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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922764/a-pentatricopeptide-repeat-protein-restores-nap-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-in-brassica-napus
#1
Zhi Liu, Faming Dong, Xiang Wang, Tao Wang, Rui Su, Dengfeng Hong, Guangsheng Yang
Two forms of male-sterile cytoplasm, designated nap and pol, are found in the oilseed rape species, Brassica napus. The nap cytoplasm is observed in most B. napus varieties, and it confers male sterility on a limited number of cultivars that lack the corresponding restorer gene, Rfn. In the present study, using linkage analysis in combination with 5652 BC1 progeny derived from a cross between a nap cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line 181A and a restorer line H5, we delimited the Rfn gene to a 10.5 kb region on chromosome A09, which contained three putative ORFs...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922740/a-conserved-dggk-motif-is-essential-for-the-function-of-the-pglb-oligosaccharyltransferase-from-campylobacter-jejuni
#2
Yasmin Barre, Harald Nothaft, Cody Thomas, Xin Liu, Jianjun Li, Kenneth K S Ng, Christine M Szymanski
In Campylobacter jejuni, the PglB oligosaccharyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of a heptasaccharide from a lipid donor to asparagine within the D/E-X1-N-X2-S/T sequon (X1,2 ≠ P) or releases this heptasaccharide as free oligosaccharides (fOS). Using available crystal structures and sequence alignments, we identified a DGGK motif near the active site of PglB that is conserved among all Campylobacter species. We demonstrate that amino acid substitutions in the aspartate and lysine residues result in loss of protein glycosylation in the heterologous Escherichia coli system...
October 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922377/c-reactive-protein-upregulates-the-whole-blood-expression-of-cd59-an-integrative-analysis
#3
Kaido Lepik, Tarmo Annilo, Viktorija Kukuškina, Kai Kisand, Zoltán Kutalik, Pärt Peterson, Hedi Peterson
Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in the blood are associated with acute and chronic infections and inflammation. Nevertheless, the functional role of increased CRP in multiple bacterial and viral infections as well as in chronic inflammatory diseases remains unclear. Here, we studied the relationship between CRP and gene expression levels in the blood in 491 individuals from the Estonian Biobank cohort, to elucidate the role of CRP in these inflammatory mechanisms. As a result, we identified a set of 1,614 genes associated with changes in CRP levels with a high proportion of interferon-stimulated genes...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921001/c3ar-and-c5ar1-act-as-key-regulators-of-human-and-mouse-%C3%AE-cell-function
#4
Patricio Atanes, Inmaculada Ruz-Maldonado, Attilio Pingitore, Ross Hawkes, Bo Liu, Min Zhao, Guo Cai Huang, Shanta J Persaud, Stefan Amisten
AIMS: Complement components 3 and 5 (C3 and C5) play essential roles in the complement system, generating C3a and C5a peptides that are best known as chemotactic and inflammatory factors. In this study we characterised islet expression of C3 and C5 complement components, and the impact of C3aR and C5aR1 activation on islet function and viability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human and mouse islet mRNAs encoding key elements of the complement system were quantified by qPCR and distribution of C3 and C5 proteins was determined by immunohistochemistry...
September 18, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920587/complement-in-cancer-untangling-an-intricate-relationship
#5
REVIEW
Edimara S Reis, Dimitrios C Mastellos, Daniel Ricklin, Alberto Mantovani, John D Lambris
In tumour immunology, complement has traditionally been considered as an adjunctive component that enhances the cytolytic effects of antibody-based immunotherapies, such as rituximab. Remarkably, research in the past decade has uncovered novel molecular mechanisms linking imbalanced complement activation in the tumour microenvironment with inflammation and suppression of antitumour immune responses. These findings have prompted new interest in manipulating the complement system for cancer therapy. This Review summarizes our current understanding of complement-mediated effector functions in the tumour microenvironment, focusing on how complement activation can act as a negative or positive regulator of tumorigenesis...
September 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920558/i-shouldn-t-talk-of-medicine-only-biomedical-and-religious-frameworks-for-understanding-antiretroviral-therapies-their-invention-and-their-effects
#6
Angela Kelly-Hanku, Peter Aggleton, Patti Shih
Medical pluralism offers a long-standing means of analysing the different ways in which health and illness can be interpreted and responded to. It is not unusual for multiple health systems and meanings to co-exist at any one moment in time, offering different ways of understanding and responding to illness and disease. In addition to biomedical frameworks, religious beliefs offer another important means of facilitating healing. Based on qualitative interviews with 36 people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapies (ART) in Papua New Guinea (PNG), this paper examines the ways in which people bring together and synthesise religious and biomedical therapeutic approaches to the treatment and management of HIV...
September 16, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920104/variable-phenotypic-penetrance-of-thrombosis-in-adult-mice-after-tissue-selective-and-temporally-controlled-thbd-gene-inactivation
#7
Thijs E van Mens, Hai-Po H Liang, Sreemanti Basu, Irene Hernandez, Mark Zogg, Jennifer May, Min Zhan, Qiuhui Yang, Jamie Foeckler, Shawn Kalloway, Rashmi Sood, Caren Sue Karlson, Hartmut Weiler
Thrombomodulin (Thbd) exerts pleiotropic effects on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and complement system activity by facilitating the thrombin-mediated activation of protein C and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and may have additional thrombin- and protein C (pC)-independent functions. In mice, complete Thbd deficiency causes embryonic death due to defective placental development. In this study, we used tissue-selective and temporally controlled Thbd gene ablation to examine the function of Thbd in adult mice...
June 27, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919885/trypanosoma-cruzi-evades-the-complement-system-as-an-efficient-strategy-to-survive-in-the-mammalian-host-the-specific-roles-of-host-parasite-molecules-and-trypanosoma-cruzi-calreticulin
#8
REVIEW
Galia Ramírez-Toloza, Arturo Ferreira
American Trypanosomiasis is an important neglected reemerging tropical parasitism, infecting about 8 million people worldwide. Its agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, exhibits multiple mechanisms to evade the host immune response and infect host cells. An important immune evasion strategy of T. cruzi infective stages is its capacity to inhibit the complement system activation on the parasite surface, avoiding opsonizing, immune stimulating and lytic effects. Epimastigotes, the non-infective form of the parasite, present in triatomine arthropod vectors, are highly susceptible to complement-mediated lysis while trypomastigotes, the infective form, present in host bloodstream, are resistant...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918955/shifts-in-the-relationship-between-motor-unit-recruitment-thresholds-versus-derecruitment-thresholds-during-fatigue
#9
Matt S Stock, Jacob A Mota
Muscle fatigue is associated with diminished twitch force amplitude. We examined changes in the motor unit recruitment versus derecruitment threshold relationship during fatigue. Nine men (mean age = 26 years) performed repeated isometric contractions at 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) knee extensor force until exhaustion. Surface electromyographic signals were detected from the vastus lateralis, and were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains. Motor unit recruitment and derecruitment thresholds and firing rates at recruitment and derecruitment were evaluated at the beginning, middle, and end of the protocol...
September 14, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917821/circulatory-cell-mediated-nanotherapeutic-approaches-in-disease-targeting
#10
Thierry Burnouf, Pierre-Alain Burnouf, Yu-Wen Wu, Er-Yuan Chuang, Long-Sheng Lu, Hadi Goubran
Circulating blood cells, and cell-derived microvesicles, are emerging as pragmatic delivery systems that can smartly complement the already existing nanotherapeutic platforms evaluated to treat or diagnose diseases. The valuable distinctive features of circulatory cells over synthetic nanocarriers encompass their biological origin which confers immune transparence, known biodegradability, high drug loading, relatively long half-life and a targeting capacity associated with their physiological surface functionality...
September 14, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917247/the-optimism-surrounding-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-and-immunomodulation
#11
Hannah Tharmalingam, Peter J Hoskin
In recent years, rapidly evolving radiation techniques have enabled the precise delivery of very high doses of radiation to local targets with stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR). In addition to its direct cytotoxicity, radiation and in particular SABR has powerful immunomodulatory effects resulting in immunogenic cell death and potentiation of the anti-tumour immune response. However, due to the immunosuppressive nature of non-irradiated sites of metastases, radiotherapy alone is seldom sufficient to induce the systemic response required for distant tumour rejection...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916964/presence-of-a-3fe-4s-cluster-in-a-psac-variant-as-a-functional-component-of-the-photosystem-i-electron-transfer-chain-in-synechococcus-sp-pcc-7002
#12
Adam A Pérez, Bryan H Ferlez, Amanda M Applegate, Karim Walters, Zhihui He, Gaozhong Shen, John H Golbeck, Donald A Bryant
A site-directed C14G mutation was introduced into the stromal PsaC subunit of Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 in vivo in order to introduce an exchangeable coordination site into the terminal FB [4Fe-4S] cluster of Photosystem I (PSI). Using an engineered PSI-less strain (psaAB deletion), psaC was deleted and replaced with recombinant versions controlled by a strong promoter, and the psaAB deletion was complemented. Modified PSI accumulated at lower levels in this strain and supported slower photoautotrophic growth than wild type...
September 15, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916505/nuclear-organisation-of-cholinergic-catecholaminergic-serotonergic-and-orexinergic-neurons-in-two-relatively-large-brained-rodent-species-the-springhare-pedetes-capensis-and-beecroft-s-scaly-tailed-squirrel-anomalurus-beecrofti
#13
Jordan Sweigers, Adhil Bhagwandin, Muhammad A Spocter, Consolate Kaswera-Kyamakya, Emmanuel Gilissen, Paul R Manger, Busisiwe C Maseko
The present study describes the nuclear organization of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems in the brains of the springhare and Beecroft's scaly-tailed squirrel following immunohistochemical labelling. We aimed to investigate any differences in the nuclear organization of these neural systems when compared to previous data on other species of rodents, as these two rodent species have relatively large brains - 1.2 to 1.4 times larger than would be expected for mammals of their body mass and 1...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916360/trancriptome-profiles-of-amur-sturgeon-spleen-in-response-to-yersinia-ruckeri-infection
#14
Shaowu Li, Ying Zhang, Yongsheng Cao, Di Wang, Hongbai Liu, Tongyan Lu
Yersinia ruckeri (YR) is the causative agent of yersiniosis which has caused significant economic losses in fish culture worldwide, including in Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii) culture. To better understand the mechanism of the immune responses to YR in Amur sturgeon, the transcriptomic profiles of the spleens from YR-infected and non-infected groups were obtained using RNA-seq techniques. The de novo assemblies yielded totally 145 670 unigenes from the two libraries. The total numbers of transcripts in YR-infected and non-infected groups were from 110 893 to 147 336, with the mean length varying from 560 to 631 (N50: from 882 to 1083)...
September 12, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916198/treatment-outcome-and-quality-of-life-of-1239-patients-with-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-final-results-from-the-prospective-german-tlk-cohort-study
#15
Ulla von Verschuer, Roland Schnell, Hans Werner Tessen, Jochen Eggert, Adrian Binninger, Lisa Spring, Martina Jänicke, Norbert Marschner
OBJECTIVES: Real-life data on advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are centrally important to complement the results from clinical trials and to improve the standard of care. We present data on the choice of systemic first- and second-line treatment, number of treatment lines, survival and longitudinal data on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients treated by medical oncologists in Germany. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1239 patients with advanced NSCLC were recruited at start of first-line therapy into the prospective German clinical cohort study TLK (Tumour Registry Lung Cancer) by 107 sites between February 2010 and December 2013 and followed-up until January 2016...
August 22, 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916025/oral-manifestations-of-nutritional-disorders
#16
Stanislav N Tolkachjov, Alison J Bruce
Nutritional deficiencies occur when body metabolic requirements are not matched by intake and absorption. Reasons for this discrepancy are numerous, but often social, economic, medical, and even psychiatric factors may play a role. Vitamins and minerals are required for appropriate rapid cell turnover of the oral mucosa. The oral cavity is a unique anatomic environment that may manifest early signs of nutritional disorders as well as other indicators of systemic disease. Knowledge of these oral manifestations and associated findings will allow a practitioner to consider a nutritional disorder when evaluating oral changes and, in turn, initiate appropriate therapy...
September 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915042/mode-of-peg-coverage-on-carbon-nanotubes-affects-binding-of-innate-immune-protein-c1q
#17
Agathe Belime, Edmond Gravel, Sophie Brenet, Sarah Ancelet, Charlotte Caneiro, Yanxia Hou, Nicole Thielens, Eric Doris, Wai Li Ling
Surface modification of nanoparticles with poly(ethylene glycol) PEG is used in biomedicines to increase the circulation time of the particles after intravenous injection. Here, we study the interaction of PEG-covered carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with the serum complement protein C1q. Besides being the target-recognizing unit of the initiating complex for the classical pathway of complement in our innate immune system, C1q is involved in a range of important physiological processes. We modified the surface of multi-walled CNTs with covalently grafted PEG and physically adsorbed PEG...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915016/cell-free-protein-synthesis-enhancement-from-real-time-nmr-metabolite-kinetics-redirecting-energy-fluxes-in-hybrid-rrl-systems
#18
Baptiste Panthu, Théophile Ohlmann, Johan Perrier, Uwe Schlattner, Pierre Jalinot, Bénédicte Elena-Herrmann, Gilles J P Rautureau
A counter-intuitive cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) strategy, based on reducing the ribosomal fraction in rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL), triggers the development of hybrid systems composed of RRL ribosome-free supernatant complemented with ribosomes from different mammalian cell-types. Hybrid RRL systems maintain translational properties of the original ribosome cell types, and deliver protein expression levels similar to RRL. Here, we show that persistent ribosome-associated metabolic activity consuming ATP is a major obstacle for maximal protein yield...
September 15, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913854/preoperative-ultraviolet-b-inflammation-in-skin-modelling-individual-differences-in-acute-postoperative-pain-and-neuro-immune-interactions
#19
T H Lunn, J M Dawes, F Denk, D L Bennett, H Husted, H Kehlet, S B McMahon
BACKGROUND: Neuroimmune interactions play a vital role in many of the most common pain conditions, such as arthritis. There have been many attempts to derive clinically predictive information from an individual's inflammatory response in order to gauge subsequent pain perception. OBJECTIVES: Here, we wanted to test whether this effort could be enhanced and complemented by the use of a model system which takes into account the function of not just circulating, but also tissue-resident immune cells: ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation of the skin...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912837/carbuncle-due-to-salmonella-enteritidis-a-novel-presentation
#20
Wadha Alfouzan, Dieter Bulach, Hidemasa Izumiya, Khaled AlBassam, Simin Sheikh, Nasser Alrubai'aan, M John Albert
BACKGROUND: Salmonella Enteritidis causes intestinal and extra-intestinal infections, but rarely cutaneous infections. It has never been reported to cause carbuncle (a collection of interconnected furuncles with multiple pustular openings). We report a case of carbuncle due to S. Enteritidis. CASE PRESENTATION: An adult Bangladeshi patient with type 2 diabetes presented with a carbuncle on the left-side of his neck. A pure culture of S. Enteritidis was grown from the pus of the carbuncle...
2017: Gut Pathogens
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