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Male circumcision

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322867/implementing-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-using-an-innovative-integrated-health-systems-approach-experiences-from-21-districts-in-zimbabwe
#1
Caryl Feldacker, Batsirai Makunike-Chikwinya, Marrianne Holec, Aaron F Bochner, Abby Stepaniak, Robert Nyanga, Sinokuthemba Xaba, Peter H Kilmarx, Amy Herman-Roloff, Taurayi Tafuma, Mufuta Tshimanga, Vuyelwa T Sidile-Chitimbire, Scott Barnhart
BACKGROUND: Despite increased support for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) to reduce HIV incidence, current VMMC progress falls short. Slow progress in VMMC expansion may be partially attributed to emphasis on vertical (stand-alone) over more integrated implementation models that are more responsive to local needs. In 2013, the ZAZIC consortium began implementation of a 5-year, integrated VMMC program jointly with Ministry of Health and Child Care (MoHCC) in Zimbabwe. OBJECTIVE: To explore ZAZIC's approach emphasizing existing healthcare workers and infrastructure, increasing program sustainability and resilience...
2018: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315704/accessory-fold-of-skin-on-the-ventral-surface-of-the-penis-is-it-a-redundant-prepuce
#2
S B Nayak, S U Pai, M G Shenoy, D Reghunathan
Variations in the skin of the prepuce are very rare. We report here a variation of the penile skin as observed in an adult male cadaver aged approximately 65 years. The penis was covered by thin nonhairy skin. The glans was not covered with prepuce. There was no evidence of circumcision. The ventral surface of the penis, adjacent to the glans, had a huge fold of skin. This fold resembled the prepuce and had a hole in it. The glans penis had a normal urethral meatus. There was no evidence of hypospadias as the entire ventral surface of the penis was covered completely by the skin...
January 7, 2018: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308579/improvement-of-erection-related-incision-pain-in-circumcision-patients-using-interrupted-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-a-randomized-controlled-study
#3
A-Juan Dai, Miao Li, Li-Li Wang, Ting Liu, Xiao-Hua Wang, Yu-Hua Huang
INTRODUCTION: Postoperative pain from male circumcision (MC) is common especially in the sleep-related erection period. This study aims to explore the effect of interrupted rapid eye movement (IREM) sleep on relieving SRE-related incision pain and the improvement of other clinical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This simple randomized controlled study was conducted between May and November 2016. Approval was obtained from the local ethical committee on 5 May 2016...
January 8, 2018: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296100/modifying-the-health-system-to-maximize-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-uptake-a-qualitative-study-in-botswana
#4
Bazghina-Werq Semo, Kathleen E Wirth, Conrad Ntsuape, Scott Barnhart, Nora J Kleinman, Nankie Ramabu, Jessica Broz, Jenny H Ledikwe
Background: In 2007, the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as an add-on HIV-prevention strategy. Similar to many other sub-Saharan countries, VMMC uptake in Botswana has been low; as of February 2016, only 42.7% of the program target had been achieved. Previous work has examined how individual-level factors, such as knowledge and attitudes, influence the update of VMMC. This paper examines how factors related to the health system can be leveraged to maximize uptake of circumcision services, with a focus on demand creation, access to services, and service delivery...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283955/effects-of-reaching-national-goals-on-hiv-incidence-by-race-and-ethnicity-in-the-united-states
#5
Evin Uzun Jacobson, Katherine A Hicks, Emily L Tucker, Paul G Farnham, Stephanie L Sansom
CONTEXT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence and prevalence in the United States are characterized by significant disparities by race/ethnicity. National HIV care goals, such as boosting to 90% the proportion of persons whose HIV is diagnosed and increasing to 80% the proportion of persons living with diagnosed HIV who are virally suppressed, will likely reduce HIV incidence, but their effects on HIV-related disparities are uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We sought to understand by race/ethnicity how current HIV care varies, the level of effort required to achieve national HIV care goals, and the effects of reaching those goals on HIV incidence and disparities...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283273/hiv-risk-behaviors-of-men-who-perpetrate-intimate-partner-violence-in-rakai-uganda
#6
Margo Mullinax, Stephanie A Grilo, Xiaoyu S Song, Jennifer Wagman, Sanyukta Mathur, Fred Nalugoda, Tom Lutalo, John Santelli
Little is known about men who perpetrate IPV in communities also at risk for HIV infection. Using data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS), five survey rounds were used (n = 21,157, observation from n = 10,618 men) to examine HIV risk and prevention behaviors among men who reported acts of violence against their wife/primary partner in the past 12 months. Overall, 10.4% men reported perpetrating physical violence and 17.3% perpetrating verbal violence, 3.1% reported sexual violence, 3.1% used violence to have sex with their wife/partner, and 1...
December 2017: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237325/the-myth-of-a-naturalised-male-circumcision-heuristic-context-and-the-production-of-scientific-objects
#7
Charlotte Brives
In March, 2007, the WHO and UNAIDS established a joint recommendation at the Montreux technical consultation, making male circumcision the first surgery to be used as a preventative tool against an infectious disease. This recommendation was immediately followed by the publication of numerous articles denouncing its content, leading to two distinct controversies, one between epidemiologists, and a second between epidemiologists and social scientists. Interestingly, however, none of these works took male circumcision as an issue in itself, exploring neither that both epidemiologists and social scientists had taken the object 'circumcision' as a given, nor what each party was referring to when talking about circumcision...
December 13, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232046/male-circumcision-for-the-prevention-of-hiv-acquisition-a-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Sanjeev C Sharma, Nicholas Raison, Shamim Khan, Majid Shabbir, Prokar Dasgupta, Kamran Ahmed
OBJECTIVES: To assess male circumcision for the prevention of HIV acquisition in heterosexual and homosexual men using all available data. Previous meta-analyses suggest that circumcision is effective at reducing the risk of HIV acquisition amongst heterosexual men but the effect amongst homosexual males remains under debate. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted searching for studies that assessed male circumcision as a method to prevent HIV acquisition in homosexual and/or heterosexual males...
December 12, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220392/safety-and-efficacy-of-the-prepex-device-in-hiv-positive-men-a-single-arm-study-in-zimbabwe
#9
Mufuta Tshimanga, Batsirai Makunike-Chikwinya, Tonderayi Mangwiro, Patricia Tapiwa Gundidza, Pesanai Chatikobo, Vernon Murenje, Amy Herman-Roloff, Peter H Kilmarx, Marrianne Holec, Gerald Gwinji, Owen Mugurungi, Munyaradzi Murwira, Sinokuthemba Xaba, Scott Barnhart, Caryl Feldacker
METHODS: We aimed to determine if the adverse event (AE) rate was non-inferior to an AE rate of 2%, a rate considered the global standard of MC safety. Study procedures, AE definitions, and study staff were unchanged from previous PrePex Zimbabwe trials. After PrePex placement and removal, weekly visits assessed wound healing. Men returned on Day 90. Safety was defined as occurrence of moderate and serious clinical AEs. Efficacy was defined as ability to reach the endpoint of complete circumcision...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210334/false-beliefs-predict-increased-circumcision-satisfaction-in-a-sample-of-us-american-men
#10
Brian D Earp, Lauren M Sardi, William A Jellison
Critics of non-therapeutic male and female childhood genital cutting claim that such cutting is harmful. It is therefore puzzling that 'circumcised' women and men do not typically regard themselves as having been harmed by the cutting, notwithstanding the loss of sensitive, prima facie valuable tissue. For female genital cutting (FGC), a commonly proposed solution to this puzzle is that women who had part(s) of their vulvae removed before sexual debut 'do not know what they are missing' and may 'justify' their genitally-altered state by adopting false beliefs about the benefits of FGC, while simultaneously stigmatising unmodified genitalia as unattractive or unclean...
December 6, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190263/scale-up-of-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-services-for-hiv-prevention-12-countries-in-southern-and-eastern-africa-2013-2016
#11
Jonas Z Hines, Onkemetse Conrad Ntsuape, Kananga Malaba, Tiruneh Zegeye, Kennedy Serrem, Elijah Odoyo-June, Rose Kolola Nyirenda, Wezi Msungama, Kondwani Nkanaunena, Jotamo Come, Marcos Canda, Herminio Nhaguiombe, Ella K Shihepo, Brigitte L T Zemburuka, Gram Mutandi, Emmanuel Yoboka, André H Mbayiha, Hilda Maringa, Alfred Bere, J Joseph Lawrence, Gissenge J I Lija, Daimon Simbeye, Kokuhumbya Kazaura, Ramadhani S Mwiru, Stella Alamo Talisuna, Joseph Lubwama, Geoffrey Kabuye, James Exnobert Zulu, Omega Chituwo, Maybin Mumba, Sinokuthemba Xaba, John Mandisarisa, Brittney N Baack, Lawrence Hinkle, Jonathan M Grund, Stephanie M Davis, Carlos Toledo
Countries in Southern and Eastern Africa have the highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the world; in 2015, 52% (approximately 19 million) of all persons living with HIV infection resided in these two regions.* Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces the risk for heterosexually acquired HIV infection among males by approximately 60% (1). As such, it is an essential component of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) strategy for ending acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by 2030 (2)...
December 1, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188391/bisexual-and-bidirectional-assessing-the-potential-for-hiv-bridging-in-mozambique
#12
Beverley Cummings, Roberta Horth, Willi McFarland, Tim Lane, Peter W Young, Rassul Nalá, George Rutherford, H Fisher Raymond
African men who have sex with men (MSM) frequently, and often concurrently, have female partners, raising concerns about HIV sexual bridging. We explored potential HIV transmission in Mozambique from and to female partners of MSM focusing on preferred anal sex role and circumcision status. Data collected in a respondent-driven sampling study of MSM in 2011 in Maputo and Beira. Men who had oral or anal sex with other men 12 months prior completed a questionnaire and consented for HIV testing. Statistical analysis explored demographic/risk characteristics and associations among circumcision status, anal sex with men, sexual positions during anal sex with men and vaginal or anal sex with women...
November 29, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184774/updates-on-the-epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-penile-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Antoin Douglawi, Timothy A Masterson
Penile cancer is a rare neoplasm representing less than 1% of all malignancies in the USA and Europe but is a significant public health hazard in the developing world. Male neonatal circumcision has been associated with a dramatic decrease in penile cancer rates with countries such as Israel, where circumcision is widely performed, having the lowest incidence in the world at <0.1% of malignancies. Many risk factors have been identified for penile cancer including phimosis, lack of circumcision, obesity, lichen sclerosis, chronic inflammation, smoking, UVA phototherapy, socioeconomic status, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and immune compromised states...
October 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171817/hiv-prevention-efforts-and-incidence-of-hiv-in-uganda
#14
M Kate Grabowski, David M Serwadda, Ronald H Gray, Gertrude Nakigozi, Godfrey Kigozi, Joseph Kagaayi, Robert Ssekubugu, Fred Nalugoda, Justin Lessler, Thomas Lutalo, Ronald M Galiwango, Fred Makumbi, Xiangrong Kong, Donna Kabatesi, Stella T Alamo, Steven Wiersma, Nelson K Sewankambo, Aaron A R Tobian, Oliver Laeyendecker, Thomas C Quinn, Steven J Reynolds, Maria J Wawer, Larry W Chang
BACKGROUND: To assess the effect of a combination strategy for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on the incidence of HIV infection, we analyzed the association between the incidence of HIV and the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and medical male circumcision in Rakai, Uganda. Changes in population-level viral-load suppression and sexual behaviors were also examined. METHODS: Between 1999 and 2016, data were collected from 30 communities with the use of 12 surveys in the Rakai Community Cohort Study, an open, population-based cohort of persons 15 to 49 years of age...
November 30, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150457/combination-analgesia-for-neonatal-circumcision-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Rana Sharara-Chami, Zavi Lakissian, Lama Charafeddine, Nadine Milad, Yaser El-Hout
OBJECTIVES: There is no consensus on the most effective pain management for neonatal circumcision. We sought to compare different modalities. METHODS: This is a double-blinded randomized controlled trial comparing 3 combination analgesics used during circumcision (EMLA + sucrose; EMLA + sucrose + dorsal penile nerve block [DPNB]; EMLA + sucrose + ring block [RB]) with the traditional topical analgesic cream EMLA alone. The trial was set in the normal nursery of a teaching hospital...
December 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147059/tetanus-in-adult-males-bugando-medical-centre-united-republic-of-tanzania
#16
Riaz Aziz, Robert N Peck, Samuel Kalluvya, Bernard Kenemo, Alphonce Chandika, Jennifer A Downs
Problem: In the United Republic of Tanzania, the incidence of non-neonatal circumcision-related tetanus is probably underreported. Approach: We analysed charts and extracted information on outcome and wound location for non-neonatal cases of tetanus admitted to the intensive care unit of Bugando Medical Centre between 2001 and 2016. Local setting: Bugando Medical Centre, which is one of four teaching referral hospitals in the United Republic of Tanzania, has a 13-bed intensive care unit that manages all admitted patients with tetanus...
November 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136009/early-resumption-of-sexual-activity-following-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-in-botswana-a-qualitative-study
#17
Jenny H Ledikwe, Nankie M Ramabu, Lisa P Spees, Scott Barnhart, Conrad Ntsuape, Bazghina-Werq Semo, Kathleen E Wirth
Unprotected sexual intercourse after undergoing voluntary medical male circumcision but prior to complete wound healing can lead to major adverse events including HIV acquisition. To better understand perceptions related to early resumption of sex prior to wound healing, 27 focus group discussions were conducted among 238 adult men, women, and community leaders in Botswana. Median age among all participants was 31 years of whom 60% were male and 51% were either employed and receiving salary or self-employed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117244/re-establishing-safer-medical-circumcision-integrated-initiation-ceremonies-for-hiv-prevention-in-a-rural-setting-in-papua-new-guinea-a-multi-method-acceptability-study
#18
Clement Morris Manineng, David MacLaren, Maggie Baigry, Emil Trowalle, Reinhold Muller, Andrew Vallely, Patrick Gesch, Francis Hombhanje, William John McBride
BACKGROUND: Efforts to stem the spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Papua New Guinea (PNG) are hampered by multiple interrelated factors including limited health services, extreme diversities in culture and language and highly prevalent gender inequity, domestic violence and poverty. In the rural district of Yangoru-Saussia, a revival of previously ceased male initiation ceremonies (MICs) is being considered for a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. In this study, we explore the local acceptability of this undertaking including replacing traditional penile cutting practices with medical male circumcision (MMC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112959/a-prospective-cohort-study-of-safety-and-patient-satisfaction-of-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-in-botswana
#19
Kathleen E Wirth, Bazghina-Werq Semo, Lisa P Spees, Conrad Ntsuape, Scott Barnhart, Jenny H Ledikwe
Randomized trials have shown that voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) significantly reduces the risk of HIV acquisition in men. However, the rate of complications associated with the surgical procedure varies from 0.7% to 37.4% in real-world settings. We assessed the frequency, type and severity of adverse events following VMMC among 427 adult men surgically circumcised in southeastern Botswana; 97% completed ≥1 follow-up visit within seven days post-circumcision. Thirty moderate AEs were observed in 28 men resulting in an overall AE rate of 6...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107569/school-support-as-structural-hiv-prevention-for-adolescent-orphans-in-western-kenya
#20
Hyunsan Cho, Isabella Mbai, Winnie Kavulani Luseno, Marcia Hobbs, Carolyn Halpern, Denise Dion Hallfors
PURPOSE: Using a clustered randomized controlled trial design, we evaluated whether support to keep Kenyan orphaned adolescents in school reduces the risk of HIV infection. METHODS: Participants included 835 orphaned boys and girls in grades 7 and 8 (mean age at the baseline = 15 years) in western Kenya. Primary schools (N = 26) were randomized to the study condition. Intervention participants received school uniforms, payment of tuition when they transitioned into high school, and nurse visits to monitor school absenteeism and provide assistance to stay in school...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
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