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Cationic lipid

Laura L Olenick, Julianne M Troiano, Nikolay Smolentsev, Paul E Ohno, Sylvie Roke, Franz M Geiger
By combining dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements and infrared (IR) spectroscopy with the interface- and bond-specificity of vibrational sum frequency generation scattering (SFS) spectroscopy, we probe several structural aspects of how zwitterionic DMPC lipids adsorbed to oil droplets suspended in water (D2O) respond to the presence of the common polycation polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) in the presence of low and high salt concentration. We show that the polycation interactions with the lipids generally results in two distinct outcomes that depend upon salt and PAH concentration, identified here as Scenario 1 (observed under conditions of high salt concentration) and Scenario 2 (observed under conditions of low salt concentration)...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Yasunori Uemura, Tomoyuki Naoi, Yasumasa Kanai, Katsuya Kobayashi
Small interfering of RNA (siRNA) technology has the potential to be a next-generation therapy. However, naked siRNA does not have high transfection efficiency and is rapidly degraded after systemic injection, so an appropriate drug delivery system (DDS) is required for clinical use. Several potential systems have been assessed, clinically focusing on hepatocyte or cancer tissue using siRNA. However, targeting immune cells using siRNA is still challenging, and a new DDS is required. In this study, we prepared lipid nanoparticles (LNP) composed of original cationic lipid, neutral lipid of DOPE (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine) and PEG2000-DMPE (N- (Carbonyl-methoxypolyethyleneglycol 2000) -1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, sodium salt)...
April 24, 2018: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Anurag Agrawal, James C Weisshaar
The outermost layer of Gram negative bacteria is composed of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) network that forms a dense protective hydrophilic barrier against entry of hydrophobic drugs. At low μM concentrations, a large family of cationic polypeptides known as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is able to penetrate the LPS layer and permeabilize the outer membrane (OM) and the cytoplasmic membrane (CM), causing cell death. Cecropin A is a well-studied cationic AMP from moth. Here a battery of time-resolved, single-cell microscopy experiments explores how deletion of sugar layers and/or phosphoryl negative charges from the core oligosaccharide layer (core OS) of K12 E...
April 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jayesh A Kulkarni, Pieter R Cullis, Roy van der Meel
Genetic drugs based on RNA or DNA have remarkable therapeutic potential as virtually any disease can be treated by silencing a pathological gene, expressing a beneficial protein, or by editing defective genes. However, therapies based on nucleic acid polymers require sophisticated delivery systems to deliver these macromolecules to the interior of target cells. In this study, we review progress in developing nonviral lipid nanoparticle (LNP) delivery systems that have attractive properties, including ease of manufacture, reduced immune responses, multidosing capabilities, larger payloads, and flexibility of design...
April 23, 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Arnaud Marquette, Burkhard Bechinger
Biophysical and structural investigations are presented with a focus on the membrane lipid interactions of cationic linear antibiotic peptides such as magainin, PGLa, LL37, and melittin. Observations made with these peptides are distinct as seen from data obtained with the hydrophobic peptide alamethicin. The cationic amphipathic peptides predominantly adopt membrane alignments parallel to the bilayer surface; thus the distribution of polar and non-polar side chains of the amphipathic helices mirror the environmental changes at the membrane interface...
April 18, 2018: Biomolecules
Takashi Nakamura, Koharu Yamada, Yuki Fujiwara, Yusuke Sato, Hideyoshi Harashima
Introducing siRNA into human immune cells by an artificial delivery system continues to be a challenging issue. We previously developed a multifunctional envelope-type nanodevice (MEND) containing YSK12-C4, a fusogenic-cationic lipid, (YSK12-MEND) and succeeded in the efficient delivery of siRNA into human immune cell lines. Significant cytotoxicity, however, was observed at siRNA doses needed for gene silencing in NK-92 cells. NK-92 cells, a unique natural killer (NK) cell line, would be applicable for use in clinical NK therapy...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Ana Maria Percebom, Guilherme Augusto Ferreira, Daniel Rege Catini, Juliana S Bernardes, Watson Loh
Phase behavior of surfactants in water may be affected by addition of a third component, and the present study discusses how long chain n-alcohols affect phase transitions of systems formed by alkyltrimethylammonium surfactants, C16 TAB, or its complex salts formed with polyacrylate, C16 TAPA30 , as well as other previously reported complex salts/water/alcohol systems. X-ray diffraction at small and wide angles was used to characterize structures at different temperatures. Results from differential scanning calorimetry allowed us to study phase transitions and the coexistence of lamellar-gel (Lβ ) and lamellar liquid-crystal (Lα ) phases, elucidating the K structure previously observed by Fontell et al...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Brett A Duguay, Kate Wei-Chen Huang, Marianna Kulka
Mast cells are important immune cells that have significant roles in mediating allergy and asthma. Therefore, studying the molecular mechanisms regulating these and other processes in mast cells is important to elucidate. Methods such as lipofection, transduction, and electroporation are often employed to dissect these mechanisms by disrupting gene expression in mast cell lines. However, as with other leukocytes, human mast cells (HMCs) are often refractory to the delivery of plasmids by lipofection. In this study, we investigated the utility of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) containing the ionizable cationic lipids 1,2-dioleoyloxy-3-dimethylaminopropane, 1,2-dioleyloxy-3-dimethylaminopropane, or 2,2-dilinoleyl-4-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-[1,3]-dioxolane for the delivery of plasmid DNA into HMC lines...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Xiaomin Liang, Sook Wah Yee, Huan-Chieh Chien, Eugene C Chen, Qi Luo, Ling Zou, Meiling Piao, Arias Mifune, Ligong Chen, Meredith E Calvert, Sarah King, Frode Norheim, Janna Abad, Ronald M Krauss, Kathleen M Giacomini
A constellation of metabolic disorders, including obesity, dysregulated lipids, and elevations in blood glucose levels, has been associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Analysis of data from recently published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) demonstrated that reduced-function polymorphisms in the organic cation transporter, OCT1 (SLC22A1), are significantly associated with higher total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) levels and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, yet the mechanism linking OCT1 to these metabolic traits remains puzzling...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Biology
Marzena Mach, Karolina Węder, Katarzyna Hąc-Wydro, Michał Flasiński, Joanna Lewandowska-Lancucka, Kinga Wójcik, Pawel Wydro
An increasing number of bacterial infections and the rise in antibiotic resistance of a number of bacteria speciesforces to search for new antibacterial compounds. The latter facts motivate the investigations presented herein and aimed at studying the influence of a cationic lipid:1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (EPOPC) on model (mono,- and bilayer) membranes. The monolayer experiments involved the analysis of the interactions of EPOPC with bacterial membrane lipids in one component and mixed systems as well as Brewster Angle Microcopy studies...
April 13, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Liling Zhao, Zanxia Cao, Yunqiang Bian, Guodong Hu, Jihua Wang, Yaoqi Zhou
Cathelicidins are a large family of cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) found in mammals with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. LL-37 is the sole amphipathic α-helical AMP from human Cathelicidins family. In addition to its bactericidal capability, LL-37 has antiviral, anti-tumor, and immunoregulatory activity. Despite many experimental studies, its molecular mechanism of action is not yet fully understood. Here, we performed three independent molecular dynamics simulations (600 ns or more) of a LL-37 peptide in the presence of 256 lipid bilayers with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl- sn -glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) mimicking bacterial and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl- sn -glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) mimicking mammalian membranes...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sanaz Rasouli, Alireza Abdolvahabi, Corbin M Croom, Devon Plewman, Yunhua Shi, Bryan F Shaw
Interactions between superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) and lipid membranes might be directly involved in the toxicity and intercellular propagation of aggregated SOD1 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the chemical details of lipid-SOD1 interactions and their effects on SOD1 aggregation remain unclear. This paper determined the rate and mechanism of nucleation of fibrillar apo-SOD1 catalyzed by liposomal surfaces with identical hydrophobic chains (RCH2 (O2 C18 H33 )2 ), but headgroups of different net charge and hydrophobicity (i...
April 12, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Xian Xia, Zijie Zhou, Shijuan Wu, Dan Wang, Shixue Zheng, Gejiao Wang
Selenite reductase CsrF overexpressed Escherichia coli was used as a microbial factory to produce Se(0) nanoparticles (Bio-SeNPs). The Bio-SeNPs were characterized by transmission electronic microscopy, element mapping, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrographs, Zeta-potential, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. The results indicated that Bio-SeNPs are irregular spheres with diameters from 60 to105 nm and mainly consist of Se(0), proteins and lipids...
April 12, 2018: Nanomaterials
Stefania A Mari, Susanne Wegmann, Katharina Tepper, Bradley Hyman, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Eckhard Mandelkow, Daniel J Müller
Misfolding and aggregation of the neuronal, microtubule associated protein tau is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and tauopathies. It has been proposed that neuronal membranes could play a role in tau release, internalization and aggregation, and that tau aggregates could exert toxicity via membrane permeabilization. Whether and how tau interacts with lipid membranes remains a matter of discussion. Here, we characterize the interaction of full-length human tau (htau40) with supported lipid membranes (SLMs) made from brain total lipid extract by time-lapse high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM)...
April 12, 2018: Nano Letters
Patrik Kagebeck, Violetta Nikiforova, Lars Brunken, Arrabi Easwaranathan, Joelle Ruegg, Ian Cotgreave, Vesna Munic Kos
Some cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) have been individually reported to interfere with the differentiation of immune system cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells. To investigate the possible generic nature of this process, in this study we aimed to see whether these drugs are capable of interfering with the differentiation of adipocytes. Further, we investigated whether this feature might be connected to the lysosomotropic character of these drugs, and their disturbance of intracellular membrane trafficking rather than to the individual pharmacologic properties of each drug...
April 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Venkanna Muripiti, Hari Krishnareddy Rachamalla, Rajkumar Banerjee, Srilakshmi V Patri
Endosomal escape is one of the barriers for the efficient liposomal gene delivery. To address this and based on earlier encouraging results using tocopherol cationic lipids, we elaborated chemical modifications on tocopherol cationic lipids by introducing a novel hybrid pH sensitive linker "ether-β-hydroxy-triazole" between tocopherol, the anchoring moiety and the basic tris(2-hydroxy ethyl)quaternary ammonium head group (Lp2). As control lipids we designed two lipids (Lp1 and Lp3), one is with only the ether-β-hydroxy linker in between α-tocopherol and quaternary tris(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium (Lp1) and the other is with the same novel hybrid linker i...
April 6, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Jayesh A Kulkarni, Maria M Darjuan, Joanne E Mercer, Sam Chen, Roy van der Meel, Jenifer L Thewalt, Yuen Yi C Tam, Pieter R Cullis
Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) containing short interfering RNA (LNP-siRNA) and optimized ionizable cationic lipids are now clinically validated systems for silencing disease-causing genes in hepatocytes following intravenous administration. However, the mechanism of formation and certain structural features of LNP-siRNA remain obscure. These systems are formed from lipid mixtures (cationic lipid, distearoylphosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and PEG-lipid) dissolved in ethanol that is rapidly mixed with siRNA in aqueous buffer at a pH (pH 4) where the ionizable lipid is positively charged...
April 6, 2018: ACS Nano
Josef Melcr, Hector Martinez-Seara, Ricky Nencini, Jiri Kolafa, Pavel Jungwirth, O H Samuli Ollila
Binding affinities and stoichiometries of Na+ and Ca2+ ions to phospholipid bilayers are of paramount significance in the properties and functionality of cellular membranes. Current estimates of binding affinities and stoichiometries of cations are, however, inconsistent due to limitations in the available experimental and computational methods. In this work, we improve the description of the binding details of Na+ and Ca2+ ions to the 1-Palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayer by implicitly including electronic polarization as a mean field correction, known as the electronic continuum correction (ECC)...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Julio F Cordero-Morales, Valeria Vásquez
Membrane lipid composition and remodeling influence the function of ion channels. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their derivatives modulate ion channel function; whether this effect occurs directly by binding to the protein or indirectly through alteration of membranes' mechanical properties has been difficult to distinguish. There are a large number of studies addressing the effect of fatty acids; recent structural and functional analyses have identified binding sites and provided further evidence for the role of the plasma membrane in ion channel function...
March 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Mustafa Abdullah Yilmaz, Abdulselam Ertas, Ismail Yener, Mehmet Akdeniz, Oguz Cakir, Muhammed Altun, Ibrahim Demirtas, Mehmet Boga, Hamdi Temel
The current study aims to optimize and validate a comprehensive LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of 37 phytochemicals (15 phenolic acids, 17 flavonoids, 3 non-phenolic organic acids, 1 phenolic aldehyde and 1 benzopyrene) in Achillea species. Though Achillea species were chosen as real life samples, the current method is applicable to a wide range of plant species. The developed method was fully validated in terms of linearity, accuracy (recovery), inter-day and intra-day precision (repeatability), limits of detection and quantification (LOD/LOQ) and relative standard uncertainty (U% at 95% confidence level (k = 2))...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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