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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207501/detection-of-a-planktothrix-agardhii-bloom-in-portuguese-marine-coastal-waters
#1
Catarina Churro, Joana Azevedo, Vitor Vasconcelos, Alexandra Silva
Cyanobacteria blooms are frequent in freshwaters and are responsible for water quality deterioration and human intoxication. Although, not a new phenomenon, concern exists on the increasing persistence, scale, and toxicity of these blooms. There is evidence, in recent years, of the transfer of these toxins from inland to marine waters through freshwater outflow. However, the true impact of these blooms in marine habitats has been overlooked. In the present work, we describe the detection of Planktothrix agardhii, which is a common microcystin producer, in the Portuguese marine coastal waters nearby a river outfall in an area used for shellfish harvesting and recreational activities...
December 3, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193497/stereochemical-definition-of-the-natural-product-6r-10r-13r-14r-16r-17r-19s-20s-21r-24s-25s-28s-30s-32r-33r-34r-36s-37s-39r-aza-3-via-total-synthesis-and-comparative-analyses
#2
Craig J Forsyth, Nathaniel Kenton, Daniel Adu-Ampratwum, Antony A Okumu, Pearse McCarron, Jane Kilcoyne, Frode Rise, Alistair L Wilkins, Christopher O Miles
The previously accepted structure of the marine toxin azaspiracid-3 is revised based upon an original convergent and stereoselective total synthesis of the natural product. The development of a structural revision hypothesis, its testing, and corroboration are reported. Synthetic (6R,10R,13R,14R,16R,17R, 19S,20S,21R,24S,25S,28S,30S,32R,33R,34R,36S,37S,39R)-azaspiracid-3 chromatographically and spectroscopically matched naturally occurring azaspiracid-3, whereas the previously assigned (20R)-epimer did not.
November 28, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182651/evidence-of-increased-toxic-alexandrium-tamarense-dinoflagellate-blooms-in-the-eastern-bering-sea-in-the-summers-of-2004-and-2005
#3
Masafumi Natsuike, Rui Saito, Amane Fujiwara, Kohei Matsuno, Atsushi Yamaguchi, Naonobu Shiga, Toru Hirawake, Takashi Kikuchi, Shigeto Nishino, Ichiro Imai
The eastern Bering Sea has a vast continental shelf, which contains various endangered marine mammals and large fishery resources. Recently, high numbers of toxic A. tamarense resting cysts were found in the bottom sediment surface of the eastern Bering Sea shelf, suggesting that the blooms have recently occurred. However, little is known about the presence of A. tamarense vegetative cells in the eastern Bering Sea. This study's goals were to detect the occurrence of A. tamarense vegetative cells on the eastern Bering Sea shelf and to find a relationship between environmental factors and their presence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158985/coral-associated-viral-communities-show-high-levels-of-diversity-and-host-auxiliary-functions
#4
Karen D Weynberg, Patrick W Laffy, Elisha M Wood-Charlson, Dmitrij Turaev, Thomas Rattei, Nicole S Webster, Madeleine J H van Oppen
Stony corals (Scleractinia) are marine invertebrates that form the foundation and framework upon which tropical reefs are built. The coral animal associates with a diverse microbiome comprised of dinoflagellate algae and other protists, bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses. Using a metagenomics approach, we analysed the DNA and RNA viral assemblages of seven coral species from the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR), demonstrating that tailed bacteriophages of the Caudovirales dominate across all species examined, and ssDNA viruses, notably the Microviridae, are also prevalent...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157315/botulinum-toxin-type-a-injections-as-monotherapy-for-upper-limb-essential-tremor-using-kinematics
#5
Olivia Samotus, Niraj Kumar, Philippe Rizek, Mandar Jog
BACKGROUND: There is a significant need for a targeted therapy for essential tremor (ET), as medications have not been developed specifically for ET, and the ones prescribed are often not well-tolerated, so that many patients remain untreated. Recent work has shown that, unlike previous experience, kinematically guided individualized botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections provide benefit along with minimal weakness. Ours is the first long-term (96-week) safety and efficacy study of BoNT-A as monotherapy for ET using kinematically driven injection parameters...
November 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150543/toxicokinetics-and-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-the-shellfish-toxin-domoic-acid-in-nonhuman-primates
#6
Jing Jing, Rebekah Petroff, Sara Shum, Brenda Crouthamel, Ariel R Topletz, Kimberly S Grant, Thomas M Burbacher, Nina Isoherranen
Domoic acid (DA), a neurotoxin, is produced by marine algae and has caused toxications worldwide in animals and humans. However, the toxicokinetics of DA has not been fully evaluated, and information is missing on the disposition of DA following oral exposures at doses that are considered safe for human consumption. In this study, toxicokinetics of DA were investigated in cynomolgus monkeys, following single doses of 5 µg/kg DA iv, 0.075 mg/kg DA po and 0.15 mg/kg DA po. Following iv dosing, DA had a systemic clearance of 124 ± 71 ml/hr/kg, volume of distribution at steady state of 131±71 ml/kg and elimination half-life of 1...
November 17, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149214/new-insights-on-the-species-specific-allelopathic-interactions-between-macrophytes-and-marine-hab-dinoflagellates
#7
Hela Ben Gharbia, Ons Kéfi-Daly Yahia, Philippe Cecchi, Estelle Masseret, Zouher Amzil, Fabienne Herve, Georges Rovillon, Habiba Nouri, Charaf M'Rabet, Douglas Couet, Habiba Zmerli Triki, Mohamed Laabir
Macrophytes are known to release allelochemicals that have the ability to inhibit the proliferation of their competitors. Here, we investigated the effects of the fresh leaves of two magnoliophytes (Zostera noltei and Cymodocea nodosa) and thalli of the macroalgae Ulva rigida on three HAB-forming benthic dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima, and Coolia monotis). The effects of C. nodosa and U. rigida were also tested against the neurotoxic planktonic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum Litaker sp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135911/the-apoptogenic-toxin-aip56-is-secreted-by-the-type-ii-secretion-system-of-photobacterium-damselae-subsp-piscicida
#8
Ana do Vale, Cassilda Pereira, Carlos R Osorio, Nuno M S Dos Santos
AIP56 (apoptosis-inducing protein of 56 kDa) is a key virulence factor of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Phdp), the causative agent of a septicaemia affecting warm water marine fish species. Phdp-associated pathology is triggered by AIP56, a short trip AB toxin with a metalloprotease A domain that cleaves the p65 subunit of NF-κB, an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that regulates the expression of inflammatory and anti-apoptotic genes and plays a central role in host responses to infection...
November 14, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124474/growth-chain-formation-and-toxin-production-by-southern-brazilian-pseudo-nitzschia-isolates-under-laboratory-conditions
#9
Pedro Rebelo Wadt, Luiz Laureno Mafra, Camila Prestes Dos Santos Tavares, Luciano Felício Fernandes, Luís Antonio de Oliveira Proença
Pseudo-nitzschia is a diatom genus capable of producing the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA), which has been related to mortalities of marine vertebrates, and the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) in human consumers of contaminated bivalves. This study reports DA production among Pseudo-nitzschia strains isolated from shellfish farming areas in southern Brazil. Twenty-seven cultures of potentially toxigenic Pseudo-nitzschia species were established. Growth, stepped-chain formation, and DA production were evaluated in static, intermittently illuminated (12:12 photoperiod) batch cultures for 12 selected strains, and under continuous light and/or turbulence for a single Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha strain...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110038/palytoxin-congeners
#10
REVIEW
Jiri Patocka, Eugenie Nepovimova, Qinghua Wu, Kamil Kuca
Palytoxin, isolated from a zoanthid of the genus Palythoa, is the most potent marine toxin known. Intoxication by palytoxin leads to vasoconstriction, hemorrhage, ataxia, muscle weakness, ventricular fibrillation, pulmonary hypertension, ischemia and death. Palytoxin and its numerous derivatives (congeners) may enter the food chain and accumulate mainly in fishes and crabs, causing severe human intoxication and death following ingestion of contaminated products. Furthermore, toxic effects in individuals exposed via inhalation or skin contact to marine aerosol in coincidence with Ostreopsis blooms, have been reported...
November 7, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109389/overlooked-short-toxin-like-proteins-a-shortcut-to-drug-design
#11
Michal Linial, Nadav Rappoport, Dan Ofer
Short stable peptides have huge potential for novel therapies and biosimilars. Cysteine-rich short proteins are characterized by multiple disulfide bridges in a compact structure. Many of these metazoan proteins are processed, folded, and secreted as soluble stable folds. These properties are shared by both marine and terrestrial animal toxins. These stable short proteins are promising sources for new drug development. We developed ClanTox (classifier of animal toxins) to identify toxin-like proteins (TOLIPs) using machine learning models trained on a large-scale proteomic database...
October 29, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109054/assessing-the-presence-of-marine-toxins-in-bivalve-molluscs-from-southwest-india
#12
Andrew D Turner, Monika Dhanji-Rapkova, Stephanie Rowland-Pilgrim, Lucy M Turner, Ashwin Rai, Moleyur N Venugopal, Indrani Karunasagar, Anna Godhe
The south west coast of India has been showing a steady increase in shellfish cultivation both for local consumption and fishery export, over recent years. Perna viridis and Crassostrea madrasensis are two species of bivalve molluscs which grow in some selected regions of southern Karnataka, close to the city of Mangalore. In the early 1980s, shellfish consumers in the region were affected by intoxication from Paralytic Shellfish Poison present in local bivalves (clams and oysters) resulting in hospitalisation of many, including one fatality...
November 3, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107893/lung-regeneration-after-toxic-injury-is-improved-in-absence-of-dioxin-receptor
#13
Antonio Morales-Hernández, Ana Nacarino-Palma, Nuria Moreno-Marín, Eva Barrasa, Beroé Paniagua-Quiñones, Inmaculada Catalina-Fernández, Alberto Alvarez-Barrientos, Xosé R Bustelo, Jaime M Merino, Pedro M Fernández-Salguero
Recent experimental evidences from cellular systems and from mammalian and non-mammalian animal models highlight novel functions for the aryl hydrocarbon/dioxin receptor (AhR) in maintaining cell differentiation and tissue homeostasis. Notably, AhR depletion stimulates an undifferentiated and pluripotent phenotype likely associated to a mesenchymal transition in epithelial cells and to increased primary tumorigenesis and metastasis in melanoma. In this work, we have used a lung model of epithelial regeneration to investigate whether AhR regulates proper tissue repair by adjusting the expansion of undifferentiated stem-like cells...
October 12, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107028/toxic-equivalency-factors-tefs-after-acute-oral-exposure-of-azaspiracid-1-2-and-3-in-mice
#14
M Pelin, J Kilcoyne, C Nulty, S Crain, P Hess, A Tubaro, S Sosa
Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine algal toxins that can be accumulated by edible shellfish to cause a foodborne gastrointestinal poisoning in humans. In the European Union, only AZA1, -2 and -3 are currently regulated and their concentration in shellfish is determined through their toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) derived from the intraperitoneal lethal potency in mice. Nevertheless, considering the potential human exposure by oral route, AZAs TEFs should be calculated by comparative oral toxicity data. Thus, the acute oral toxicity of AZA1, -2 and -3 was investigated in female CD-1 mice treated with different doses (AZA1: 135-1100μg/kg; AZA2 and AZA3: 300-1100μg/kg) and sacrificed after 24h or 14days...
November 6, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101884/application-of-activated-carbon-to-accelerate-detoxification-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-from-mussels-mytilus-galloprovincialis-and-scallops-chlamys-farreri
#15
Jiangbing Qiu, Hua Fan, Ting Liu, Xia Liang, Fanping Meng, Michael A Quilliam, Aifeng Li
Contamination of economic bivalves with paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) occurs frequently in many parts of the world, which potentially threatens consumer health and the marine aquaculture economy. It is the objective of this study to develop a suitable technology for accelerating detoxification of PST from shellfish using activated carbon (AC). The adsorption efficiency of PST by eight different AC materials and by different particle sizes of wood-based AC (WAC) were tested and compared. Then WAC particles (37-48µm) were fed to mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis and scallops Chlamys farreri previously contaminated with PST through feeding with dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense ATHK...
November 1, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095808/harmful-algal-bloom-associated-illnesses-in-humans-and-dogs-identified-through-a-pilot-surveillance-system-new-york-2015
#16
Mary Figgatt, James Hyde, David Dziewulski, Eric Wiegert, Scott Kishbaugh, Grant Zelin, Lloyd Wilson
Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, are photosynthetic, aquatic organisms found in fresh, brackish, and marine water around the world (1). Rapid proliferation and accumulation of potentially toxin-producing cyanobacteria characterize one type of harmful algal bloom (HAB). HABs have the potential to cause illness in humans and animals (2,3); however, the epidemiology of these illnesses has not been well characterized. Statewide in 2015, a total of 139 HABs were identified in New York, 97 (70%) of which were confirmed through laboratory analysis; 77 independent beach closures were ordered at 37 beaches on 20 different bodies of water...
November 3, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081609/prediction-aided-in-vitro-analysis-of-octa-decanoic-acid-from-cyanobacterium-lyngbya-sp-as-a-proapoptotic-factor-in-eliciting-anti-inflammatory-properties
#17
Paramasivan Manivannan, Gangatharan Muralitharan, Nainangu Prasanna Balaji
Marine Lyngbya has been proven as a potent anticancer agent by disrupting microfilament network. Lyngbya and its associated cyanobacterial compounds have been stressed for futuristic advancements in cancer research and have foreseen explicit advancements in the recent era. Moreover, compounds like lyngbyabellins, lyngbyastatins and other derived toxins are significantly studied. Therefore it is of interest to study the efficacies of Lyngbya fatty acid derivatives. Cytotoxicity and DNA laddering studies proves the efficiency and safety of marine Lyngbya...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040788/familial-mediterranean-fever-mutations-are-hypermorphic-mutations-that-specifically-decrease-the-activation-threshold-of-the-pyrin-inflammasome
#18
Yvan Jamilloux, Lucie Lefeuvre, Flora Magnotti, Amandine Martin, Sarah Benezech, Omran Allatif, Mathilde Penel-Page, Véronique Hentgen, Pascal Sève, Mathieu Gerfaud-Valentin, Agnès Duquesne, Marine Desjonquères, Audrey Laurent, Vanessa Rémy-Piccolo, Rolando Cimaz, Luca Cantarini, Emilie Bourdonnay, Thierry Walzer, Bénédicte F Py, Alexandre Belot, Thomas Henry
Objectives: FMF is the most frequent autoinflammatory disease and is associated in most patients with bi-allelic MEFV mutations. MEFV encodes Pyrin, an inflammasome sensor activated following RhoGTPase inhibition. The functional consequences of MEFV mutations on the ability of Pyrin variants to act as inflammasome sensors are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to assess whether MEFV mutations affect the ability of Pyrin to detect RhoGTPase inhibition and other inflammasome stimuli...
October 12, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037592/adsorption-of-marine-phycotoxin-okadaic-acid-on-a-covalent-organic-framework
#19
Laura M Salonen, Sara R Pinela, Soraia P S Fernandes, João Louçano, Enrique Carbó-Argibay, Marisa P Sarriá, Carlos Rodríguez-Abreu, João Peixoto, Begoña Espiña
Phycotoxins, compounds produced by some marine microalgal species, can reach high concentrations in the sea when a massive proliferation occurs, the so-called harmful algal bloom. These compounds are especially dangerous to human health when concentrated in the digestive glands of seafood. In order to generate an early warning system to alert for approaching toxic outbreaks, it is very important to improve monitoring methods of phycotoxins in aquatic ecosystems. Solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking devices reported thus far based on polymeric resins have not been able to provide an efficient harmful algal bloom prediction system due to their low adsorption capabilities...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027912/guanidinium-toxins-and-their-interactions-with-voltage-gated-sodium-ion-channels
#20
REVIEW
Lorena M Durán-Riveroll, Allan D Cembella
Guanidinium toxins, such as saxitoxin (STX), tetrodotoxin (TTX) and their analogs, are naturally occurring alkaloids with divergent evolutionary origins and biogeographical distribution, but which share the common chemical feature of guanidinium moieties. These guanidinium groups confer high biological activity with high affinity and ion flux blockage capacity for voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV). Members of the STX group, known collectively as paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are produced among three genera of marine dinoflagellates and about a dozen genera of primarily freshwater or brackish water cyanobacteria...
October 13, 2017: Marine Drugs
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