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Pneumatocele in children

M Isnard, E Hullo, Y Robert, C Piolat, C Durand, S Lantuejoul, C Garnaud, I Pin
INTRODUCTION: Aspergillomas occur due to colonization of a pre-existing pulmonary, bronchial or pleural cavity by Aspergillus spp. Often asymptomatic, this pathology can reveal itself by recurrent haemoptysis or when bacterial superinfections occur. Aspergillomas occurring in post-traumatic cavities are rare and their management is poorly codified. CASE REPORT: A child suffered from a chest wound at the age of 13 years. Two years later, investigation of recurrent haemoptysis revealed a residual pneumatocele in the right lower lobe colonized by Aspergillus spp...
March 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Jeffrey J Cies, Richard J LaCoursiere, Wayne S Moore, Arun Chopra
Aztreonam, a broad-spectrum monobactam, is typically reserved for multidrug resistant (MDR) infections. Pharmacokinetic (PK) data to guide dosing in children, however, are limited to healthy volunteers or nonintensive care unit (ICU) patients. Impaired antibiotic delivery into tissue remains a major concern and may explain the high morbidity and mortality associated with MDR infections. Therefore, evaluating the PK changes in pediatric ICU patients is necessary to elucidate the most appropriate antimicrobial regimen...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Lindsey B Armstrong, David P Mooney
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic pneumatoceles are reported to be rare in children and to have an uncertain clinical significance. We report a single institution series of traumatic pneumatoceles to better define their frequency and clinical significance. METHODS: After obtaining approval from the IRB, data were extracted from the trauma registry of a level 1 pediatric trauma center on children diagnosed with a pulmonary contusion (International Classification of Diseases-9th edition diagnosis codes: 861...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Semiha Bahceci Erdem, Hikmet T Nacaroglu, Rana Isgüder, Canan S Unsal Karkiner, Hüdaver Alper, Demet Can
Hydrocarbon aspiration (HA) can cause significant lung disease by inducing an inflammatory response, hemorrhagic exudative alveolitis, and loss of surfactant function. The most serious side effect of HA is aspiration pneumonia. Pneumothorax, pneumatocele, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pulmonary abscess, bronchopleural fistula, bilateral hemorrhagic pleural effusion and pyopneumothorax were previously reported. Hereby we report a patient hospitalized due to aspiration pneumonia who developed pleurisy and pneumothorax after drinking paint thinner...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Ewa Matuszczak, Marzanna Oksiuta, Adam Hermanowicz, Wojciech Dębek
The authors present a case of a pneumatocele associated with blunt trauma in a child. An 11-year-old boy was admitted to the emergency department after he was knocked over and his chest was trapped under a soccer goal. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed several cavities in the lobes of both lungs. The CT of the abdomen revealed traumatic laceration of the liver. The patient was treated conservatively. His condition was stable and subsequently improved. He was discharged 19 days later. After nine months, a chest radiograph showed complete resolution of the pneumatocele, and abdominal ultrasound demonstrated complete resolution of the liver hematoma...
March 2017: Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska, Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
Semiha Bahceci Erdem, Hikmet T Nacaroglu, Rana Isgüder, Canan S Unsal Karkiner, Hüdaver Alper, Demet Can
Hydrocarbon aspiration (HA) can cause significant lung disease by inducing an inflammatory response, hemorrhagic exudative alveolitis, and loss of surfactant function. The most serious side effect of HA is aspiration pneumonia. Pneumothorax, pneumatocele, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pulmonary abscess, bronchopleural fistula, bilateral hemorrhagic pleural effusion and pyopneumothorax were previously reported. Hereby we report a patient hospitalized due to aspiration pneumonia who developed pleurisy and pneumothorax after drinking paint thinner...
August 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
A G Doudoulakakis, D Bouras, E Drougka, M Kazantzi, A Michos, A Charisiadou, I Spiliopoulou, E Lebessi, M Tsolia
Staphylococcus aureus is an infrequent cause of community-associated (CA-SA) pneumonia in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, epidemiological, microbiological, and molecular characteristics of CA-SA pneumonia among children hospitalized in two large tertiary care referral centers during an 8-year period. Cases of CA-SA pneumonia admitted between 2007 and 2014 were retrospectively examined through medical record review. Molecular investigation was performed for available strains; mecA, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) (lukS-lukF-PV), and fibronectin binding protein A (fnbA) genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
July 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Evanthia A Makrygianni, Fani Palamidou, Athanasios G Kaditis
Accidental hydrocarbon ingestion may lead to aspiration and chemical pneumonitis in children. In this review article, the clinical course of hydrocarbon pneumonitis, chest radiographic abnormalities, complications, and treatment interventions are summarized. Most children remain asymptomatic and without complications following ingestion of a hydrocarbon. In approximately 15% of ingestions, aspiration pneumonitis occurs and evolves over the first 6-8 hr presenting with fever, tachypnea, hypoxemia, and tachycardia...
June 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Nawal Al-Maskari, Jalila Mohsin, Amal Al-Maani, Nabil Al-Macki, Suad Al-Ismaili
The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) usually causes a lower respiratory tract infection in affected patients. RSV has also been infrequently linked to extrapulmonary diseases in children. We report four children who had unusually severe clinical manifestations of RSV infections requiring critical care admission. These patients presented to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in December 2013 with acute necrotising encephalopathy (ANE), acute fulminant hepatic failure with encephalopathy, pneumatoceles and croup...
February 2016: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
Mohammed Al-Ghafri, Said Al-Hanshi, Suad Al-Ismaily
Pulmonary pneumatocele is a thin-walled, gas-filled space within the lung that usually occurs in association with bacterial pneumonia and is usually transient. The majority of pneumatoceles resolve spontaneously without active intervention, but in some cases they might lead to pneumothorax with subsequent hemodynamic instability. We report two cases presented to the pediatric intensive care unit at the Royal Hospital, Oman with pneumatoceles. The first was a 14-day-old baby who underwent surgical repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support following surgery...
July 2015: Oman Medical Journal
Shen-Hao Lai, Kin-Sun Wong, Sui-Ling Liao
BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasonography has been advocated in diagnosing pediatric community-acquired pneumonia. However, its function in identifying necrotizing pneumonia, a complication, has not been explored. This study investigated the value of lung ultrasonography in diagnosing pediatric necrotizing pneumonia and its role in predicting clinical outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 236 children with community-acquired pneumonia who were evaluated using lung ultrasonography within 2-3 days after admission...
2015: PloS One
T K Pandian, Chad Hamner
The etiologies of pediatric lung injury requiring surgical intervention can be infectious, traumatic, congenital, or iatrogenic. Childhood pneumonia is a significant global health problem affecting 150 million children worldwide. Sequelae of pulmonary infections potentially requiring surgery include bronchiectasis, lung abscess, pneumatocele, and empyema. Trauma, congenital conditions such as cystic fibrosis and iatrogenic injuries can result in pneumothoraces, chylothoraces, or bronchopleural fistulae. Recurrence rates for spontaneous pneumothorax treated non-operatively in pediatric patients approach 50-60%...
February 2015: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
C M Horvath, T Schneider, T Kluckert, M H Brutsche
Petroleum aspiration as a reason for lipid pneumonia is a rare complication. Mostly children are affected and mortality rates are low. In most case series, virtually every subject survived.We describe here the case of a patient who developed ARDS and pneumatoceles with a fatal outcome. Due to the undulant nature of the disease, multipe thoracic CT were performed, enabling us to describe the precise radiologic course of the disease.
June 2015: Pneumologie
Jennifer W Toth, Abigail B Podany, Michael F Reed, Dorothy V Rocourt, Christopher R Gilbert, Mary C Santos, Robert E Cilley, Peter W Dillon
PURPOSE: In children, persistent air leaks can result from pulmonary infection or barotrauma. Management strategies include surgery, prolonged pleural drainage, ventilator manipulation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We report the use of endobronchial valve placement as an effective minimally invasive intervention for persistent air leaks in children. METHODS: Children with refractory prolonged air leaks were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team (pediatric surgery, interventional pulmonology, pediatric intensive care, and thoracic surgery) for endobronchial valve placement...
January 2015: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
M A Fletcher, H-J Schmitt, M Syrochkina, G Sylvester
This review evaluates the serotype epidemiology of complicated pneumococcal pneumonia (CPP) during the period 1990-2012. PubMed and EMBASE were searched using the terms "empyema", "complicated pneumonia", "pleural infection", "necrotizing pneumonia", "pleural effusion", "parapneumonic effusion", "pneumatocele", or "lung abscess"; "pneumococcal" or "Streptococcus pneumoniae"; and "serotype" for studies on the epidemiology of complicated pneumonias published from January 1, 1990 to October 1, 2013...
June 2014: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Nadir Demirel, Annabelle Quizon, Edgar Leonel Beltetón De Leon, Joel Reiter, Andrew A Colin
Suppurative complications of pneumonia such as empyema, lung abscess, pyopneumothorax, and necrotizing pneumonia (NP) are uncommon in children. Over the last decade an increasing incidence of NP has been reported. Streptococcus pneumoniae continues to be the predominant causative organism of NP, and while sporadic cases were reported prior to routine administration of heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine, a marked increase in NP appears to relate to replacement pneumococcal strains. Pleural involvement is almost universal in NP, and the course of pleural disease often determines its duration and outcome, particularly as it relates to complication of bronchopleural fistula...
March 2014: Pediatric Pulmonology
Shan-shan Meng, Qing Yang, Guo-qiang Han, Jin-hong Yang, Hai-lin Zhang, Le-ping Ye, Yun-chun Luo, Chang-chong Li
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical characteristics of Streptococcus pneumonia-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (SP-HUS) in children. METHOD: Clinical and laboratory data of a pediatric case of SP-HUS were retrospectively analyzed and the key points of diagnosis and therapy were reviewed. RESULT: An 18-month old girl was admitted with chief complaint of fever and cough for 5 days combined with mild labored breath. Breath sound was found weakened in right lung with lower lobe dullness on percussion...
July 2013: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
N K Cheung, A James, R Kumar
Traumatic pneumatoceles are a rare complication of blunt chest trauma in children. Although they characteristically present as small, regular shaped lesions which can be safely treated nonoperatively, larger traumatic pneumatoceles pose diagnostic and management difficulties for clinicians. This case study reports one of the largest traumatic pneumatoceles reported to date in the paediatric population, which resulted in aggressive surgical intervention for both diagnostic and treatment reasons. This case adds further evidence to the current literature that significantly large traumatic pneumatoceles with failure of initial conservative management warrant surgical exploration and management to optimise recovery and prevent complications...
2013: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Shailesh M Prabhu, Subhasis Roy Choudhury, Ravi S Solanki, Gurucharan S Shetty, Surenderkumar Agarwala
BACKGROUND: Chest tube insertion in congenital cystic lung lesions is an important problem in children with acute respiratory distress having a cystic lucent lesion on chest radiograph. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the imaging findings and complications in cases of congenital cystic lung lesions with chest tube insertion and suggest the role of appropriate imaging for management of these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chest radiographs and CT scans of children with congenital cystic lung lesions who had inadvertent chest tube insertion preoperatively were retrospectively reviewed for imaging appearances and complications...
January 2013: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
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