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Vid Leko, Smitha Sripathy, Robin L Adrianse, Taylor Loe, Angela Park, Uyen Lao, Eric J Foss, Marisa S Bartolomei, Antonio Bedalov
Forward genetic screens using reporter genes inserted into the heterochromatin have been extensively used to investigate mechanisms of epigenetic control in model organisms. Technologies including short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) have enabled such screens in diploid mammalian cells. Here we describe a large-scale shRNA screen for regulators of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), using a murine cell line with firefly luciferase and hygromycin resistance genes knocked in at the C-terminus of the methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) gene on the inactive X-chromosome (Xi)...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Peter D Koch, Howard R Miller, Gary Yu, John A Tallarico, Peter K Sorger, Yuan Wang, Yan Feng, Jason R Thomas, Nathan T Ross, Timothy Mitchison
We screened a library of bioactive small molecules for activators and inhibitors of innate immune signaling through IRF3 and NFkB pathways with the goals of advancing pathway understanding and discovering probes for immunology research. We used high content screening to measure the translocation from the cytoplasm to nucleus of IRF3 and NFkB in primary human macrophages; these transcription factors play a critical role in the activation of STING and other pro-inflammatory pathways. Our pathway activator screen yielded a diverse set of hits that promoted nuclear translocation of IRF3 and/or NFkB, but the majority of these compounds did not cause activation of downstream pathways...
March 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Xiao-Meng Zhang, Bing Zhang, Fan Li, Zhi-Ping Tian
To analyze the efficacy and safety of the combination therapy of Aconitum and Western medicine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by Meta-analysis, and provide evidence for its clinic application for RA. The random clinical trials (RCTs) regarding the combination therapy for treating RA were retrieved in the database of China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, China Science and Technology Journal database, WanFang, Chinese Biomedical Medical Database, PubMed, and Cochrane Library up to July 2017...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Thais Regina de Mattos Lourenco, Priscila Katsumi Matsuoka, Edmund Chada Baracat, Jorge Milhem Haddad
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: People are increasingly aware of healthy lifestyles. Extenuating practice can injure the pelvic floor. Urinary incontinence (UI) is a prevalent condition in women whether they exercise professionally or not. The most common symptom is stress UI. It is reported in a large variety of sports and may interfere with everyday life or training, leading athletes to change or compromise their performance or risk compromising it. We aimed to assess the prevalence of UI in female athletes and to determine whether the type of sport might also influence UI...
March 19, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
Erqing Jin, Lynn Wong, Yun Jiao, Jake Engel, Benjamin Holdridge, Peng Xu
Engineering cell factories for producing biofuels and pharmaceuticals has spurred great interests to develop rapid and efficient synthetic biology tools customized for modular pathway engineering. Along the way, combinatorial gene expression control through modification of regulatory element offered tremendous opportunity for fine-tuning gene expression and generating digital-like genetic circuits. In this report, we present an efficient evolutionary approach to build a range of regulatory control elements...
December 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
John A Calarco, Adam D Norris
Genetic interaction screens are a powerful methodology to establish novel roles for genes and elucidate functional connections between genes. Such studies have been performed to great effect in single-cell organisms such as yeast and E. coli (Schuldiner et al ., 2005; Butland et al ., 2008; Costanzo et al ., 2010), but similar large-scale interaction studies using targeted reverse-genetic deletions in multi-cellular organisms have not been feasible. We developed a CRISPR/Cas9-based method for deleting genes in C...
March 5, 2018: Bio-protocol
Samuel Ortega, Himar Fabelo, Rafael Camacho, María de la Luz Plaza, Gustavo M Callicó, Roberto Sarmiento
Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging technology for medical diagnosis. This research work presents a proof-of-concept on the use of HSI data to automatically detect human brain tumor tissue in pathological slides. The samples, consisting of hyperspectral cubes collected from 400 nm to 1000 nm, were acquired from ten different patients diagnosed with high-grade glioma. Based on the diagnosis provided by pathologists, a spectral library of normal and tumor tissues was created and processed using three different supervised classification algorithms...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Yaru Shi, Wei Liu, Haifeng Zheng, Zhiqiang Li, Xiaorui Shi, Shixuan Cai, Zhiqiang Jiao, Wenjie Mao, Jinrong Xie, Jie Tian, Fu Wang
Pre-mRNA splicing is an essential step in gene expression in most eukaryote genes. Here we present the feasibility of a genetically encoded luciferase reporter to monitor the pre-mRNA splicing process in living cells and animals. We showed that the splicing activity change induced by isoginkgetin could be readily visualized in vitro both in a dose and time dependent manner. Moreover, the pre-mRNA splicing process could be also obviously detected in mice by bioluminescence imaging and confirmed by RT-PCR. Our work provided a reporter system that allows high-throughput screening of chemical libraries to identify potential compounds leading to aberrant patterns of splicing...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Weiran Dai, Ziliang Ye, Haili Lu, Qiang Su, Hui Li, Lang Li
Background: The results showed that there was a certain correlation between the single nucleotide polymorphism of IL-10-1082G/A and rheumatic heart disease, but there was no systematic study to verify this conclusion. Aims: Systematic review of the association between single nucleotide polymorphism of IL-10-1082G/A locus and rheumatic heart disease. Materials and Methods: Computer retrieval PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, VIP and Data WanFang, the retrieval time limit from inception to June 2017...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Chaojie Liang, Yingchen Xu, Hua Ge, Guangming Li, Jixiang Wu
Background and aim: Constitutive activation of STAT3 through its phosphorylation (p-STAT3) plays a key role in the development and progression of various cancers. However, the relationship between p-STAT3 expression and the clinicopathological features and prognostic value in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the role of p-STAT3 in HCC. Methods: The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EMBASE, Chinese CNKI, and Chinese Wanfang databases were searched using the appropriate terms to find the relevant studies on p-STAT3 and HCC...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Hua-Feng Zhang, Chen-Guang Wang, Hui Li, Yu-Ting Huang, Zhi-Jun Li
Purpose: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and hyaluronic acid (HA) have been increasingly used in recent years to treat knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, whether PRP is superior to HA is controversial. Methods: We conducted an electronic search of PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane library. The pooled data were analyzed using RevMan 5.1. Results: Three prospective and ten randomized trials were identified. PRP injections reduced pain more effectively than HA injections in OA of the knee at 6 months (mean difference [MD]=-14...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Freek Hollman, Nienke Wolterbeek, Petra E Flikweert, Kiem G Auw Yang
Fatty infiltration is an important prognostic factor for cuff healing after rotator cuff repair. Treatment options for stage 2-3 Goutallier rotator cuff tears vary widely and there is lack of decent comparative studies. Purposes: The objective of this study was 1) to give an overview of the treatment options of stage 2-3 Goutallier rotator cuff tears and their clinical outcome and 2) to give a recommendation of the optimal treatment within this specific subgroup. Methods: We searched the databases of Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, PEDro from inception to December 12th, 2016...
June 2018: Journal of Orthopaedics
Pakpoom Boonchuen, Phattarunda Jaree, Anchalee Tassanakajon, Kunlaya Somboonwiwat
Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease, AHPND, caused by a specific strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND ), results in great loss of global shrimp production. Despite this, studies on shrimp defense mechanisms protecting against AHPND are few. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed to identify differentially expressed genes from white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei hepatopancreas upon VPAHPND infection at the early stages: 3 and 6 h post challenge and in the late stage at 48 h post challenge...
March 15, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Travis R Helgren, Elif S Seven, Congling Chen, Thomas E Edwards, Bart L Staker, Jan Abendroth, Peter J Myler, James R Horn, Timothy J Hagen
Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) is a dinuclear metalloprotease responsible for the cleavage of methionine initiator residues from nascent proteins. MetAP activity is necessary for bacterial proliferation and is therefore a projected novel antibacterial target. A compound library consisting of 294 members containing metal-binding functional groups was screened against Rickettsia prowazekii MetAP to determine potential inhibitory motifs. The compounds were first screened against the target at a concentration of 10 µM and potential hits were determined to be those exhibiting greater than 50% inhibition of enzymatic activity...
March 15, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Samaresh Sau, Katyayani Tatiparti, Hashem O Alsaab, Sushil K Kashaw, Arun K Iyer
Nanomedicines can be multifunctional drug delivery agents for cancer therapies. However, they have faced several challenges in clinical trials owing to poor targeting ability, insufficient tumor penetration, difficulty in synthesis and scale up, and limited understanding of interactions between a tumor and nanoparticles. In this regard, tumor muticomponent targeting drug delivery systems are a rational approach for developing tumor-site-specific therapeutics. One of the goals is to arrive at a ready-to-configure, combinatorial, reagent-free click-chemistry-based tumor multicomponent targeting nanoparticle library...
March 15, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Guillermo Benítez, Martí March-Salas, Alberto Villa-Kamel, Ulises Cháves-Jiménez, Javier Hernández, Nuria Montes-Osuna, Joaquín Moreno-Chocano, Paloma Cariñanos
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The different species of the genus Datura have been used traditionally by some pre-Columbian civilizations, as well as in medieval rituals linked to magic and witchcraft in both Mexico and Europe. It is also noteworthy the use of different alkaloids obtained from the plants for medicinal purposes in the treatment of various groups of diseases, especially of the respiratory and muscularskeletal systems. AIM OF THE STUDY: A review of the ethnobotanical uses of the genus Datura in Mexico and Spain has been conducted...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Xuandao Liu, Chew Lip Ng, De Yun Wang
Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has been proven to be safe and effective from an abundance of Western literature, but data from Asia is less complete. This review aims to examine the basic science, safety and efficacy of SLIT in Asian patients, and to determine future research needs in Asia. We performed a literature search on PUBMED, Scopus, and Cochrane Library database for articles on SLIT originating from Asian countries through Nov 2017. There were 18 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, of which 9 involved solely paediatric subjects...
March 15, 2018: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
Hyo Young Lee, Dae Won Jun, Hyun Jung Kim, Hyunwoo Oh, Waqar Khalid Saeed, Hyeongsik Ahn, Ramsey C Cheung, Mindie H Nguyen
Background/Aims: A number of clinical trials reported varying effects of cholesterol lowering agents in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. We, therefore, assessed the changes in hepatic steatosis and NAFLD activity score (NAS) after treatment with cholesterol lowering agents in NAFLD patients by metaanalysis. Methods: The Cochrane Library, the MEDLINE, and the Embase databases were searched until May 2015, without any language restrictions, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized studies (NRSs)...
March 20, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Jean-Louis Magnard, Aurélie Rius Bony, Fabienne Bettini, Ausilia Campanaro, Bernard Blerot, Sylvie Baudino, Frédéric Jullien
Roses are widely appreciated for the appearance of their flowers and for their fragrance. This latter character results from the combination of different odorant molecules among which monoterpenes are often prevalent constituents. In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of three rose monoterpene synthases. In vitro functional characterization of these enzymes showed that one is a (-)-(3R)-linalool synthase whereas the others have a dual (+)-(3S)-linalool nerolidol synthase activity. However, given that the characterized rose cultivars were only able to produce the (-)-(3R)-linalool stereoisomer, the linalool nerolidol synthases are probably not active in planta...
March 11, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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