November 24, 2016: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849170/hiv-1-envelope-mimicry-of-host-enzyme-kynureninase-does-not-disrupt-tryptophan-metabolism
#5
Todd Bradley, Guang Yang, Olga Ilkayeva, T Matt Holl, Ruijun Zhang, Jinsong Zhang, Sampa Santra, Christopher B Fox, Steve G Reed, Robert Parks, Cindy M Bowman, Hilary Bouton-Verville, Laura L Sutherland, Richard M Scearce, Nathan Vandergrift, Thomas B Kepler, M Anthony Moody, Hua-Xin Liao, S Munir Alam, Roger McLendon, Jeffrey I Everitt, Christopher B Newgard, Laurent Verkoczy, Garnett Kelsoe, Barton F Haynes
The HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) has evolved to subvert the host immune system, hindering viral control by the host. The tryptophan metabolic enzyme kynureninase (KYNU) is mimicked by a portion of the HIV Env gp41 membrane proximal region (MPER) and is cross-reactive with the HIV broadly neutralizing Ab (bnAb) 2F5. Molecular mimicry of host proteins by pathogens can lead to autoimmune disease. In this article, we demonstrate that neither the 2F5 bnAb nor HIV MPER-KYNU cross-reactive Abs elicited by immunization with an MPER peptide-liposome vaccine in 2F5 bnAb VHDJH and VLJL knock-in mice and rhesus macaques modified KYNU activity or disrupted tissue tryptophan metabolism...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827359/vasculogenic-mimicry-in-small-cell-lung-cancer
#6
Stuart C Williamson, Robert L Metcalf, Francesca Trapani, Sumitra Mohan, Jenny Antonello, Benjamin Abbott, Hui Sun Leong, Christopher P E Chester, Nicole Simms, Radoslaw Polanski, Daisuke Nonaka, Lynsey Priest, Alberto Fusi, Fredrika Carlsson, Anders Carlsson, Mary J C Hendrix, Richard E B Seftor, Elisabeth A Seftor, Dominic G Rothwell, Andrew Hughes, James Hicks, Crispin Miller, Peter Kuhn, Ged Brady, Kathryn L Simpson, Fiona H Blackhall, Caroline Dive
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by prevalent circulating tumour cells (CTCs), early metastasis and poor prognosis. We show that SCLC patients (37/38) have rare CTC subpopulations co-expressing vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin) and cytokeratins consistent with vasculogenic mimicry (VM), a process whereby tumour cells form 'endothelial-like' vessels. Single-cell genomic analysis reveals characteristic SCLC genomic changes in both VE-cadherin-positive and -negative CTCs. Higher levels of VM are associated with worse overall survival in 41 limited-stage patients' biopsies (P<0...
November 9, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824312/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-and-drug-abuse-the-probable-role-of-molecular-mimicry-or-the-overstimulation-of-cb-receptors-in-a-17-year-old-adolescent-case-report
#7
Lidia Hau, Gyorgyi Csabi, Barnabas Rozsai, Jozsef Stankovics, Tamas Tenyi, Katalin Hollody
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder characterized by autoantibodies produced against NMDA receptors. We report the case of a 17-year-old drug user teenager who presented with altered mental scale, psychiatric symptoms and autonomic dysfunction. In the background we diagnosed NMDA encephalitis. We supposed that synthetic cannabinoids/drugs may have lead to the of trigger NMDA encephalitis via the altered activation of the immune system and molecular mimicry mechanism.
September 2016: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819269/structural-basis-of-gm-csf-and-il-2-sequestration-by-the-viral-decoy-receptor-gif
#8
Jan Felix, Eaazhisai Kandiah, Steven De Munck, Yehudi Bloch, Gydo C P van Zundert, Kris Pauwels, Ann Dansercoer, Katka Novanska, Randy J Read, Alexandre M J J Bonvin, Bjorn Vergauwen, Kenneth Verstraete, Irina Gutsche, Savvas N Savvides
Subversion of the host immune system by viruses is often mediated by molecular decoys that sequester host proteins pivotal to mounting effective immune responses. The widespread mammalian pathogen parapox Orf virus deploys GIF, a member of the poxvirus immune evasion superfamily, to antagonize GM-CSF (granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) and IL-2 (interleukin-2), two pleiotropic cytokines of the mammalian immune system. However, structural and mechanistic insights into the unprecedented functional duality of GIF have remained elusive...
November 7, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793265/trichomoniasis-immunity-and-the-involvement-of-the-purinergic-signaling
#9
REVIEW
Camila Braz Menezes, Tiana Tasca
Innate and adaptive immunity play a significant role in trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In the urogenital tract, innate immunity is accomplished by a defense physical barrier constituted by epithelial cells, mucus, and acidic pH. During infection, immune cells, antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, chemokines, and adaptive immunity evolve in the reproductive tract, and a proinflammatory response is generated to eliminate the invading extracellular pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis...
August 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776018/inhibitor-of-vasculogenic-mimicry-restores-sensitivity-of-resistant-melanoma-cells-to-dna-damaging-agents
#10
Amalia Vartanian, Maria Baryshnikova, Olga Burova, Dariya Afanasyeva, Vsevolod Misyurin, Alexander Belyаvsky, Zoya Shprakh
The increasing incidence of melanoma makes this cancer an important public health problem. Therapeutic resistance is still a major obstacle to the therapy of patients with metastatic melanomas. The aim of this study was to develop the melanoma cell line resistant to DNA-alkylating agents and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in acquired drug resistance. We established a unique melanoma subline Mel MeR resistant to DNA-alkylating drug aranoza by continuous stepwise selection of the Mel Me/WT cell line with increasing concentrations of this drug...
October 21, 2016: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755185/anticytokine-autoantibodies-in-infection-and-inflammation-an-update
#11
Gabriela Barcenas-Morales, Peter Jandus, Rainer Döffinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Concise overview of the field of anticytokine autoantibodies with a focus on recent developments. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in particular in the analysis of autoantibodies to IFNγ, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and type I IFN are presented. The target epitope for anti-IFNγ autoantibodies has been found to have high homology to a protein from Aspergillus suggesting molecular mimicry as a mechanism of breaking self-tolerance...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722971/greek-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-have-elevated-levels-of-antibodies-against-antigens-from-proteus-mirabilis
#12
Georgios Christopoulos, V Christopoulou, J G Routsias, A Babionitakis, C Antoniadis, G Vaiopoulos
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from different ethnic groups present elevated levels of antibodies against Proteus mirabilis. This finding implicates P. mirabilis in the development of RA. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of P. mirabilis in the etiopathogenesis of RA in Greek RA patients. In this study, 63 patients with RA and 38 healthy controls were included. Class-specific antibodies IgM, IgG, and IgA against three human cross-reactive and non-cross-reactive synthetic peptides from P...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720069/functional-analysis-of-genes-involved-in-color-pattern-formation-in-lepidoptera
#13
Haruhiko Fujiwara, Hideki Nishikawa
In addition to the genome editing technology, novel functional analyses using electroporation are powerful tools to reveal the gene function in the color pattern formation. Using these methods, several genes involved in various larval color pattern formation are clarified in the silkworm Bombyx mori and some Papilio species. Furthermore, the coloration pattern mechanism underlying the longtime mystery of female-limited Batesian mimicry of Papilio polytes has been recently revealed. This review presents the recent progress on the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary process of coloration patterns contributing to various mimicry in Lepidoptera, especially focusing on the gene function in the silkworm and Papilio species...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714268/biphenyl-urea-derivatives-as-selective-cyp1b1-inhibitors
#14
Mohd Usman Mohd Siddique, Glen J P McCann, Vinay Sonawane, Neill Horley, Ibidapo Steven Williams, Prashant Joshi, Sandip B Bharate, Venkatesan Jayaprakash, Barij N Sinha, Bhabatosh Chaudhuri
Highly selective CYP1B1 inhibitors have potential in the treatment of hormone-induced breast and prostate cancers. Mimicry of potent and selective CYP1B1 inhibitors, α-naphthoflavone and stilbenes, revealed that two sets of hydrophobic clusters suitably linked via a polar linker could be implanted into a new scaffold 'biphenyl ureas' to create potentially a new class of CYP1B1 inhibitors. A series of sixteen biphenyl ureas were synthesized and screened for CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 inhibition in Sacchrosomes™, yeast-derived recombinant microsomal enzymes...
September 26, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708643/differential-regulation-of-self-reactive-cd4-t-cells-in-cervical-lymph-nodes-and-central-nervous-system-during-viral-encephalomyelitis
#15
Carine Savarin, Cornelia C Bergmann, David R Hinton, Stephen A Stohlman
Viral infections have long been implicated as triggers of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), a central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory demyelinating disorder. Epitope spreading, molecular mimicry, cryptic antigen, and bystander activation have been implicated as mechanisms responsible for activating self-reactive (SR) immune cells, ultimately leading to organ-specific autoimmune disease. Taking advantage of coronavirus JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV)-induced demyelination, this study demonstrates that the host also mounts counteractive measures to specifically limit expansion of endogenous SR T cells...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697717/gel-spinning-of-mimetic-collagen-and-collagen-nano-carbon-fibers-understanding-multi-scale-influences-on-molecular-ordering-and-fibril-alignment
#16
Emily C Green, Yiying Zhang, Heng Li, Marilyn L Minus
Synthetic gel-spun collagen and collagen/nano-carbon fibers were found to exhibit structural mimicry comparable to native tendons. X-ray scattering and microscopy analyses are used to characterize the molecular and fibrillar alignment in the synthetic fibers, where D-banding is observed throughout the spun fibers - consistent with native collagen. For the composite collagen/nano-carbon fibers, the morphology and dispersion quality of the nano-carbons within was found to play a significant role in influencing collagen molecular ordering and fibril alignment...
August 30, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670221/advances-in-the-pathophysiology-of-primary-immune-thrombocytopenia
#17
María Perera, Teresa Garrido
OBJECTIVES: Classically, immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) was thought to be caused by the destruction and insufficient production of platelets, as mediated by autoantibodies. More recently other immune mechanisms that contribute to the disease have been discovered. This review attempts to address the main unresolved questions in ITP. METHODS: We review the most current knowledge of the pathophysiology of ITP. Immunological effects of available therapies are also described...
September 27, 2016: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650455/diverse-mechanisms-evolved-by-dna-viruses-to-inhibit-early-host-defenses
#18
Marni S Crow, Krystal K Lum, Xinlei Sheng, Bokai Song, Ileana M Cristea
In mammalian cells, early defenses against infection by pathogens are mounted through a complex network of signaling pathways shepherded by immune-modulatory pattern-recognition receptors. As obligate parasites, the survival of viruses is dependent on the evolutionary acquisition of mechanisms that tactfully dismantle and subvert the cellular intrinsic and innate immune responses. Here, we review the diverse mechanisms by which viruses that accommodate DNA genomes are able to circumvent activation of cellular immunity...
September 21, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621416/microbial-antigen-mimics-activate-diabetogenic-cd8-t-cells-in-nod-mice
#19
Ningwen Tai, Jian Peng, Fuqiang Liu, Elke Gulden, Youjia Hu, Xiaojun Zhang, Li Chen, F Susan Wong, Li Wen
Both animal model and human studies indicate that commensal bacteria may modify type 1 diabetes (T1D) development. However, the underlying mechanisms by which gut microbes could trigger or protect from diabetes are not fully understood, especially the interaction of commensal bacteria with pathogenic CD8 T cells. In this study, using islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP)-reactive CD8 T cell receptor NY8.3 transgenic nonobese diabetic mice, we demonstrated that MyD88 strongly modulates CD8(+) T cell-mediated T1D development via the gut microbiota...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616325/trans-nonachlor-decreases-mir-141-3p-levels-in-human-melanocytes-in-vitro-promoting-melanoma-cell-characteristics-and-shows-a-multigenerational-impact-on-mir-8-levels-in-drosophila
#20
Patrick Verrando, Maria Capovilla, Roger Rahmani
Epidemiological association studies have revealed a role for pesticides in cancer occurrence, while a growing number of reports have highlighted the deleterious epigenetic modifications that can be produced by environmental factors. However, epidemiological data currently lack molecular support to unravel the epigenetic impact of pesticides on carcinogenesis. Based on epidemiological studies of melanoma, our data show for the first time that trans-nonachlor (TNC), a component of the pesticide chlordane, modulates the microRNA miR-141-3p in human melanocytic cells in vitro, with effects on melanomagenesis parameters...
August 10, 2016: Toxicology
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