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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919180/investigation-of-a-mortality-cluster-in-wild-adult-yellow-eyed-penguins-megadyptes-antipodes-at-otago-peninsula-new-zealand
#1
Brett Gartrell, David Agnew, Maurice Alley, Tim Carpenter, Hye Jeong Ha, Laryssa Howe, Stuart Hunter, Kate McInnes, Rex Munday, Roe Wendi, Young Melanie
We investigated an epidemic mortality cluster of yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes) that involved 67 moribund or dead birds found on various beaches of the Otago Peninsula, New Zealand, between January 21 and March 20, 2013. Twenty-four carcases were examined postmortem. Histological lesions of pulmonary, hepatic and splenic erythrophagocytosis and haemosiderosis were found in 23 of 24 birds. Fifteen birds also had haemoglobin-like protein droplets within renal tubular epithelial cells. Despite consistent histological lesions, a cause of death could not be established...
December 6, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917011/an-unprecedented-coastwide-toxic-algal-bloom-linked-to-anomalous-ocean-conditions
#2
Ryan M McCabe, Barbara M Hickey, Raphael M Kudela, Kathi A Lefebvre, Nicolaus G Adams, Brian D Bill, Frances M D Gulland, Richard E Thomson, William P Cochlan, Vera L Trainer
A coastwide bloom of the toxigenic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia in spring 2015 resulted in the largest recorded outbreak of the neurotoxin, domoic acid, along the North American west coast. Elevated toxins were measured in numerous stranded marine mammals and resulted in geographically extensive and prolonged closures of razor clam, rock crab, and Dungeness crab fisheries. We demonstrate that this outbreak was initiated by anomalously warm ocean conditions. Pseudo-nitzschia australis thrived north of its typical range in the warm, nutrient-poor water that spanned the northeast Pacific in early 2015...
October 16, 2016: Geophysical Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912916/potentially-toxic-filamentous-fungi-associated-to-the-economically-important-nodipecten-nodosus-linnaeus-1758-scallop-farmed-in-southeastern-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#3
Antônia Santos, Rachel Ann Hauser-Davis, Manoel José Soares Santos, Salvatore Giovani De Simone
Numerous countries have been confronted with infectious diseases in mariculture activities, including fungi infections, although reports in scallops are scarce. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the occurrence of filamentous fungi in Nodipecten nodosus specimens from three marine farms in Southeastern Brazil. Eight fungi genera were observed in the branchial arches, intestine and muscle tissue of the scallop specimens. These include potentially toxin-producing species, such as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium...
November 29, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884763/acox2-deficiency-an-inborn-error-of-bile-acid-synthesis-identified-in-an-adolescent-with-persistent-hypertransaminasemia
#4
Maria J Monte, Marta Alonso-Peña, Oscar Briz, Elisa Herraez, Carmen Berasain, Josepmaria Argemi, Jesus Prieto, Jose J G Marin
BACKGROUND: Acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX2) is involved in the shortening of C27 cholesterol derivatives to generate C24 bile acids. Inborn errors affecting the rest of peroxisomal enzymes involved in bile acid biosynthesis have been described. These conditions are usually characterized by serious hepatic and/or neurologic manifestations. AIMS: We have investigated bile acid profile and enzymes involved in their biosynthesis in the first reported case of ACOX2 deficiency identified in an adolescent boy with persistent unexplained hypertransaminasemia and his family...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879646/integrating-scfv-into-xmap-assays-for-the-detection-of-marine-toxins
#5
Lisa C Shriver-Lake, Jinny L Liu, P Audrey Brozozog Lee, Ellen R Goldman, Richard Dietrich, Erwin Märtlbauer, George P Anderson
Marine toxins, such as saxitoxin and domoic acid are associated with algae blooms and can bioaccumulate in shell fish which present both health and economic concerns. The ability to detect the presence of toxin is paramount for the administration of the correct supportive care in case of intoxication; environmental monitoring to detect the presence of toxin is also important for prevention of intoxication. Immunoassays are one tool that has successfully been applied to the detection of marine toxins. Herein, we had the variable regions of two saxitoxin binding monoclonal antibodies sequenced and used the information to produce recombinant constructs that consist of linked heavy and light variable domains that make up the binding domains of the antibodies (scFv)...
November 21, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871750/biogeochemical-and-hydrological-drivers-of-the-dynamics-of-vibrio-species-in-two-patagonian-estuaries
#6
Germán A Kopprio, M Eugenia Streitenberger, Kentaro Okuno, Mónica Baldini, Florencia Biancalana, Anna Fricke, Ana Martínez, Sucharit B Neogi, Boris P Koch, Shinji Yamasaki, Rubén J Lara
The ecology of the most relevant Vibrio species for human health and their relation to water quality and biogeochemistry were studied in two estuaries in Argentinian Patagonia. Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were reported in >29% of cases at the Río Colorado and Río Negro estuaries. Neither the pandemic serogroups of Vibrio cholerae O1, Vibrio cholerae O139 nor the cholera toxin gene were detected in this study. However, several strains of V. cholerae (not O1 or O139) are able to cause human disease or acquire pathogenic genes by horizontal transfer...
November 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827914/new-typical-vector-of-neurotoxin-%C3%AE-n-methylamino-l-alanine-bmaa-in-the-marine-benthic-ecosystem
#7
Aifeng Li, Jialiang Song, Yang Hu, Longji Deng, Ling Ding, Meihui Li
The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) has been identified as an environmental factor triggering neurodegenerative diseases such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the possible vectors of BMAA and its isomers 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) and N-2(aminoethyl)glycine (AEG) in marine mollusks collected from the Chinese coast. Sixty-eight samples of marine mollusks were collected along the Chinese coast in 2016, and were analyzed by an HILIC-MS/MS (hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer) method without derivatization...
November 4, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822651/mediterranean-azadinium-dexteroporum-dinophyceae-produces-six-novel-azaspiracids-and-azaspiracid-35-a-structural-study-by-a-multi-platform-mass-spectrometry-approach
#8
Rachele Rossi, Carmela Dell'Aversano, Bernd Krock, Patrizia Ciminiello, Isabella Percopo, Urban Tillmann, Vittorio Soprano, Adriana Zingone
Azadinium dexteroporum is the first species of the genus described from the Mediterranean Sea and it produces different azaspiracids (AZA). The aims of this work were to characterize the toxin profile of the species and gain structural information on azaspiracids produced by the A. dexteroporum strain SZN-B848 isolated from the Gulf of Naples. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses were carried out on three MS systems having different ion source geometries (ESI, TurboIonSpray®, ESI ION MAX) and different MS analyzers operating either at unit resolution or at high resolution, namely a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap (Q-Trap MS), a time of flight (TOF MS), and a hybrid linear ion trap Orbitrap XL Fourier transform mass spectrometer (LTQ Orbitrap XL FTMS)...
November 7, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821506/a-subset-of-virus-specific-cd161-t-cells-selectively-express-the-multidrug-transporter-mdr1-and-are-resistant-to-chemotherapy-in-aml
#9
Abdullah Alsuliman, Muharrem Muftuoglu, Ahmad Khoder, Yong-Oon Ahn, Rafet Basar, Michael R Verneris, Pawel Muranski, A John Barrett, Enli Liu, Li Li, Kate Stringaris, Darius Armstrong-James, Hila Shaim, Kayo Kondo, Nobuhiko Imahashi, Borje Andersson, David Marin, Richard E Champlin, Elizabeth J Shpall, Katayoun Rezvani
The establishment of long-lived pathogen-specific T-cells is a fundamental property of the adaptive immune response. However, the mechanisms underlying long-term persistence of antigen-specific CD4(+) T-cells are not well-defined. Here we identify a subset of memory CD4(+) T-cells capable of effluxing cellular toxins, including rhodamine (Rho), through the multidrug efflux protein MDR1 (also known as P-glycoprotein and ABCB1). Drug-effluxing CD4(+) T-cells were characterized as CD161(+)CD95(+)CD45RA(-)CD127(hi)CD28(+)CD25(int) cells with distinct chemokine profile and a Th1-polarized pro-inflammatory phenotype...
November 7, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818844/a-pilot-study-of-botulinum-toxin-for-jerky-position-specific-upper-limb-action-tremor
#10
Tabish A Saifee, Tiago Teodoro, Roberto Erro, Mark J Edwards, Carla Cordivari
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin (BT) injections for jerky action tremor of the upper limb. METHODS: We performed an uncontrolled, prospective study of electromyography (EMG)-guided BT injections for jerky, position-specific, upper limb action tremor. The primary outcome was clinical global impression at 3-6 weeks after baseline. RESULTS: Eight patients with jerky, position-specific action tremor involving the upper limb were consecutively recruited...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776236/screening-of-lipophilic-marine-toxins-in-marine-aquaculture-environment-using-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#11
Junhui Chen, Xin Li, Shuai Wang, Farong Chen, Wei Cao, Chengjun Sun, Li Zheng, Xiaoru Wang
This study aimed to develop an exact mass suspect screening approach to perform finding of multiple lipophilic marine toxins (LMTs) in seawater, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and marine sediment from marine aquaculture area using liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS). The method was validated and proven to be reliable for the screening of various LMTs. Then, the method was applied to screen LMTs in marine environmental samples collected from mariculture area of Jiaozhou Bay, China...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768719/rlj-rgd3-a-novel-recombinant-toxin-protein-from-lampetra-japonica-protects-against-cerebral-reperfusion-injury-following-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-involving-the-integrin-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-rats
#12
Qian Lu, Jihong Wang, Junshu Jiang, Shengnan Wang, Qilan Jia, Yue Wang, Weiping Li, Qin Zhou, Li Lv, Qingwei Li
BACKGROUND: The RGD-toxin protein Lj-RGD3 is a naturally occurring 118 amino acid peptide that can be obtained from the salivary gland of the Lampetra japonica fish. This unique peptide contains 3 RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motifs in its primary structure. Lj-RGD3 is available in recombinant form (rLj-RGD3) and can be produced in large quantities using DNA recombination techniques. The pharmacology of the three RGD motif-containing peptides has not been studied. This study investigated the protective effects of rLj-RGD3, a novel polypeptide, against ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage to the brain caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in a rat stroke model...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764234/uncovering-the-complex-transcriptome-response-of-mytilus-chilensis-against-saxitoxin-implications-of-harmful-algal-blooms-on-mussel-populations
#13
Camille Detree, Gustavo Núñez-Acuña, Steven Roberts, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate
Saxitoxin (STX), a principal phycotoxin contributing to paralytic shellfish poisoning, is largely produced by marine microalgae of the genus Alexandrium. This toxin affects a wide range of species, inducing massive deaths in fish and other marine species. However, marine bivalves can resist and accumulate paralytic shellfish poisons. Despite numerous studies on the impact of STX in marine bivalves, knowledge regarding STX recognition at molecular level by benthic species remains scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel genes that interact with STX in the Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754382/quantitative-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-based-on-pulcon-methodology-application-to-quantification-of-invaluable-marine-toxin-okadaic-acid
#14
Ryuichi Watanabe, Chika Sugai, Taichi Yamazaki, Ryoji Matsushima, Hajime Uchida, Masahiro Matsumiya, Akiko Takatsu, Toshiyuki Suzuki
ERETIC2 (Electronic Reference To access In vivo Concentrations 2) based on PULCON (Pulse Length-based Concentration determination) methodology is a quantitative NMR (qNMR) using an external standard. The performance of the PULCON method was assessed using maleic acid (MA). Quantification of the diarrhetic shellfish toxin and okadaic acid by PULCON was successfully consistent with that obtained by a conventional internal standard method, demonstrating that the PULCON method is useful for the quantification of invaluable marine toxins without any contaminations by an internal standard...
October 13, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738771/the-marine-cytotoxin-portimine-is-a-potent-and-selective-inducer-of-apoptosis
#15
Sarah L Cuddihy, Sarah Drake, D Tim Harwood, Andrew I Selwood, Paul S McNabb, Mark B Hampton
Portimine is a recently discovered member of a class of marine micro-algal toxins called cyclic imines. In dramatic contrast to related compounds in this toxin class, portimine has very low acute toxicity to mice but is highly cytotoxic to cultured cells. In this study we show that portimine kills human Jurkat T-lymphoma cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), with LC50 values of 6 and 2.5 nM respectively. Treated cells displayed rapid caspase activation and phosphatidylserine exposure, indicative of apoptotic cell death...
October 13, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736862/genetic-determinism-of-sensitivity-to-corynespora-cassiicola-exudates-in-rubber-tree-hevea-brasiliensis
#16
Dinh Minh Tran, André Clément-Demange, Marine Déon, Dominique Garcia, Vincent Le Guen, Anne Clément-Vidal, Mouman Soumahoro, Aurélien Masson, Philippe Label, Mau Tuy Le, Valérie Pujade-Renaud
An indirect phenotyping method was developed in order to estimate the susceptibility of rubber tree clonal varieties to Corynespora Leaf Fall (CLF) disease caused by the ascomycete Corynespora cassiicola. This method consists in quantifying the impact of fungal exudates on detached leaves by measuring the induced electrolyte leakage (EL%). The tested exudates were either crude culture filtrates from diverse C. cassiicola isolates or the purified cassiicolin (Cas1), a small secreted effector protein produced by the aggressive isolate CCP...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716578/maternal-transfer-and-sublethal-immune-system-effects-of-brevetoxin-exposure-in-nesting-loggerhead-sea-turtles-caretta-caretta-from-western-florida
#17
Justin R Perrault, Katherine D Bauman, Taylor M Greenan, Patricia C Blum, Michael S Henry, Catherine J Walsh
Blooms of Karenia brevis (also called red tides) occur almost annually in the Gulf of Mexico. The health effects of the neurotoxins (i.e., brevetoxins) produced by this toxic dinoflagellate on marine turtles are poorly understood. Florida's Gulf Coast represents an important foraging and nesting area for a number of marine turtle species. Most studies investigating brevetoxin exposure in marine turtles thus far focus on dead and/or stranded individuals and rarely examine the effects in apparently "healthy" free-ranging individuals...
November 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716534/low-dose-extended-exposure-to-saxitoxin-and-its-potential-neurodevelopmental-effects-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Katie O'Neill, Ian F Musgrave, Andrew Humpage
Saxitoxin (STX) and its analogs, the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are a group of potent neurotoxins well known for their role in acute paralytic poisoning by preventing the generation of action potentials in neuronal cells. They are found in both marine and freshwater environments globally and although acute exposure from the former has previously received more attention, low dose extended exposure from both sources is possible and to date has not been investigated. Given the known role of cellular electrical activity in neurodevelopment this pattern of exposure may be a significant public health concern...
December 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709272/in-vivo-cardiomyocyte-response-to-ytx-and-aza-1-induced-damage-autophagy-versus-apoptosis
#19
Sara F Ferreiro, Natalia Vilariño, Cristina Carrera, M Carmen Louzao, Germán Santamarina, Antonio G Cantalapiedra, J Manuel Cifuentes, Andrés Crespo, Luis M Botana
Yessotoxins (YTX) and azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine toxins produced by phytoplanktonic dinoflagellates that get accumulated in filter feeding shellfish and finally reach human consumers through the food web. Both toxin classes are worldwide distributed, and food safety authorities have regulated their content in shellfish in many countries. Recently, YTXs and AZAs have been described as compounds with subacute cardiotoxic potential in rats owed to alterations of the cardiovascular function and ultrastructural heart damage...
October 5, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697698/characterization-of-brevetoxin-pbtx-3-exposure-in-neurons-of-the-anoxia-tolerant-freshwater-turtle-trachemys-scripta
#20
Courtney C Cocilova, Sarah L Milton
Harmful algal blooms are increasing in frequency and extent worldwide and occur nearly annually off the west coast of Florida where they affect both humans and wildlife. The dinoflagellate Karenia brevis is a key organism in Florida red tides that produces a suite of potent neurotoxins collectively referred to as the brevetoxins (PbTx). Brevetoxins bind to and open voltage gated sodium channels (VGSC), increasing cell permeability in excitable cells and depolarizing nerve and muscle tissue. Exposed animals may thus show muscular and neurological symptoms including head bobbing, muscle twitching, paralysis, and coma; large HABs can result in significant morbidity and mortality of marine life, including fish, birds, marine mammals, and sea turtles...
September 28, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
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