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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324231/occurrence-and-virulence-properties-of-vibrio-and-salinivibrio-isolates-from-tropical-lagoons-of-the-southern-caribbean-sea
#1
Milagro Fernández-Delgado, Paula Suárez, Sandra Giner, Virginia Sanz, Jessy Peña, Damarys Sánchez, M Alexandra García-Amado
The Vibrionaceae are Gram-negative bacteria present in marine and estuarine environments worldwide, including several species known as important pathogens to humans and aquatic organisms. The aim of this research was to investigate the occurrence and virulence properties of Vibrio and Salinivibrio isolated from lagoons at Cuare Wildlife Refuge and Margarita Island in the southern Caribbean Sea. Water, plankton and oyster samples were collected during October 2011 and March 2012 and examined by specific PCR and culture methods...
March 21, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277184/quercetin-attenuates-domoic-acid-induced-cognitive-deficits-in-mice
#2
Dongmei Wang, Jianlong Zhao, Sanqiang Li, Guomin Shen, Shu Hu
Domoic acid (DA) is one of the best known marine toxins, causative of important neurotoxic alterations. DA effects are documented both in wildlife and experimental assays, showing that this toxin causes severe injuries principally in the hippocampal area. Accumulating evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are involved in DA-induced cognitive functional impairment. Therefore, therapeutics targeted to improve mitochondrial function and increase oxidative stress defence could be beneficial...
September 26, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262632/pufferfish-mortality-associated-with-novel-polar-marine-toxins-in-hawaii
#3
Thierry M Work, Peter D R Moeller, Kevin R Beauchesne, Julie Dagenais, Renee Breeden, Robert Rameyer, William J Walsh, Melanie Abecassis, Donald R Kobayashi, Carla Conway, James Winton
Fish die-offs are important signals in tropical marine ecosystems. In 2010, a mass mortality of pufferfish in Hawaii (USA) was dominated by Arothron hispidus showing aberrant neurological behaviors. Using pathology, toxinology, and field surveys, we implicated a series of novel, polar, marine toxins as a likely cause of this mass mortality. Our findings are striking in that (1) a marine toxin was associated with a kill of a fish species that is itself toxic; (2) we provide a plausible mechanism to explain clinical signs of affected fish; and (3) this epizootic likely depleted puffer populations...
March 6, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256705/the-centrifugal-visual-system-of-a-palaeognathous-bird-the-chilean-tinamou-nothoprocta-perdicaria
#4
Quirin Krabichler, Tomas Vega-Zuniga, Denisse Carrasco, Maximo Fernandez, Cristián Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Gonzalo Marín, Harald Luksch
The avian centrifugal visual system, which projects from the brain to the retina, has been intensively studied in several Neognathous birds that have a distinct isthmo-optic nucleus (ION). However, birds of the order Palaeognathae seem to lack a proper ION in histologically stained brain sections. We had previously reported in the palaeognathous Chilean Tinamou (Nothoprocta perdicaria) that intraocular injections of Cholera Toxin B subunit retrogradely label a considerable number of neurons, which form a diffuse isthmo-optic complex (IOC)...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241803/predator-cues-reduce-intraspecific-trait-variability-in-a-marine-dinoflagellate
#5
Sylke Wohlrab, Erik Selander, U John
BACKGROUND: Phenotypic plasticity is commonplace and enables an organism to respond to variations in the environment. Plastic responses often modify a suite of traits and can be triggered by both abiotic and biotic changes. Here we analysed the plastic response towards a grazer of two genotypes of the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense, evaluated the similarity of this response and discuss potential strain-specific trade-offs. We compared the expression of the known inducible defensive traits paralytic shellfish toxin content, and chain length...
February 27, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224710/extended-low-dose-exposure-to-saxitoxin-inhibits-neurite-outgrowth-in-model-neuronal-cells
#6
Katie O'Neill, Ian F Musgrave, Andrew Humpage
The potent neurotoxin saxitoxin (STX) belongs to a group of structurally related analogues produced by both marine and freshwater phytoplankton. The toxins act by blocking voltage-gated sodium channels stopping the inflow of sodium ions and the generation of action potentials. Exposure from marine sources occurs as a result of consuming shellfish which have concentrated the toxins, and freshwater exposure can occur from drinking water although there have been no acute poisonings from the latter source to date...
April 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214747/immunorecognition-magnetic-supports-for-the-development-of-an-electrochemical-immunoassay-for-azaspiracid-detection-in-mussels
#7
Sandra Leonardo, Maria Rambla-Alegre, Ingunn A Samdal, Christopher O Miles, Jane Kilcoyne, Jorge Diogène, Ciara K O'Sullivan, Mònica Campàs
As azaspiracids (AZAs) are being reported from the coastal waters of an increasing number of countries on a global scale, the need for rapid, simple and cost-effective methods to detect these marine toxins and protect seafood consumers' health is becoming evident. A magnetic bead (MB)-based direct immunoassay for the detection of AZAs, using protein G-coated MBs as supports for antibody immobilisation and peroxidase-labelled AZA as a tracer is detailed. A colorimetric approach was first developed to optimise the experimental parameters and establish the cross-reactivity factors for AZA-1-10...
June 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213013/time-course-of-germination-initiation-of-mycelium-proliferation-and-probability-of-visible-growth-and-detectable-afb1-production-of-an-isolate-of-aspergillus-flavus-on-pistachio-extract-agar
#8
Laila Aldars-García, Vicente Sanchis, Antonio J Ramos, Sonia Marín
The aim of this work was to assess the temporal relationship among quantified germination, mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production from colonies coming from single spores, in order to find the best way to predict as accurately as possible the presence of AFB1 at the early stages of contamination. Germination, mycelial growth, probability of growth and probability of AFB1 production of an isolate of Aspergillus flavus were determined at 25 °C and two water activities (0.85 and 0.87) on 3% Pistachio Extract Agar (PEA)...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208796/recent%C3%A2-trends%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-marine%C3%A2-phycotoxins%C3%A2-from%C3%A2-australian%C3%A2-coastal%C3%A2-waters
#9
Penelope Ajani, D Tim Harwood, Shauna A Murray
Phycotoxins, which are produced by harmful microalgae and bioaccumulate in the  marine food web, are of growing concern for Australia. These harmful algae pose a threat to  ecosystem and human health, as well as constraining the progress of aquaculture, one of the fastest  growing food sectors in the world. With better monitoring, advanced analytical skills and an  increase in microalgal expertise, many phycotoxins have been identified in Australian coastal  waters in recent years...
February 9, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199144/attachment-of-13-types-of-foodborne-bacteria-to-jalape%C3%A3-o-and-serrano-peppers-and-antibacterial-effect-of-roselle-calyx-extracts-sodium-hypochlorite-colloidal-silver-and-acetic-acid-against-these-foodborne-bacteria-on-peppers
#10
Esmeralda Rangel-Vargas, Carlos A Gómez-Aldapa, Reyna N Falfan-Cortes, María L Rodríguez-Marín, Angélica Godínez-Oviedo, Otilio A Acevedo-Sandoval, Javier Castro-Rosas
Chili peppers are a very important crop in Mexico. However, these peppers have been associated with Salmonella infection outbreaks in the United States, and Salmonella and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes have been isolated from jalapeño and serrano peppers in Mexico. To decrease microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables, chemical agents are commonly used; however, chemical agents used to eliminate pathogenic bacteria on vegetables have a limited antimicrobial effect. Roselle ( Hibiscus sabdariffa ) calyces have been reported to have an antimicrobial effect on pathogenic bacteria...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192199/viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-virus-glycoprotein-production-in-tobacco
#11
Nguyen-Quang-Duc Tien, Tae-Jung Kim, Tae-Geum Kim
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) causes mortality in numerous marine and freshwater fish species resulting in heavy losses in fish farming. The glycoprotein gene of VHSV was fused with the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and expressed transiently in leaf tissues of Nicotiana benthamiana via the agroinfiltration method. The glycoprotein gene was divided into two parts to improve assembly of CTB fusion proteins (CTB-VHSV99-235 and CTB-VHSV258-417). Production of CTB fusion proteins was confirmed in the agroinfiltrated leaf tissue by western blot analysis...
February 9, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179028/betanodavirus-like-particles-enter-host-cells-via-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis-in-a-cholesterol-ph-and-cytoskeleton-dependent-manner
#12
Runqing Huang, Guohua Zhu, Jing Zhang, Yuxiong Lai, Yu Xu, Jianguo He, Junfeng Xie
Betanodavirus, also referred to nervous necrosis virus (NNV), is the causative agent of the fatal disease, viral nervous necrosis and has brought significant economic losses in marine and freshwater cultured fish, especially larvae and juveniles. Here, we used an established invasion model with virus-like particle (VLP)-cells, mimicking orange-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (OGNNV), to investigate the crucial events of virus entry. VLP were observed in the perinuclear regions of Asian sea bass (SB) cells within 1...
February 8, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175954/multiple-resistance-to-carcinogens-and-xenobiotics-p-glycoproteins-as-universal-detoxifiers
#13
REVIEW
Thomas Efferth, Manfred Volm
The detoxification of toxic substances is of general relevance in all biological systems. The plethora of exogenous xenobiotic compounds and endogenous toxic metabolic products explains the evolutionary pressure of all organisms to develop molecular mechanisms to detoxify and excrete harmful substances from the body. P-glycoprotein and other members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family extrude innumerous chemical compounds out of cells. Their specific expression in diverse biological contexts cause different phenotypes: (1) multidrug resistance (MDR) and thus failure of cancer chemotherapy, (2) avoidance of accumulation of carcinogens and prevention of carcinogenesis in healthy tissues, (3) absorption, distribution, metabolization and excretion (ADME) of pharmacological drugs in human patients, (4) protection from environmental toxins in aquatic organisms (multi-xenobiotic resistance, MXR)...
February 7, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142089/effects-of-bioactive-extracellular-compounds-and-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-produced-by-alexandrium-minutum-on-growth-and-behaviour-of-juvenile-great-scallops-pecten-maximus
#14
REVIEW
Elodie Borcier, Romain Morvezen, Pierre Boudry, Philippe Miner, Grégory Charrier, Jean Laroche, Hélène Hegaret
Dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium are a major cause of harmful algal blooms (HABs) that have increasingly disrupted coastal ecosystems for the last several decades. Microalgae from the genus Alexandrium are known to produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) but also bioactive extracellular compounds (BEC) that can display cytotoxic, allelopathic, ichtyotoxic or haemolytic effects upon marine organisms. The objective of this experimental study was to assess the effects of PST and BEC produced by A. minutum upon juvenile great scallops Pecten maximus...
March 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125211/tetracyclic-truncated-analogue-of-the-marine-toxin-gambierol-modifies-nmda-tau-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-expression-in-mice-brains-implications-in-ad-pathology
#15
Eva Alonso, Andrés C Vieira, Inés Rodriguez, Rebeca Alvariño, Sandra Gegunde, Haruhiko Fuwa, Yuto Suga, Makoto Sasaki, Amparo Alfonso, José Manuel Cifuentes, Luis M Botana
Gambierol and its two, tetra- and heptacyclic, analogues have been previously proved as promising molecules for the modulation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) hallmarks in primary cortical neurons of 3xTg-AD fetuses. In this work, the effect of the tetracyclic analogue of gambierol was tested in vivo in 3xTg-AD mice (10 months old) after 1 month of weekly treatment with 50 μg/kg. Adverse effects were not reported throughout the whole treatment period and no pathological signs were observed for the analyzed organs...
February 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115385/freshwater-cyanobacterial-interactions-with-bacterial-antagonists
#16
Omneya Ahmed Osman, Sara Beier, Manfred Grabherr, Stefan Bertilsson
Cyanobacterial and algal mass development or "blooms" have severe effects on freshwater and marine systems around the world. Many of these phototrophs produce a variety of potent toxins, contribute to oxygen depletion, and affect water quality in several ways. Coexisting antagonists such as cyanolytic bacteria, hold the potential to suppress, or even terminate such blooms, yet the nature of this interaction is not well studied. We isolated 31 cyanolytic bacteria affiliated with the genera Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Acinetobacter and Delftia from three eutrophic freshwater lakes in Sweden, and selected four phylogenetically diverse bacterial strains with strong to moderate lytic activity...
January 23, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098746/marine-antibody-drug-conjugates-design-strategies-and-research-progress
#17
REVIEW
Yu-Jie Wang, Yu-Yan Li, Xiao-Yu Liu, Xiao-Ling Lu, Xin Cao, Bing-Hua Jiao
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), constructed with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), linkers, and natural cytotoxins, are innovative drugs developed for oncotherapy. Owing to the distinctive advantages of both chemotherapy drugs and antibody drugs, ADCs have obtained enormous success during the past several years. The development of highly specific antibodies, novel marine toxins' applications, and innovative linker technologies all accelerate the rapid R&D of ADCs. Meanwhile, some challenges remain to be solved for future ADCs...
January 13, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089692/in%C3%A2-vitro-bioaccessibility-of-the-marine-biotoxins-okadaic-acid-dinophysistoxin-2-and-their-7-o-acyl-fatty-acid-ester-derivatives-in-raw-and-steamed-shellfish
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Diana Manita, Ricardo N Alves, Ana Catarina Braga, Fabiola H S Fogaça, António Marques, Pedro Reis Costa
Okadaic acid (OA), Dinophysistoxins (DTX1 and DTX2) and their acyl-derivatives (DTX3) are marine toxins responsible for the human diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. To date the amount of toxins ingested from consumption of shellfish has been considered equal to the amount of toxins available for uptake by the human body. The aim of this study is to assess the OA, DTX2 and DTX3 fractions released from raw and steamed mussels and cockles into the digestive fluids (bioaccessibility) using a static in vitro digestion model...
March 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073563/genetic-and-toxinological-characterization-of-north-atlantic-strains-of-the-dinoflagellate-ostreopsis-and-allelopathic-interactions-with-toxic-and-non-toxic-species-from-the-genera-prorocentrum-coolia-and-gambierdiscus
#19
María García-Portela, Pilar Riobó, José Mariano Franco, Rosa Mª Bañuelos, Francisco Rodríguez
The genus Ostreopsis includes several toxic species that can develop blooms in benthic ecosystems, with potential harmful consequences for human health and marine invertebrates. Despite of this, little is known about the allelopathic interactions between these organisms and other co-occurring microalgae that exploit similar spatial and nutrient resources in benthic ecosystems. The aim of this study was to follow these interactions in cultures of two Ostreopsis ribotypes with different toxin profiles (O. cf...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073550/growth-and-bioactive-secondary-metabolites-of-arctic-protoceratium-reticulatum-dinophyceae
#20
Manuel Sala-Pérez, Tilman J Alpermann, Bernd Krock, Urban Tillmann
Harmful algal blooms are mainly caused by marine dinoflagellates and are known to produce potent toxins that may affect the ecosystem, human activities and health. Such events have increased in frequency and intensity worldwide in the past decades. Numerous processes involved in Global Change are amplified in the Arctic, but little is known about species specific responses of arctic dinoflagellates. The aim of this work was to perform an exhaustive morphological, phylogenetical and toxinological characterization of Greenland Protoceratium reticulatum and, in addition, to test the effect of temperature on growth and production of bioactive secondary metabolites...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
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