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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813509/associations-of-particulate-matter-and-its-components-with-emergency-room-visits-for-cardiovascular-and-respiratory-diseases
#1
Sung-Hee Hwang, Jae Young Lee, Seung-Muk Yi, Ho Kim
Numerous studies have revealed an association between particulate matter (PM) and emergency room (ER) visits, although few studies have investigated the association between health and PM components. The present study evaluated the associations of ER visits for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases with PM2.5 components, including organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and ion species (SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+). Statistical analyses were performed using the time-series approach, and generalized linear models with natural spline functions were used to adjust for the non-linear relationship between the confounders and ER visits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812182/rheological-characterization-of-molten-polymer-drug-dispersions-as-a-predictive-tool-for-pharmaceutical-hot-melt-extrusion-processability
#2
Jeroen Van Renterghem, Chris Vervaet, Thomas De Beer
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the influence of drug solid-state (crystalline or dissolved in the polymer matrix) on the melt viscosity and (ii) the influence of the drug concentration, temperature and shear rate on polymer crystallization using rheological tests. METHODS: Poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) (100.000 g/mol) and physical mixtures (PM) containing 10-20-30-40% (w/w) ketoprofen or 10% (w/w) theophylline in PEO were rheologically characterized...
August 15, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811359/exercise-training-prevents-skeletal-muscle-plasma-membrane-cholesterol-accumulation-cortical-actin-filament-loss-and-insulin-resistance-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-a-western-style-high-fat-diet
#3
Ashley G Ambery, Lixuan Tackett, Brent A Penque, Joseph T Brozinick, Jeffrey S Elmendorf
Insulin action and glucose disposal are enhanced by exercise, yet the mechanisms involved remain imperfectly understood. While the causes of skeletal muscle insulin resistance also remain poorly understood, new evidence suggest excess plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol may contribute by damaging the cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) structure essential for GLUT4 glucose transporter redistribution to the PM upon insulin stimulation. Here, we investigated whether PM cholesterol toxicity was mitigated by exercise...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810687/the-characterization-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-northeastern-us-trucking-terminals
#4
Erica D Walker, Jaime E Hart, Eric Garshick, Jennifer M Cavallari, Mary E Davis, Thomas J Smith, Francine Laden
In recent years, significant attention has been given to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposures given their mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. However, levels of exposure and the key determinants of exposure are not well defined for the trucking industry. We measured ultrafine particle characteristics at 10 trucking terminals of varying operating size and location in the Northeast region of the United States using particle concentration counter and a surface area analyzer. Multivariate mixed-effects linear regression models were used to assess determinants of the concentration of total bound PAHs (tPAH), the total aerosol active surface area (AS), and the ratio tPAH/AS overall and individually within docks, trucking cabs, and administrative offices...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810621/effect-of-isopsoralen-on-smad7-in-osteoblastic-mc3t3-e1-cells
#5
Huicun Zhang, Na Ta
The primary pathological change in postmenopausal osteoporosis (PM-OP) is bone collagen loss caused by estrogen depletion. Osteoblasts synthesize type I collagen, which composes the organic matrix of bone. Although isopsoralen stimulates osteoblastic cell proliferation and differentiation, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is an important cell signaling factor for stimulating collagen synthesis. To explore the association between isopsoralen and the synthesis of collagen in vitro, the molecular and biological association between isopsoralen and TGF-β signaling was examined...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810204/characteristics-of-black-carbon-emissions-from-in-use-light-duty-passenger-vehicles
#6
Xuan Zheng, Shaojun Zhang, Ye Wu, K Max Zhang, Xian Wu, Zhenhua Li, Jiming Hao
Mitigating black carbon (BC) emissions from various combustion sources has been considered an urgent policy issue to address the challenges of climate change, air pollution and health risks. Vehicles contribute considerably to total anthropogenic BC emissions and urban BC concentrations. Compared with heavy-duty diesel vehicles, there is much larger uncertainty in BC emission factors for light-duty passenger vehicles (LDPVs), in particular for gasoline LDPVs, which warrants further studies. In this study, we employed the dynamometer and the Aethalometer (AE-51) to measure second-by-second BC emissions from eight LDPVs by engine technology and driving cycle...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809935/effectiveness-of-a-brief-behavioural-intervention-on-psychological-distress-among-women-with-a-history-of-gender-based-violence-in-urban-kenya-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#7
Richard A Bryant, Alison Schafer, Katie S Dawson, Dorothy Anjuri, Caroline Mulili, Lincoln Ndogoni, Phiona Koyiet, Marit Sijbrandij, Jeannette Ulate, Melissa Harper Shehadeh, Dusan Hadzi-Pavlovic, Mark van Ommeren
BACKGROUND: Gender-based violence (GBV) represents a major cause of psychological morbidity worldwide, and particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although there are effective treatments for common mental disorders associated with GBV, they typically require lengthy treatment programs that may limit scaling up in LMICs. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a new 5-session behavioural treatment called Problem Management Plus (PM+) that lay community workers can be taught to deliver...
August 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809934/long-term-exposure-to-air-pollution-and-the-incidence-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-nested-case-control-study
#8
Chiu-Ying Chen, Hui-Jung Hung, Kuang-Hsi Chang, Chung Y Hsu, Chih-Hsin Muo, Chon-Haw Tsai, Trong-Neng Wu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies revealed that chronic exposure to air pollution can significantly increase the risk of the development of Parkinson's disease (PD), but this relationship is inconclusive as large-scale prospective studies are limited and the results are inconsistent. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to ascertain the adverse health effects of air pollution exposure in a nationwide population using a longitudinal approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study using the National Health Insurance Research Dataset (NHIRD), which consisted of 1,000,000 beneficiaries in the National Health Insurance Program (NHI) in the year 2000 and their medical records from 1995 to 2013 and using public data on air pollution concentrations from monitoring stations across Taiwan released from the Environmental Protection Administration to identify people with ages ≥ 40 years living in areas with monitoring stations during 1995-1999 as study subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809913/all-fiber-highly-chirped-dissipative-soliton-generation-in-the-telecom-range
#9
Denis S Kharenko, Innokentiy S Zhdanov, Anastasia E Bednyakova, Evgeniy V Podivilov, Mikhail P Fedoruk, Alexander Apolonski, Sergei K Turitsyn, Sergey A Babin
A high-energy (0.93 nJ) all-fiber erbium femtosecond oscillator operating in the telecom spectral range is proposed and realized. The laser cavity, built of commercially available fibers and components, combines polarization maintaining (PM) and non-PM parts providing stable generation of highly chirped (chirp parameter 40) pulses compressed in an output piece of standard PM fiber to 165 fs. The results of the numerical simulation agree well with the experiment. The analyzed intracavity pulse dynamics enables the classification of the generated pulses as dissipative solitons...
August 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809114/boolean-logic-tree-of-label-free-dual-signal-electrochemical-aptasensor-system-for-biosensing-three-state-logic-computation-and-keypad-lock-security-operation
#10
Jiao Yang Lu, Xin Xing Zhang, Wei Tao Huang, Qiu Yan Zhu, Xuezhi Ding, Liqiu Xia, Hong Qun Luo, Nian Bing Li
The most serious and yet unsolved problems of molecular logic computing, consist in how to connect molecular events in complex systems into a usable device with specific functions and how to selectively control branchy logic processes from the cascading logic systems. This report demonstrates that Boolean logic tree is utilized to organize and connect "plug and play" chemical events DNA, nanomaterials, organic dye, biomolecule, and denaturant for developing the dual-signal electrochemical evolution aptasensor system with good resettability for amplification detection of thrombin, controllable and selectable three-state logic computation and keypad lock security operation...
August 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808144/particulate-matter-exposure-and-stress-hormone-levels-a-randomized-double-blind-crossover-trial-of-air-purification
#11
Huichu Li, Jing Cai, Renjie Chen, Zhuohui Zhao, Zhekang Ying, Lin Wang, Jianmin Chen, Ke Hao, Patrick L Kinney, Honglei Chen, Haidong Kan
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with a number of adverse health outcomes, but potential mechanisms are largely unknown. Metabolomics represents a powerful approach to study global metabolic changes in response to environmental exposures. We therefore conducted this study to investigate changes in serum metabolites in response to the reduction of PM exposure among healthy college students. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind crossover trial in 55 healthy college students in Shanghai, China...
August 15, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808003/signaling-from-the-plasma-membrane-localized-plant-immune-receptor-rpm1-requires-self-association-of-the-full-length-protein
#12
Farid El Kasmi, Eui-Hwan Chung, Ryan G Anderson, Jinyue Li, Li Wan, Timothy K Eitas, Zhiyong Gao, Jeffery L Dangl
Plants evolved intracellular immune receptors that belong to the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family to recognize the presence of pathogen-derived effector proteins. NLRs possess an N-terminal Toll-like/IL-1 receptor (TIR) or a non-TIR domain [some of which contain coiled coils (CCs)], a central nucleotide-binding (NB-ARC) domain, and a C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR). Activation of NLR proteins results in a rapid and high-amplitude immune response, eventually leading to host cell death at the infection site, the so-called hypersensitive response...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807003/overexpression-of-mir-21-in-stem-cells-improves-ovarian-structure-and-function-in-rats-with-chemotherapy-induced-ovarian-damage-by-targeting-pdcd4-and-pten-to-inhibit-granulosa-cell-apoptosis
#13
Xiafei Fu, Yuanli He, Xuefeng Wang, Dongxian Peng, Xiaoying Chen, Xinran Li, Qing Wang
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure (POF) is a severe complication affecting tumor patients at a childbearing age. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can partially restore the ovarian structure and function damaged by chemotherapy. miR-21 is a microRNA that can regulate cell apoptosis. This study discusses the repair effect and mechanism of MSCs overexpressing miR-21 on chemotherapy-induced POF. METHODS: Rat MSCs and granulosa cells (GCs) were isolated in vitro...
August 14, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806681/human-biomonitoring-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbonsand-metals-in-the-general-population-residing-near-the-municipal-solid-waste-incinerator-of-modena-italy
#14
Maria Giulia Gatti, Petra Bechtold, Laura Campo, Giovanna Barbieri, Giulia Quattrini, Andrea Ranzi, Sabrina Sucato, Luca Olgiati, Elisa Polledri, Michael Romolo, Laura Iacuzio, Giuliano Carrozzi, Paolo Lauriola, Carlo A Goldoni, Silvia Fustinoni
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A cross-sectional biomonitoring study was carried out to investigate exposure to incinerator emission in relation to the body burden of selected biomarkers in the population living around the plant. METHODS: Approximately 500 people, aged 18-69 yrs, living within 4 km from the incinerator were randomly selected form the population register. Exposure was measured through fall-out maps of particulate matter (PM), used as tracer for incinerator emissions...
August 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805889/oxytocin-injections-in-the-postpartal-period-affect-mammary-tight-junctions-in-sows
#15
C Farmer, M Lessard, C H Knight, H Quesnel
The potential impacts of injecting oxytocin (OXY) to sows in the early postpartum period on the quality of mammary tight junctions, milk composition, and immune status of sows and piglets were studied. Postparturient sows received i.m. injections of either saline (control [CTL]; = 10) or 75 IU of OXY ( = 10). Injections were given twice daily (0800 and 1630 h) starting on d 2 of lactation (i.e., between 12 and 20 h after birth of the last piglet), totaling 4 injections. Milk samples were obtained before the first injection (d 2 morning [AM]), before the second injection (d 2 afternoon [PM]), and on d 4 PM and d 5 PM...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805847/probing-nanoscale-functionalities-of-metal-organic-framework-nanocrystals
#16
Yao Sun, Zhigang Hu, Dan Zhao, Kaiyang Zeng
Experimental investigation of functional properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) at nanoscale precision is challenging and rarely reported. In this study, we report the piezo- and ferroelectric properties of NUS-6 MOF nanocrystals using dual AC resonance tracking piezoresponse force microscopy and piezoresponse force spectroscopy for the first time. Both NUS-6-(Hf) and NUS-6-(Zr) nanocrystals displayed anomalous piezoelectricity with the calculated piezoelectric coefficient dzz constants of 2.0-3.5 pm V(-1) and 1...
August 14, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805314/evolved-%C3%AE-factor-prepro-leaders-for-directed-laccase-evolution-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#17
Ivan Mateljak, Thierry Tron, Miguel Alcalde
Although the functional expression of fungal laccases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be complicated, the replacement of signal peptides appears to be a suitable approach to enhance secretion in directed evolution experiments. In this study, twelve constructs were prepared by fusing native and evolved α-factor prepro-leaders from S. cerevisiae to four different laccases with low-, medium- and high-redox potential (PM1L from basidiomycete PM1; PcL from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus; TspC30L from Trametes sp...
August 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805061/a-triple-helix-molecular-switch-electrochemical-ratiometric-biosensor-for-ultrasensitive-detection-of-nucleic-acids
#18
Erhu Xiong, Zhenzhen Li, Xiaohua Zhang, Jiawan Zhou, Xiaoxia Yan, Yunqing Liu, Jinhua Chen
Biomolecular receptors such as nucleic acids that switch between two or more conformations upon binding to a specific target can be used to build specific and sensitive biosensors. In this work, based on the electrochemical dual-signaling ratiometric strategy and triple-helix molecular switch, we developed a selective, reusable, and simple electrochemical DNA (E-DNA) biosensor for target DNA (T-DNA) detection. A hairpin DNA capture probe labeled with methylene blue (MB-DNA) self-assembles on the surface of gold electrode (GE) through Au-S bond, and then a single-strand DNA modified with two ferrocenes (Fc-DNA) on each end to enhance the oxidation signal hybridizes with the MB-DNA to form a triple-helix conformation...
August 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805054/a-scalable-field-study-protocol-and-rationale-for-passive-ambient-air-sampling-a-spatial-phytosampling-for-leaf-data-collection
#19
Tonny J Oyana, Slawomir M Lomnicki, Chuqi Guo, Stephania A Cormier
Stable, bioreactive, radicals known as environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have been found to exist on the surface of airborne PM2.5. These EPFRs have been found to form during many combustion processes, are present in vehicular exhaust, and persist in the environment for weeks and biological systems for up to 12 hours. To measure EPFRs in PM samples, high volume samplers are required and measurements are less representative of community exposure; therefore, we developed a novel spatial phytosampling methodology to study the spatial patterns of EPFR concentrations using plants...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803938/organoids-as-preclinical-models-to-improve-intraperitoneal-chemotherapy-effectiveness-for-colorectal-cancer-patients-with-peritoneal-metastases-preclinical-models-to-improve-hipec
#20
P Roy, C Canet-Jourdan, M Annereau, O Zajac, M Gelli, S Broutin, L Mercier, A Paci, F Lemare, M Ducreux, D Elias, D Malka, V Boige, D Goéré, F Jaulin
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal metastases (PM), corresponding to tumor implants into the peritoneal cavity, are associated with impaired prognosis and low responsiveness to systemic chemotherapy. A new therapeutic approach has dramatically changed the prognosis of patients with PM from colorectal cancer (CRC), consisting in the association of a complete cytoreductive surgery followed by intraperitoneal chemotherapy associated to hyperthermia (HIPEC). Many drugs have been administered intraperitoneally, but no clear consensus has been approved...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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