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Male circumcision

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905934/estimation-of-country-specific-and-global-prevalence-of-male-circumcision
#1
Brian J Morris, Richard G Wamai, Esther B Henebeng, Aaron Ar Tobian, Jeffrey D Klausner, Joya Banerjee, Catherine A Hankins
BACKGROUND: Male circumcision (MC) status and genital infection risk are interlinked and MC is now part of HIV prevention programs worldwide. Current MC prevalence is not known for all countries globally. Our aim was to provide estimates for country-specific and global MC prevalence. METHODS: MC prevalence data were obtained by searches in PubMed, Demographic and Health Surveys, AIDS Indicator Surveys, and Behavioural Surveillance Surveys. Male age was ≥15 years in most surveys...
March 1, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902363/seroprevalence-of-cutaneous-human-papillomaviruses-hpv-among-men-in-the-multinational-him-study
#2
Shams Rahman, Christine M Pierce Campbell, Tim Waterboer, Dana E Rollison, Donna J Ingles, B Nelson Torres, Angelika Michel, Staci L Sudenga, Michael Pawlita, Luisa L Villa, Eduardo Lazcano Ponce, Amy R Borenstein, Wei Wang, Anna R Giuliano
Data on cutaneous HPV seroprevalence is primarily derived from skin cancer case-controls studies. Few studies have reported the seroprevalence of cutaneous HPV among healthy men. This study investigated the seroprevalence of cutaneous HPV types and associated risk factors among men residing in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Six hundred men were randomly selected from the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Archived serum specimens were tested for antibodies against 14 cutaneous HPV genotypes, β-HPV types (5/8/12/14/17/22/23/24/38/48), α-HPV 27, γ-HPV 4, µ-HPV1 and ν-HPV 41 using a GST L1-based multiplex serology assay...
October 6, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898732/chemokine-levels-in-the-penile-coronal-sulcus-correlate-with-hiv-1-acquisition-and-are-reduced-by-male-circumcision-in-rakai-uganda
#3
Jessica L Prodger, Ronald H Gray, Brett Shannon, Kamnoosh Shahabi, Xiangrong Kong, Kate Grabowski, Godfrey Kigozi, Fred Nalugoda, David Serwadda, Maria J Wawer, Steven J Reynolds, Cindy M Liu, Aaron A R Tobian, Rupert Kaul
Individual susceptibility to HIV is heterogeneous, but the biological mechanisms explaining differences are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that penile inflammation may increase HIV susceptibility in men by recruiting permissive CD4 T cells, and that male circumcision may decrease HIV susceptibility in part by reducing genital inflammation. We used multi-array technology to measure levels of seven cytokines in coronal sulcus (penile) swabs collected longitudinally from initially uncircumcised men enrolled in a randomized trial of circumcision in Rakai, Uganda...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891728/obesity-related-male-genital-lichen-sclerosus
#4
P R Doiron, C B Bunker
BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing. Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is almost exclusively a disease of the uncircumcised. An apparent increasing challenge is MGLSc in previously circumcised obese males. OBJECTIVES: To characterise patients with obesity-related MGLSc. METHODS: Case chart review of patients managed in specialist clinics. RESULTS: Nineteen patients with obesity-related MGLSc were identified. All had been previously circumcised...
November 5, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836201/can-we-assess-risk-of-psychiatric-sequelae-from-perinatal-injuries
#5
Seth A Eappen, Elissa P Benedek, Kerrie Murphy
Medical malpractice litigation involving seven to nine figure settlements has been on the rise over the past decade. Given the life-altering scope of these incidents, forensic child psychiatrists may be asked to opine on the effects of a permanent perinatal injury on normal human development. Whether forensic child psychiatrists can assess risk of future psychiatric effects from such incidents is an important question. This paper is spurred by two separate cases, each involving a male infant having a portion of their genitals accidentally amputated by an obstetrician-gynecologist (OB/GYN) during a routine circumcision...
November 8, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819755/novel-penile-circumcision-suturing-devices-versus-the-shang-ring-for-adult-male-circumcision-a-prospective-study
#6
Hu Han, Da-Wei Xie, Xiao-Guang Zhou, Xiao-Dong Zhang
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel penile circumcision sutur¬ing devices PCSD and Shang ring (SR) for circumcision in an adult population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 124 outpatients were randomly assigned to receive PCSD (n=62) or SR (n=62). Patient characteristics, operative time, blood loss, return to normal activities time (RNAT), visual analogue scale (VAS), scar width, wound healing time, cosmetic result, and complications were recorded...
November 2, 2016: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815479/hiv-aids-risk-and-prevention-issues-among-inuit-living-in-nunavut-territory-of-canada
#7
Alexander Kumar
AIM: HIV infections occur across the Arctic but their incidence among aboriginal populations varies vastly. At the time this research was initiated there were no data on their occurrence, risk of HIV/AIDS or preventive strategies among Inuit living in the Nunavut territory of Canada. This review is the first to assess the risk of HIV infection among Inuit and evaluate current prevention strategies among Canadian-Inuit populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The contents of this article are based on the author's own research, undertaken during 3 visits to the Canadian Arctic and the published literature...
November 2016: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790295/psychological-and-sexual-effects-of-circumcision-in-adult-males
#8
Yasin Aydogmus, Murat Semiz, Okan Er, Okan Bas, Irfan Atay, Muhammet Fatih Kilinc
INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to investigate the psychological and sexual effects of circumcision in adult men, and analyze these changes following circumcision. METHODS: We included 37 adults who applied to our clinic for circumcision and who did not have any psychiatric or urologic disorders and age-matched 30 controls in our study. Body Cathexis Scale (BCS), Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), and Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) were applied to the study group twice, once before and once three months after circumcision, and only once in the control group...
May 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783681/impact-and-cost-of-scaling-up-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-for-hiv-prevention-in-the-context-of-the-new-90-90-90-hiv-treatment-targets
#9
Katharine Kripke, Jason Reed, Catherine Hankins, Gregory Smiley, Catey Laube, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli
BACKGROUND: The report of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) for World AIDS Day 2014 highlighted a Fast-Track Strategy that sets ambitious treatment and prevention targets to reduce global HIV incidence to manageable levels by 2020 and end the AIDS epidemic by 2030. The 90-90-90 treatment targets for 2020 call for 90% of people living with HIV to know their HIV status, 90% of people who know their status to receive treatment, and 90% of people on HIV treatment to be virally suppressed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783637/modeling-impact-and-cost-effectiveness-of-increased-efforts-to-attract-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-clients-ages-20-29-in-zimbabwe
#10
Katharine Kripke, Karin Hatzold, Owen Mugurungi, Gertrude Ncube, Sinokuthemba Xaba, Elizabeth Gold, Kim Seifert Ahanda, Natalie Kruse-Levy, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli
BACKGROUND: Zimbabwe aims to increase circumcision coverage to 80% among 13- to 29-year-olds. However, implementation data suggest that high coverage among men ages 20 and older may not be achievable without efforts specifically targeted to these men, incurring additional costs per circumcision. Scale-up scenarios were created based on trends in implementation data in Zimbabwe, and the cost-effectiveness of increasing efforts to recruit clients ages 20-29 was examined. METHODS: Zimbabwe voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) program data were used to project trends in male circumcision coverage by age into the future...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783635/estimating-client-out-of-pocket-costs-for-accessing-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-in-south-africa
#11
Michel Tchuenche, Vibhuti Haté, Dacia McPherson, Eurica Palmer, Ananthy Thambinayagam, Dayanund Loykissoonlal, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli, Steven Forsythe
In 2010, South Africa launched a countrywide effort to scale up its voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) program on the basis of compelling evidence that circumcision reduces men's risk of acquiring HIV through heterosexual intercourse. Even though VMMC is free there, clients can incur indirect out-of-pocket costs (for example transportation cost or foregone income). Because these costs can be barriers to increasing the uptake of VMMC services, we assessed them from a client perspective, to inform VMMC demand creation policies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783613/voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-for-hiv-prevention-new-mathematical-models-for-strategic-demand-creation-prioritizing-subpopulations-by-age-and-geography
#12
Catherine Hankins, Mitchell Warren, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli
Over 11 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMC) have been performed of the projected 20.3 million needed to reach 80% adult male circumcision prevalence in priority sub-Saharan African countries. Striking numbers of adolescent males, outside the 15-49-year-old age target, have been accessing VMMC services. What are the implications of overall progress in scale-up to date? Can mathematical modeling provide further insights on how to efficiently reach the male circumcision coverage levels needed to create and sustain further reductions in HIV incidence to make AIDS no longer a public health threat by 2030? Considering ease of implementation and cultural acceptability, decision makers may also value the estimates that mathematical models can generate of immediacy of impact, cost-effectiveness, and magnitude of impact resulting from different policy choices...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783612/the-cost-of-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-in-south-africa
#13
Michel Tchuenche, Eurica Palmer, Vibhuti Haté, Ananthy Thambinayagam, Dayanund Loykissoonlal, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli, Steven Forsythe
Given compelling evidence associating voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) with men's reduced HIV acquisition through heterosexual intercourse, South Africa in 2010 began scaling up VMMC. To project the resources needed to complete 4.3 million circumcisions between 2010 and 2016, we (1) estimated the unit cost to provide VMMC; (2) assessed cost drivers and cost variances across eight provinces and VMMC service delivery modes; and (3) evaluated the costs associated with mobilize and motivate men and boys to access VMMC services...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775307/-balanitis-xerotica-obliterans-underdiagnosed-pathology-of-clinical-relevance
#14
E Calleja Aguayo, A E Hernández Calvarro, C Marhuenda Irastorza
OBJECTIVES: Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) is a chronic inflamatory disease, a genital form of Lichen Sclerosus in males. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective and descriptive analysis was carried out by rewiew of the medical records of boys who underwent circumcision from April 2013 to April 2014. The study group consisted of boys that were circumcised due it persistant phimosis at 4 years of age, urinary symptoms or painful erection. The histopathological examination was performed only in patients with clinical suspicion of BXO...
April 20, 2016: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774350/the-art-of-hiv-elimination-past-and-present-science
#15
Collins C Iwuji, Nuala McGrath, Tulio de Oliveira, Kholoud Porter, Deenan Pillay, Martin Fisher, Melanie Newport, Marie-Louise Newell
INTRODUCTION: Remarkable strides have been made in controlling the HIV epidemic, although not enough to achieve epidemic control. More recently, interest in biomedical HIV control approaches has increased, but substantial challenges with the HIV cascade of care hinder successful implementation. We summarise all available HIV prevention methods and make recommendations on how to address current challenges. DISCUSSION: In the early days of the epidemic, behavioural approaches to control the HIV dominated, and the few available evidence-based interventions demonstrated to reduce HIV transmission were applied independently from one another...
November 30, 2015: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770738/scrotal-dartos-fascio-myo-cutaneous-flaps-for-penis-elongation-after-catastrophic-iatrogenic-skin-shaft-sub-amputation-a-case-of-recovery-using-an-extremely-adaptable-flap
#16
Alessandro Innocenti, Sara Tanini, F Mori, D Melita, M Innocenti
INTRODUCTION: Genitalia are linked to self-esteem and male sexual identity, especially among young men, who sometimes require a surgical procedure to acquire more confidence. Among the surgical procedures requested for aesthetical purposes, circumcision is one of the most popular. Although it can be considered to be a simple surgical practice, it may cause severe complications such as penile skin necrosis. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case of a catastrophic situation after a circumcision performed on a 27-year-old HIV positive man resulted in a drastic reduction in the length of the penile shaft due to extensive skin loss; this was subsequently restored using dartos-fascio-myo-cutaneous flaps...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760682/prep-as-a-feature-in-the-optimal-landscape-of-combination-hiv-prevention-in-sub-saharan-africa
#17
Jessica B McGillen, Sarah-Jane Anderson, Timothy B Hallett
INTRODUCTION: The new WHO guidelines recommend offering pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to people who are at substantial risk of HIV infection. However, where PrEP should be prioritised, and for which population groups, remains an open question. The HIV landscape in sub-Saharan Africa features limited prevention resources, multiple options for achieving cost saving, and epidemic heterogeneity. This paper examines what role PrEP should play in optimal prevention in this complex and dynamic landscape...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753243/efficacy-of-knowledge-and-competence-based-training-of-non-physicians-in-the-provision-of-early-infant-male-circumcision-using-the-mogen-clamp-in-rakai-uganda
#18
Edward Nelson Kankaka, Godfrey Kigozi, Daniel Kayiwa, Nehemiah Kighoma, Frederick Makumbi, Teddy Murungi, Dorean Nabukalu, Resty Nampijja, Stephen Watya, Daniel Namuguzi, Fred Nalugoda, Gertrude Nakigozi, David Serwadda, Maria Wawer, Ronald H Gray
OBJECTIVE: To assess acquisition of knowledge and competence in performing Early Infant Male Circumcision (EIMC) by non-physicians trained using a structured curriculum. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Training in provision of EIMC using the Mogen clamp was conducted for 10 Clinical Officers (COs) and 10 Registered Nurse Midwives (RNMWs), in Rakai, Uganda. Healthy infants whose mothers consented to study participation were assigned to the trainees, each of whom performed at least 10 EIMCs...
October 18, 2016: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751179/use-of-a-risk-scoring-tool-to-identify-higher-risk-hiv-1-serodiscordant-couples-for-an-antiretroviral-based-hiv-1-prevention-intervention
#19
Elizabeth M Irungu, Renee Heffron, Nelly Mugo, Kenneth Ngure, Elly Katabira, Nulu Bulya, Elizabeth Bukusi, Josephine Odoyo, Stephen Asiimwe, Edna Tindimwebwa, Connie Celum, Jared M Baeten
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reduce HIV-1 transmission within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. Prioritizing couples at highest HIV-1 transmission risk for ART and PrEP would maximize impact and minimize costs. METHODS: The Partners Demonstration Project is an open-label, delivery study of integrated PrEP and ART for HIV-1 prevention among high risk HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda. We evaluated the feasibility of using a validated risk score that weighs a combination of easily measurable factors (age, children, marital status, male circumcision status, condom use, plasma HIV-1 levels) to identify couples at highest risk for HIV-1 transmission for enrollment...
October 17, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749599/strength-of-evidence-on-demand-creation-for-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-from-7-impact-evaluations-in-southern-and-eastern-africa
#20
Eric W Djimeu, Annette N Brown
BACKGROUND: Seven new impact evaluations of pilot programs for increasing the demand for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) provide evidence of what works and what does not. The study findings suggest that financial compensation designed to relieve the opportunity or transportation costs from undergoing the procedure can increase the uptake of VMMC. There is also evidence that programs using peer influence can be effective, although so far only sports-based programs demonstrate a strong effect...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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