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Fidelis Cho-Ngwa, Elvis Monya, Boris K Azantsa, Faustin Pascal T Manfo, Smith B Babiaka, James A Mbah, Moses Samje
BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis is the world's second leading infectious cause of blindness. Its control is currently hampered by the lack of a macrofilaricidal drug and by severe adverse events observed when the lone recommended microfilaricide, ivermectin is administered to individuals co-infected with Loa loa. Therefore, there is the need for a safe and effective macrofilaricidal drug that will be able to cure the infection and break transmission cycles, or at least, an alternative microfilaricide that does not kill L...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Muthusamy Rajasekar, Kathiresan Suresh, Kathiresan Sivakumar
Diosmin is naturally found flavanoid in many citrus fruits known to have anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. Effects of Diosmin on IL-6/STAT-3 expression in hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis remain unclear. Alterations in many genes encode crucial proteins, which regulate cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis have been implicated in oral cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effect of dietary Diosmin on IL-6/STAT-3 signaling in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis by examining the protein expression of IL-6/STAT-3 and its related genes...
August 18, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Vishnu N Thakare, Valmik D Dhakane, Bhoomika M Patel
BACKGROUND: Silymarin is a polyphenolic flavanoid of Silybum marianum, elicited neuroprotection and antidepressant like activity in stressed model. It was found to increase 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels in the cortex and dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in the cerebellum in normal mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential antidepressant-like activity of silymarin in the acute restraint stress (ARS) in mice. METHODS: The ARS was induced by immobilizing the mice for a period of 7h using rodent restraint device preventing them for any physical movement...
October 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
B E Ravi Shankara, Y L Ramachandra, S Sundara Rajan, P S Sujan Ganapathy, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, S A Richard, Bhadrapura Lakkappa Dhananjaya
UNLABELLED: Plants have been an important source for discovery of anticancer compounds. With the current decline in the number of new molecular entities from the pharmaceutical industry, novel anticancer agents are being sought from traditional medicines; therefore the anticancer efficacy of many plants that are used in traditional medicine is yet to be verified. The objective of the study was to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of ethanolic leaf gall extract of Terminalia chebula are evaluated against buffalo rat liver 3A, MCF-7 (Human mammary gland adenocarcinoma) and A-549 (Human lung cancer) cell lines...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
Leewanshi Chakrawarti, Rishab Agrawal, Shweta Dang, Sanjay Gupta, Reema Gabrani
INTRODUCTION: Green tea contains polyphenolic flavanoids such as epigallocatechin-3- gallate (EGCG), epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin (EGC) and epicatechin (EC). EGCG is the most abundant and active compound in green tea. Extensive research has shown that it has significant antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-microbial, and neuroprotective properties and has therapeutic potential against various human diseases. AREAS COVERED: This review focuses on the applications of EGCG alone, and in combination with other compounds, for the treatment of various types of cancers, metabolic, neurodegenerative, and microbial diseases, and discusses its mechanism of action in cell line and animal modesl...
August 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
T V Surendra, Selvaraj Mohana Roopan, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Makuteswaran Sridharan
Most of the wastes emitted from the food processing industries are not utilized for any further purpose. The economic value of the food waste is very less when compared to the collection or reuse or discard. To increase the economic value we have to design the food waste as useful product or applicable in most of the current field. Nothing is waste in this world with this concept we have investigated the phytochemical analysis of drumstick peel (Moringa oleifera). The result supports the presence of phenols, alkaloids, flavanoids, glycosides and tannins...
August 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Geetha Bolla, Ashwini Nangia
Pharmaceutical cocrystals belong to a sub-class of cocrystals wherein one of the components is a drug molecule (or an active pharmaceutical ingredient, API) and the second is a benign food or drug grade additive (generally regarded as safe, GRAS). The two components are hydrogen-bonded in a fixed stoichiometric ratio in the crystal lattice. In the past decade, pharmaceutical cocrystals have demonstrated significant promise in their ability to modify the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of drug substances, such as the solubility and dissolution rate, bioavailability, particle morphology and size, tableting and compaction, melting point, physical form, biochemical and hydration stability, and permeability...
June 28, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Jessica Walker, Katharina V Reichelt, Katja Obst, Sabine Widder, Joachim Hans, Gerhard E Krammer, Jakob P Ley, Veronika Somoza
Polyphenol-rich plant extracts have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory activity against oral pathogen-induced cytokine release in model systems of inflammation. Here, it was hypothesized that a flavanone-rich extract of E. angustifolium exhibits an anti-inflammatory potential against endotoxin-induced inflammatory response in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1). HGF-1 cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis (pg-LPS) to release pro-inflammatory cytokines. Concentrations of interleukins IL-6 and IL-8 and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 in the incubation media upon stimulation were determined by means of magnetic bead analysis...
July 13, 2016: Food & Function
A P Jain, S Bhandarkar, G Rai, A K Yadav, S Lodhi
Lichens produce variety of secondary metabolites including depsides, depsidones and dibenzofurans having multifunctional activity in response to external environmental condition. Present study provides evidence for in vitro antibacterial and in vivo antiinflammatory activity of acetone and ethanol extracts of Parmotrema reticulatum. In vitro antibacterial activity was investigated against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Cotton pellet-induced granuloma, xylene-induced ear swelling, carragennan-induced edema, histamine-induced and carboxymethylcellulose sodium-induced leukocyte emigration in mice models were used to quantify the antiinflammatory activity...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Neuza F Gomes-Rochette, Mirele Da Silveira Vasconcelos, Seyed M Nabavi, Erika F Mota, Diana C S Nunes-Pinheiro, Maria Daglia, Dirce F De Melo
The consumption of fruit has increased in the last 20 years, along with the growing recognition of its nutritional and protective values. Many of the benefits of a diet rich in fruit are attributed to the presence of different bioactive substances, such as vitamins, carotenoids and phenolic compounds. Flavanoids, a class of phenolic compounds, present particular antioxidant activity and thus provide protection against cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Research suggests that an increased intake of plant foods is associated with a reduced incidence of chronic disease...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Olfa Belguith-Hadriche, Sonda Ammar, Maria Del Mar Contreras, Mouna Turki, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Abdelfattah El Feki, Fatma Makni-Ayedi, Mohamed Bouaziz
The phenolic constituents of the aqueous-ethanolic extract of Tunisian Ficus carica (F. carica) fruit (FE) and its antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats (HFD) were evaluated. The obtained results demonstrated that the FE improved the lipid profile by decreasing the total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. It also reduced the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and increased the antioxidant enzymes in liver, heart and kidney in HFD-fed rats...
June 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga, Suresh Rao, Manoj P Rai, Prema D'souza
The use of compounds which can selectively protect normal tissues against radiation injury is of immense use because in addition to it protecting the normal tissue, will also permits use of higher doses of radiation to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, most of the radio protective compounds investigated possess inadequate clinical application principally due to their inherent systemic toxicity at their optimal protective concentrations. Plants commonly used as medicinal and dietary agents have recently been the focus of attention and studies have shown that Ocimum sanctum Linn...
January 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Krishnan Gokuladhas, Subramaniyan Jayakumar, Balan Rajan, Ramasamy Elamaran, Chengalvarayan Subramani Pramila, Mani Gopikrishnan, Sasivarman Tamilarasi, Thiruvengadam Devaki
Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer and is still one of the leading causes of death world wide, due to food additives, alcohol, fungal toxins, air, toxic industrial chemicals, and water pollutants. Chemopreventive drugs play a potential role in liver cancer treatment. Obviously in the production of anticancer drugs, the factors like poor solubility, bioavailability, biocompatibility, limited chemical stability, large amount of dose etc., plays a major role. Against this backdrop, the idea of designing the chemopreventive nature of bio flavanoid hesperetin (HP) drug conjugated with pegylated gold nanoparticles to increasing the solubility, improve bioavailability and enhance the targeting capabilities of the drug during diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in male wistar albino rats...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Lalitha Simon, Abdelli Imane, K K Srinivasan, Lokesh Pathak, I Daoud
In silico molecular modeling studies were carried out on some newly synthesized flavanoid analogues. Search for potential targets for these compounds was performed using pharmacophore-mapping algorithm employing inverse screening of some representative compounds to a large set of pharmacophore models constructed from human target proteins. Further, molecular docking studies were carried out to assess binding affinity of these compounds to proteins mediating tumor growth. In vitro anticancer studies were carried out on colon cancer cell lines (HCT116) to assess validity of this approach for target identification of the new compounds...
April 8, 2016: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
Uorakkottil Ilyas, Deepshikha P Katare, Vidhu Aeri, Punnooth Poonguzi Naseef
The liver is the most important organ that plays an important role in maintaining various physiological processes in the body. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver and is characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. There are five main viruses, referred to as types A, B, C, D, and E. These five types are of the greatest concern because of the burden of illness and death. Liver injury or liver dysfunction is a major health problem that challenges not only health care professionals but also the drug regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry...
January 2016: Pharmacognosy Reviews
Soumen Roy, Sandip Pawar, Abhay Chowdhary
AIM: To evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity of Datura metel L. and Cynodon dactylon L. extracts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The extraction of plants parts (datura seed and fruit pulp) and areal parts of durva was carried out using soxhlet and cold extraction method using solvents namely methanol and distilled water. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) was determined by established methods. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed in vero cell line by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay method...
April 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
Kamal Kumar Chaudhary, Sarvesh Kumar Gupta, Nidhi Mishra
NEDD-4 are closely related E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases that include a C2 domain, three or four WW domains and a catalytic HECT ubiquitin ligase domain. The WW domains of NEDD-4 proteins recognize substrates for ubiquitination by binding the sequence L/PPxY (the PY-motif) present in target proteins. NEDD-4 functions as a suppressor of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), which interacts with NEDD-4 WW domains via PY-motifs located at its C-terminus. Fifty compounds, all of them flavanoids, were subjected to molecular docking studies...
March 30, 2016: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
B Venkatadri, N Arunagirinathan, M R Rameshkumar, Latha Ramesh, A Dhanasezhian, P Agastian
Bacteria have developed multidrug resistance against available antimicrobial agents. Infectious diseases caused by these multidrug-resistant bacteria are major causes of morbidity and mortality in human beings. Synthetic drugs are expensive and inadequate for the treatment of diseases, causing side effects and ineffective against multidrug-resistant bacteria. The medicinal plants are promising to have effective antimicrobial property due to presence of phytochemical compounds like alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins and phenolic compounds...
November 2015: Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
G Ramu, S P Dhanabal
The present work is targeted to evaluate antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts from the leaves of Plectranthus mollis and Salvia officinalis belonging to family Lamiaceae using nitric oxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and lipid peroxidation methods. The results of the study indicate that the leaf extracts of both the plants possess in vitro antioxidant activity. The higher amount of flavanoids and phenolic compounds may correspond to their greater antioxidant activity...
November 2015: Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Violeta Nour, Ion Trandafir, Sina Cosmulescu
Context Walnut leaves are highly appreciated for their pharmacological effects and therapeutic properties which are mainly attributed to their high content of phenolic compounds. Objective This study optimizes ultrasound assisted hydroalcoholic extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds from dried walnut leaves by the maximization of total phenolics content (TPC) and total flavanoids content (TFC) of the extracts. Materials and methods Optimal conditions with regard to ethanol concentration (X1: 12.17-95.83% v/v), extraction time (X2: 8...
October 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
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