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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718464/-dissertation-25-years-after-date-48-the-effect-of-saliva-on-the-colonisation-of-oral-bacteria
#1
A J M Ligtenberg
In the research that formed the basis of the dissertation 'Intervention of saliva in the colonization process of oral bacteria' from 1992, the aggregation or clustering of oral bacteria by saliva was investigated. This prevents bacterial colonisation in the mouth. Major individual differences in aggregation activity of different saliva samples were found to exist, partly determined by the blood group of the saliva donor. As well as being found in red blood cells, AB0 blood group antigens also appear on salivary glycoproteins...
July 2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717717/management-and-care-of-women-with-invasive-cervical-cancer-american-society-of-clinical-oncology-resource-stratified-clinical-practice-guideline
#2
Linus T Chuang, Sarah Temin, Rolando Camacho, Alfonso Dueñas-Gonzalez, Sarah Feldman, Murat Gultekin, Vandana Gupta, Susan Horton, Graciela Jacob, Elizabeth A Kidd, Kennedy Lishimpi, Carolyn Nakisige, Joo-Hyun Nam, Hextan Yuen Sheung Ngan, William Small, Gillian Thomas, Jonathan S Berek
PURPOSE: To provide evidence-based, resource-stratified global recommendations to clinicians and policymakers on the management and palliative care of women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer. METHODS: ASCO convened a multidisciplinary, multinational panel of cancer control, medical and radiation oncology, health economic, obstetric and gynecologic, and palliative care experts to produce recommendations reflecting resource-tiered settings. A systematic review of literature from 1966 to 2015 failed to yield sufficiently strong quality evidence to support basic- and limited-resource setting recommendations; a formal consensus-based process was used to develop recommendations...
October 2016: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717350/properties-of-native-high-density-lipoproteins-inspire-synthesis-of-actively-targeted-in-vivo-sirna-delivery-vehicles
#3
Kaylin M McMahon, Michael P Plebanek, C Shad Thaxton
Efficient systemic administration of therapeutic short interfering RNA (siRNA) is challenging. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are natural in vivo RNA delivery vehicles. Specifically, native HDLs: 1) Load single-stranded RNA; 2) Are anionic, which requires charge reconciliation between the RNA and HDL, and 3) Actively target scavenger receptor type B-1 (SR-B1) to deliver RNA. Emphasizing these particular parameters, we employed templated lipoprotein particles (TLP), mimics of spherical HDLs, and self-assembled them with single-stranded complements of, presumably, any highly unmodified siRNA duplex pair after formulation with a cationic lipid...
November 15, 2016: Advanced Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716982/real-world-setting-comparison-of-nonvitamin-k-antagonist-oral-anticoagulants-versus-vitamin-k-antagonists-for-stroke-prevention-in-atrial-fibrillation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
George Ntaios, Vasileios Papavasileiou, Konstantinos Makaritsis, Konstantinos Vemmos, Patrik Michel, Gregory Y H Lip
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Evidence from the real-world setting complements evidence coming from randomized controlled trials. We aimed to summarize all available evidence from high-quality real-world observational studies about efficacy and safety of nonvitamin-K oral anticoagulants compared with vitamin-K antagonists in patients with atrial fibrillation. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Web of Science until January 7, 2017 for observational nationwide or health insurance databases reporting matched or adjusted results comparing nonvitamin-K oral anticoagulants versus vitamin-K antagonists in patients with atrial fibrillation...
July 17, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716828/creation-and-preliminary-characterization-of-pregnane-x-receptor-and-constitutive-androstane-receptor-knockout-rats
#5
Kevin P Forbes, Evguenia Kouranova, Daniel Tinker, Karen Janowski, Doug Cortner, Aaron McCoy, Xiaoxia Cui
The nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are closely related transcription factors that regulate the expression of Phase I (Cytochrome P450s), Phase II metabolizing enzymes and transporter genes in response to stimulation from xenobiotics, including prescription drugs. PXR and CAR are also involved in other endogenous processes, such as in inflammation, glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism, and are thus potential drug targets themselves. PXR and CAR knockout and humanized mouse models have proven useful...
July 17, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716665/applying-label-free-dynamic-mass-redistribution-assay-for-studying-endogenous-fpr1-receptor-signalling-in-human-neutrophils
#6
Hanna B Christensen, David E Gloriam, Daniel Sejer Pedersen, Jack B Cowland, Niels Borregaard, Hans Bräuner-Osborne
INTRODUCTION: The label-free dynamic mass redistribution-based assay (DMR) is a powerful method for studying signalling pathways of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Herein we present the label-free DMR assay as a robust readout for pharmacological characterization of formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) in human neutrophils. METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from fresh human blood and their responses to FPR1 and FPR2 agonists, i.e. compound 43, fMLF and WKYMVm were measured in a label-free DMR assay using Epic Benchtop System from Corning®...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716506/how-to-prevent-burnout-in-cardiologists-a-review-of-the-current-evidence-gaps-and-future-directions
#7
REVIEW
Maria Panagioti, Keith Geraghty, Judith Johnson
Burnout is rising in all physicians, and cardiologists are not an exemption. Cardiology is a very popular specialty among medical students as it is associated with outstanding training standards and high prestige and income. In this review, we critically summarize the evidence on consequences, causes, and evidence-based interventions for burnout with a view toward recommending the best strategies for promoting wellness in cardiologists. Only a handful of studies have examined burnout specifically in cardiologists...
July 4, 2017: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716098/awakening-sleeping-beauty-production-of-propionic-acid-in-escherichia-coli-through-the-sbm-operon-requires-the-activity-of-a-methylmalonyl-coa-epimerase
#8
Ricardo Axayacatl Gonzalez-Garcia, Tim McCubbin, Annalena Wille, Manuel Plan, Lars Keld Nielsen, Esteban Marcellin
BACKGROUND: Propionic acid is used primarily as a food preservative with smaller applications as a chemical building block for the production of many products including fabrics, cosmetics, drugs, and plastics. Biological production using propionibacteria would be competitive against chemical production through hydrocarboxylation of ethylene if native producers could be engineered to reach near-theoretical yield and good productivity. Unfortunately, engineering propionibacteria has proven very challenging...
July 17, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715367/microfluidic-imaging-flow-cytometry-by-asymmetric-detection-time-stretch-optical-microscopy-atom
#9
Anson H L Tang, Queenie T K Lai, Bob M F Chung, Kelvin C M Lee, Aaron T Y Mok, G K Yip, Anderson H C Shum, Kenneth K Y Wong, Kevin K Tsia
Scaling the number of measurable parameters, which allows for multidimensional data analysis and thus higher-confidence statistical results, has been the main trend in the advanced development of flow cytometry. Notably, adding high-resolution imaging capabilities allows for the complex morphological analysis of cellular/sub-cellular structures. This is not possible with standard flow cytometers. However, it is valuable for advancing our knowledge of cellular functions and can benefit life science research, clinical diagnostics, and environmental monitoring...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715127/increased-aggression-and-lack-of-maternal-behavior-in-dio3-deficient-mice-are-associated-with-abnormalities-in-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-systems
#10
J Patrizia Stohn, M Elena Martinez, Maryam Zafer, Daniela López-Espíndola, Lauren M Keyes, Arturo Hernandez
Thyroid hormones regulate many aspects of brain development and function, and alterations in the levels of thyroid hormone action lead to abnormal anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. A complement of factors in the brain function independently of circulating levels of hormone to strictly controlled local thyroid hormone signaling. A critical factor is the type 3 deiodinase (DIO3), which is located in neurons and protects the brain from excessive thyroid hormone. Here we examined whether a local increase in brain thyroid hormone action secondary to DIO3 deficiency is of consequence for social behaviors...
July 17, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714889/staphylococcus-aureus-regulator-sigma-b-is-important-to-develop-chronic-infections-in-hematogenous-murine-osteomyelitis-model
#11
Lorena Tuchscherr, Jennifer Geraci, Bettina Löffler
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen causing bone infections that can become chronic and difficult to treat. Recently, we described the mechanism employed by S. aureus to switch to small colony variants (SCVs) and trigger intracellular bacterial persistence through the global stress regulator SigB. Here, we studied the role of SigB in the formation of chronic osteomyelitis. We used a murine hematogenous osteomyelitis model, where the mice were infected via the tail vein and subsequently developed chronic osteomyelitis...
July 15, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714865/microglia-in-prion-diseases
#12
Adriano Aguzzi, Caihong Zhu
Prion diseases are a group of progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterized by deposition of scrapie prion protein (PrPSc) in the CNS. This deposition is accompanied by neuronal loss, spongiform change, astrogliosis, and conspicuous microglial activation. Here, we argue that microglia play an overall neuroprotective role in prion pathogenesis. Several microglia-related molecules, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the complement system, cytokines, chemokines, inflammatory regulators, and phagocytosis mediators, are involved in prion pathogenesis...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714506/an-integrated-microwell-array-platform-for-cell-lasing-analysis
#13
Qiushu Chen, Yu-Cheng Chen, Zhizheng Zhang, Biming Wu, Rhima Coleman, Xudong Fan
Biological cell lasers are emerging as a novel technology in biological studies and biomedical engineering. The heterogeneity of cells, however, can result in various lasing behaviors from cell to cell. Thus, the capability to track individual cells during laser investigation is highly desired. In this work, a microwell array was integrated with high-quality Fabry-Pérot cavities for addressable and automated cell laser studies. Cells were captured in the microwells and the corresponding cell lasing was achieved and analyzed using SYTO9-stained Sf9 cells as a model system...
July 17, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714241/cytokine-profiles-in-tibetan-macaques-following-%C3%AE-1-3-galactosyltransferase-knockout-pig-liver-xenotransplantation
#14
Zhuochao Zhang, Xiao Li, Hong Zhang, Xuan Zhang, Hui Chen, Dengke Pan, Hongchen Ji, Liang Zhou, Juan Ling, Jingshi Zhou, Shuqiang Yue, Desheng Wang, Zhaoxu Yang, Kaishan Tao, Kefeng Dou
BACKGROUND: Pig-to-nonhuman primate orthotopic liver xenotransplantation is often accompanied by thrombocytopenia and coagulation disorders. Furthermore, the release of cytokines can trigger cascade reactions of coagulation and immune attacks within transplant recipients. To better elucidate the process of inflammation in liver xenograft recipients, we utilized a modified heterotopic auxiliary liver xenotransplantation model for xeno-immunological research. We studied the cytokine profiles and the relationship between cytokine levels and xenograft function after liver xenotransplantation...
July 17, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713366/intratumoral-lentivector-mediated-tgf-%C3%AE-1-gene-downregulation-as-a-potent-strategy-for-enhancing-the-antitumor-effect-of-therapy-composed-of-cyclophosphamide-and-dendritic-cells
#15
Joanna Rossowska, Natalia Anger, Agnieszka Szczygieł, Jagoda Mierzejewska, Elżbieta Pajtasz-Piasecka
Vaccination with dendritic cells (DCs) stimulated with tumor antigens can induce specific cellular immune response that recognizes a high spectrum of tumor antigens. However, the ability of cancer cells to produce immunosuppressive factors drastically decreases the antitumor activity of DCs. The main purpose of the study was to improve the effectiveness of DC-based immunotherapy or chemoimmunotherapy composed of cyclophosphamide (CY) and DCs by application of lentivectors (LVs)-encoding short hairpin RNA specific for TGF-β1 (shTGFβ1 LVs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713344/outer-membrane-proteome-of-veillonella-parvula-a-diderm-firmicute-of-the-human-microbiome
#16
Daniel I Poppleton, Magalie Duchateau, Véronique Hourdel, Mariette Matondo, Jennifer Flechsler, Andreas Klingl, Christophe Beloin, Simonetta Gribaldo
Veillonella parvula is a biofilm-forming commensal found in the lungs, vagina, mouth, and gastro-intestinal tract of humans, yet it may develop into an opportunistic pathogen. Furthermore, the presence of Veillonella has been associated with the development of a healthy immune system in infants. Veillonella belongs to the Negativicutes, a diverse clade of bacteria that represent an evolutionary enigma: they phylogenetically belong to Gram-positive (monoderm) Firmicutes yet maintain an outer membrane (OM) with lipopolysaccharide similar to classic Gram-negative (diderm) bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712636/human-exoproteome-in-acute-apical-abscesses
#17
Cristiane F Alfenas, Tiago A O Mendes, Humberto J O Ramos, Fernanda P Bruckner, Henrique S Antunes, Isabela N Rôças, José F Siqueira, José C Provenzano
INTRODUCTION: An acute apical abscess is a severe response of the host to massive invasion of the periapical tissues by bacteria from infected root canals. Although many studies have investigated the microbiota involved in the process, information on the host factors released during abscess formation is scarce. The purpose of this study was to describe the human exoproteome in samples from acute apical abscesses. METHODS: Fourteen pus samples were obtained by aspiration from patients with an acute apical abscess...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711143/genomics-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-insights-gained-by-studying-monogenic-young-onset-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#18
REVIEW
Linda T Hiraki, Earl D Silverman
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic, autoimmune, multisystem disease with a heterogeneous clinical phenotype. Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple susceptibility loci, but these explain a fraction of the estimated heritability. This is partly because within the broad spectrum of SLE are monogenic diseases that tend to cluster in patients with young age of onset, and in families. This article highlights insights into the pathogenesis of SLE provided by these monogenic diseases...
August 2017: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710269/molecular-mechanism-and-genetic-determinants-of-buprofezin-degradation
#19
Xueting Chen, Junbin Ji, Leizhen Zhao, Jiguo Qiu, Chen Dai, Weiwu Wang, Jian He, Jiandong Jiang, Qing Hong, Xin Yan
Buprofezin is a widely used insect growth regulator whose residue has been frequently detected in the environment, posing a threat to aquatic organisms and non-target insects. Microorganisms play an important role in the degradation of buprofezin in the natural environment. However, the relevant catabolic pathway has not been fully characterized, and the molecular mechanism of catabolism is still completely unknown. Rhodococcus qingshengii YL-1 can utilize buprofezin as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709242/thermodynamics-of-random-number-generation
#20
Cina Aghamohammadi, James P Crutchfield
We analyze the thermodynamic costs of the three main approaches to generating random numbers via the recently introduced Information Processing Second Law. Given access to a specified source of randomness, a random number generator (RNG) produces samples from a desired target probability distribution. This differs from pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) that use wholly deterministic algorithms and from true random number generators (TRNGs) in which the randomness source is a physical system. For each class, we analyze the thermodynamics of generators based on algorithms implemented as finite-state machines, as these allow for direct bounds on the required physical resources...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
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