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Molecular mimicry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442512/discovery-of-hydrocarbon-stapled-short-%C3%AE-helical-peptides-as-promising-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-fusion-inhibitors
#1
Chao Wang, Shuai Xia, Peiyu Zhang, Tianhong Zhang, Weicong Wang, Yangli Tian, Guangpeng Meng, Shibo Jiang, Keliang Liu
The hexameric α-helical coiled-coil formed between the C-terminal and N-terminal heptad repeat (CHR and NHR) regions of class I viral fusion proteins plays an important role in mediating the fusion of the viral and cellular membranes and provides a clear starting point for molecular mimicry that drives viral fusion inhibitor design. Unfortunately, such peptide mimicry of the short α-helical region in the CHR of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) spike protein has been thwarted by the loss of the peptide's native α-helical conformation when taken out of the parent protein structure...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432441/fas-promoter-polymorphisms-and-serum-sfas-level-are-associated-with-increased-risk-of-nerve-damage-in-bangladeshi-patients-with-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#2
Zhahirul Islam, Israt Jahan, Rijwan U Ahammad, Mohammad Shahnaij, Shamsun Nahar, Quazi D Mohammad
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disorder of the peripheral nervous system triggered by molecular mimicry between pathogen lipopolysaccharides and host nerve gangliosides. Polymorphisms in the Fas receptor (FAS) and Fas ligand (FASL) genes may potentially alter the elimination of autoreactive immune cells and affect disease susceptibility or disease severity in GBS. We detected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FAS (-1377G/A and -670A/G) and FASL (-843C/T) in a prospective cohort of 300 patients with GBS and 300 healthy controls from the Bangladeshi population...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420020/calcium-induced-molecular-rearrangement-of-peptide-folds-enables-biomineralization-of-vaterite-calcium-carbonate
#3
Hao Lu, Helmut Lutz, Steven J Roeters, Matthew A Hood, Arne Schäfer, Rafael Muñoz-Espí, Rüdiger Berger, Mischa Bonn, Tobias Weidner
Proteins can control mineralization of CaCO3 by selectively triggering the growth of calcite, aragonite or vaterite phases. The templating of CaCO3 by proteins must occur predominantly at the protein/CaCO3 interface, yet molecular-level insights into the interface during active mineralization have been lacking. Here, we investigate the role of peptide folding and structural flexibility on the mineralization of CaCO3. We study two amphiphilic peptides based on glutamic acid and leucine with β-sheet and α-helical structures...
February 8, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409810/foxf2-deficiency-permits-basal-like-breast-cancer-cells-to-form-lymphangiogenic-mimicry-by-enhancing-the-response-of-vegf-c-vegfr3-signaling-pathway
#4
Qing-Shan Wang, Rui He, Fan Yang, Li-Juan Kang, Xiao-Qing Li, Li Fu, Baocun Sun, Yu-Mei Feng
Lymphatic metastasis is the main route of breast cancer metastasis. It is known that lymphangiogenesis facilitates lymphatic metastasis through vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C)/VEGF receptor 3 (VEGFR3) pathway-linked interactions between the tumor and its microenvironment. Here, we report a novel mechanism of lymphatic metastasis by which aggressive basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) cells form lymphatic vessel-like structures that are identified by the positive expression of lymphatic endothelial cell markers lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1), podoplanin, and VEGFR3, and termed as lymphangiogenic mimicry (LM), for the first time...
January 30, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406905/autoimmunity-in-multiple-sclerosis-role-of-sphingolipids-invariant-nkt-cells-and-other-immune-elements-in-control-of-inflammation-and-neurodegeneration
#5
REVIEW
Maria Podbielska, Joan O'Keeffe, Edward L Hogan
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It is classified as being an autoimmune response in the genetically susceptible individual to a persistent but unidentified antigen(s). Both the adaptive and the innate immune systems are likely to contribute significantly to MS pathogenesis. This review summarizes current understanding of the characteristics of MS autoimmunity in the initiation and progression of the disease. In particular we find it timely to classify the autoimmune responses by focusing on the immunogenic features of myelin-derived lipids in MS including molecular mimicry; on alterations of bioactive sphingolipids mediators in MS; and on functional roles for regulatory effector cells, including innate lymphocyte populations, like the invariant NKT (iNKT) cells which bridge adaptive and innate immune systems...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379122/rheumatoid-arthritis-patient-antibodies-highly-recognize-il-2-in-the-immune-response-pathway-involving-irf5-and-ebv-antigens
#6
Marco Bo, Magdalena Niegowska, Gian Luca Erre, Marco Piras, Maria Giovanna Longu, Pierangela Manchia, Mario Manca, Giuseppe Passiu, Leonardo A Sechi
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by a progressive joint damage due to largely unknown environmental factors acting in concert with risk alleles conferring genetic susceptibility. A major role has been attributed to viral infections that include past contacts with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and, more recently, to non-protein coding sequences of human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) integrated in the human genome. Molecular mimicry between viral and self proteins is supposed to cause the loss of immune tolerance in predisposed hosts...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375121/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-transverse-myelitis-and-infectious-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Yhojan Rodríguez, Manuel Rojas, Yovana Pacheco, Yeny Acosta-Ampudia, Carolina Ramírez-Santana, Diana M Monsalve, M Eric Gershwin, Juan-Manuel Anaya
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and transverse myelitis (TM) both represent immunologically mediated polyneuropathies of major clinical importance. Both are thought to have a genetic predisposition, but as of yet no specific genetic risk loci have been clearly defined. Both are considered autoimmune, but again the etiologies remain enigmatic. Both may be induced via molecular mimicry, particularly from infectious agents and vaccines, but clearly host factor and co-founding host responses will modulate disease susceptibility and natural history...
January 29, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367252/mimicry-of-cellular-a-kinase-anchoring-proteins-is-a-conserved-and-critical-function-of-e1a-across-various-human-adenovirus-species
#8
Cason R King, Steven F Gameiro, Tanner M Tessier, Ali Zhang, Joe S Mymryk
The E1A proteins of the various human adenovirus (HAdV) species perform the critical task of converting an infected cell into a setting primed for virus replication. While E1A proteins differ in both sequence and mechanism, the evolutionary pressure on viruses with limited coding capacity ensures that these proteins often have significant overlap in critical functions. HAdV-5 E1A is known to use mimicry to rewire cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling by decoupling protein kinase A (PKA) from cellular A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) and utilizing PKA to its own advantage...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363666/serum-il-17-level-predicts-inflammatory-activity-in-patients-with-autoimmune-hepatitis
#9
Krzysztof Gutkowski, Dorota Gutkowska, Jerzy Kiszka, Mariusz Partyka, Teresa Kacperek-Hartleb, Maciej Kajor, Marek Hartleb
INTRODUCTION    The etiology of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is unclear, with molecular mimicry between host and viral/drug antigens being the most plausible mechanism initiating the immunological cascade that induces hepatocyte injury. Finding a serologic parameter that closely relates to the liver histology would be beneficial for monitoring AIH activity and optimizing treatment. OBJECTIVES    We studied serum interleukin (IL)-17 levels and IL-17 activators (IL-6 and transforming growth factor [TGF]-β1) in naïve and immunosuppressed AIH patients, and analyzed the relationships between these cytokines and the histological inflammation scores...
January 24, 2018: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362230/contrasting-function-of-structured-n-terminal-and-unstructured-c-terminal-segments-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-ppe37-protein
#10
Javeed Ahmad, Aisha Farhana, Rita Pancsa, Simran Kaur Arora, Alagiri Srinivasan, Anil Kumar Tyagi, Madan Mohan Babu, Nasreen Zafar Ehtesham, Seyed Ehtesham Hasnain
Pathogens frequently employ eukaryotic linear motif (ELM)-rich intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) to perturb and hijack host cell networks for a productive infection. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a relatively high percentage of IDPs in its proteome, the significance of which is not known. The Mycobacterium-specific PE-PPE protein family has several members with unusually high levels of structural disorder and disorder-promoting Ala/Gly residues. PPE37 protein, a member of this family, carries an N-terminal PPE domain capable of iron binding, two transmembrane domains, and a disordered C-terminal segment harboring ELMs and a eukaryotic nuclear localization signal (NLS)...
January 23, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352853/interferon-regulatory-factor-5-is-a-potential-target-of-autoimmune-response-triggered-by-epstein-barr-virus-and-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-investigating-a-mechanism-of-molecular-mimicry
#11
Marco Bo, Gian Luca Erre, Magdalena Niegowska, Marco Piras, Loredana Taras, Maria Giovanna Longu, Giuseppe Passiu, Leonardo A Sechi
OBJECTIVES: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease characterised by a pro-inflammatory cytokines linked erosive joint damage and by humoral and cellular response against a broad range of self-peptides. Molecular mimicry between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and host peptides has long been regarded as an RA pathogenetic mechanism. Using bioinformatic analysis we identified high sequence homology among interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), EBV antigen BOLF1 and MAP antigen MAP_4027...
January 15, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338928/immunoproteomic-identification-of-antigenic-candidate-campylobacter-jejuni-and-human-peripheral-nerve-proteins-involved-in-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#12
Aida Loshaj-Shala, Mara Colzani, Katerina Brezovska, Ana Poceva Panovska, Ljubica Suturkova, Giangiacomo Beretta
Immunoproteomics is become a potent methodology used for identifying immunoreactive proteins. In this study, an immunoproteomic approach based on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and immunoblotting combined with high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) was used to identify immunoreactive proteins that might be involved in mechanisms of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) development, regardless of their potential reciprocal molecular mimicry. Proteins isolated from C. jejuni and human peripheral nerve tissue (HPN) were separated with 2D SDS-PAGE and subjected to western blotting using serum samples from GBS patients...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317049/autoimmunity-against-a-glycolytic-enzyme-as-a-possible-cause-for-persistent-symptoms-in-lyme-disease
#13
Paolo Maccallini, Serena Bonin, Giusto Trevisan
Some patients with a history of Borrelia burgdorferi infection develop a chronic symptomatology characterized by cognitive deficits, fatigue, and pain, despite antibiotic treatment. The pathogenic mechanism that underlines this condition, referred to as post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS), is currently unknown. A debate exists about whether PTLDS is due to persistent infection or to post-infectious damages in the immune system and the nervous system. We present the case of a patient with evidence of exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi sl and a long history of debilitating fatigue, cognitive abnormalities and autonomic nervous system issues...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310118/long-non-coding-rna-hoxa-as2-regulates-malignant-glioma-behaviors-and-vasculogenic-mimicry-formation-via-the-mir-373-egfr-axis
#14
Yana Gao, Hai Yu, Yunhui Liu, Xiaobai Liu, Jian Zheng, Jun Ma, Wei Gong, Jiajia Chen, Lini Zhao, Yu Tian, Yixue Xue
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) has been reported to be a novel glioma neovascularization process. Anti-VM therapy provides new insight into glioma clinical management. In this study, we revealed the role of the long non-coding RNA HOXA cluster antisense RNA 2 (HOXA-AS2) in malignant glioma behaviors and VM formation. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to determine the expression levels of HOXA-AS2 in glioma samples and glioblastoma cell lines...
December 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301656/cd1a-and-cd1e-gene-polymorphisms-are-not-associated-with-susceptibility-to-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-the-bangladeshi-population
#15
Mohammad I Rahman, Iffat Jahan, Mir M Khalid, Israt Jahan, Rijwan U Ahammad, Shamsun Nahar, Zhahirul Islam
The post-infectious autoimmune polyradiculoneuropathy Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is triggered by molecular mimicry between microbial glycolipid antigens and human peripheral nerve gangliosides. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in exon 2 of CD1A (*01/*02) and CD1E (*01/*02) were assessed using PCR-RFLP; no significant differences in genotype or allele frequency were observed between 200 patients with GBS and 200 healthy controls. CD1 gene polymorphisms cannot be recognized as a susceptibility or disease-causative factor for GBS in the Bangladeshi population...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273615/longitudinally-extensive-transverse-myelitis-after-campylobacter-jejuni-enteritis
#16
Yudy Llamas, Karl Hazel, Patrick Nicholson, Lisa Costelloe
Campylobacter jejuni infection is well-known to precipitate Guillain-Barré syndrome through an immune-mediated attack on the peripheral nervous system. Molecular mimicry between C. jejuni lipo-oligosaccharides on the surface of infectious agents and human gangliosides in the peripheral nerves induces cross-reactive immune responses. Although gangliosides also occur in the central nervous system (CNS), autoimmune CNS disorders rarely follow Cjejuni infections. However, longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis commonly has a parainfectious cause, triggered by a wide range of micro-organisms including viruses and bacteria...
December 22, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232712/bioinformatic-analysis-reveals-new-determinants-of-antigenic-14-3-3-proteins-and-a-novel-antifungal-strategy
#17
Jenna E McGowan, Jacqueline Kratch, Saurabh Chattopadhyay, Bina Joe, Heather R Conti, Ritu Chakravarti
The ubiquitously expressed 14-3-3 family of proteins is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals. Their involvement in humoral and cellular immune responses is emerging through studies in drosophila and humans. In humans, a select group of 14-3-3 isoforms are antigenic; however the determinants of their antigenicity are not known. Here, we show that although mammalian 14-3-3 proteins are mostly conserved, subtle differences between their isoforms may give rise to their antigenicity. We observed syntenic relations among all the isoforms of 14-3-3 for mammals, but not with that of birds or amphibians...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229824/molecular-mechanism-for-the-subversion-of-the-retromer-coat-by-the-legionella-effector-ridl
#18
Miguel Romano-Moreno, Adriana L Rojas, Chad D Williamson, David C Gershlick, María Lucas, Michail N Isupov, Juan S Bonifacino, Matthias P Machner, Aitor Hierro
Microbial pathogens employ sophisticated virulence strategies to cause infections in humans. The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila encodes RidL to hijack the host scaffold protein VPS29, a component of retromer and retriever complexes critical for endosomal cargo recycling. Here, we determined the crystal structure of L. pneumophila RidL in complex with the human VPS29-VPS35 retromer subcomplex. A hairpin loop protruding from RidL inserts into a conserved pocket on VPS29 that is also used by cellular ligands, such as Tre-2/Bub2/Cdc16 domain family member 5 (TBC1D5) and VPS9-ankyrin repeat protein for VPS29 binding...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224785/incongruence-between-molecules-and-morphology-a-seven-gene-phylogeny-of-dacini-fruit-flies-paves-the-way-for-reclassification-diptera-tephritidae
#19
Michael San Jose, Camiel Doorenweerd, Luc Leblanc, Norman Barr, Scott Geib, Daniel Rubinoff
Molecular and morphological research often suggest conflicting results. Selective pressure on certain morphologies can confound understanding of evolutionary relationships. Dacini is one of the most diverse tribes of tephritid flies and contains many economically important pest species. Their black and yellow patterned body markings are presumed to act as wasp mimicry, and the characters separating species and groups are limited and in some cases phenotypically plastic. The traditional taxonomy of the tribe is controversial because groupings are based on unique combinations of morphological characters without the use of cladistic methods, though recent phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses have resulted in significant changes to their taxonomy...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220370/absence-of-anti-hypocretin-receptor-2-autoantibodies-in-post-pandemrix-narcolepsy-cases
#20
Guo Luo, Ling Lin, Louis Jacob, Mélodie Bonvalet, Aditya Ambati, Giuseppe Plazzi, Fabio Pizza, Ryan Leib, Christopher M Adams, Markku Partinen, Emmanuel Jean-Marie Mignot
BACKGROUND: A recent publication suggested molecular mimicry of a nucleoprotein (NP) sequence from A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8) strain, the backbone used in the construction of the reassortant strain X-179A that was used in Pandemrix® vaccine, and reported on anti-hypocretin (HCRT) receptor 2 (anti-HCRTR2) autoantibodies in narcolepsy, mostly in post Pandemrix® narcolepsy cases (17 of 20 sera). In this study, we re-examined this hypothesis through mass spectrometry (MS) characterization of Pandemrix®, and two other pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1)-2009 vaccines, Arepanrix® and Focetria®, and analyzed anti-HCRTR2 autoantibodies in narcolepsy patients and controls using three independent strategies...
2017: PloS One
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