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marine toxins

Thiago Pereira Alves, Luiz Laureno Mafra
Dinophysis spp. are a major source of diarrheic toxins to marine food webs, especially during blooms. This study documented the occurrence, in late May 2016, of a massive toxic bloom of the Dinophysis acuminata complex along the southern coast of Brazil, associated with an episode of marked salinity stratification. The study tracked the daily vertical distribution of Dinophysis spp. cells and their ciliate prey, Mesodinium cf. rubrum , and quantified the amount of lipophilic toxins present in seston and accumulated by various marine organisms in the food web...
June 6, 2018: Toxins
Federica Farabegoli, Lucía Blanco, Laura P Rodríguez, Juan Manuel Vieites, Ana García Cabado
Massive phytoplankton proliferation, and the consequent release of toxic metabolites, can be responsible for seafood poisoning outbreaks: filter-feeding mollusks, such as shellfish, mussels, oysters or clams, can accumulate these toxins throughout the food chain and present a threat for consumers' health. Particular environmental and climatic conditions favor this natural phenomenon, called harmful algal blooms (HABs); the phytoplankton species mostly involved in these toxic events are dinoflagellates or diatoms belonging to the genera Alexandrium , Gymnodinium , Dinophysis , and Pseudo-nitzschia ...
May 29, 2018: Marine Drugs
Nicholas Petronella, Jennifer Ronholm
Most Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates found in marine environments are non-pathogenic; however, certain lineages have acquired genomic pathogenicity islands (PAIs) that enable these isolates to cause human illness. The V. parahaemolyticus PAI contains one or both of two toxins: thermostable direct haemolysin (TDH) or TDH-related haemolysin (TRH) and type III secretion system 2 (T3SS2). Recently, a few V. parahaemolyticus isolates that do not have this PAI were obtained from clinical samples, and there has been interest in determining whether these isolates possess novel virulence factors...
May 29, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Francisco Felipe Bezerra, Glauber Cruz Lima, Nayara Alves de Sousa, Willer Malta de Sousa, Luís Eduardo Costa Castanheira, Douglas Soares da Costa, Francisco Clark Nogueira Barros, Jand Venes Rolim Medeiros, Ana Lúcia Ponte Freitas
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The use of marine seaweeds as a source of natural compounds with medicinal purposes is increasing in Western countries in the last decades, becoming an important alternative in the traditional medicine of many developing countries, where diarrhea still remains a severe public health problem, with high rates of mortality and morbidity. Sulfated polysaccharides (PLS) extracted from red seaweeds can exhibit therapeutic effects for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jeong Hyun Kim, Jin Lee, Sahyun Hong, Sangwon Lee, Hae-Young Na, Young-Il Jeong, Eun Jin Choi, Junyoung Kim, Hyo Sun Kawk, Enhi Cho
Three cases of cholera occurred in South Korea during a period of three weeks in August 2016. All the cases were associated with the consumption of raw seafood in southern coastal area of South Korea. Epidemiologic investigations were performed to track the spread of cholera, including persons in contact with the cholera patients, seafood, and seawater from the fish tank and marine environments. A microbiological investigation demonstrated that cholera isolated from the three patients and a seawater sample at the Korea Strait showed identical serotype (O1 Ogawa), biotype (El tor), and toxin ( ctx -positive)...
May 21, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Anamaria Balić, Zrinka Bukvić Mokos, Branka Marinović, Daniela Ledić Drvar
Dear Editor, Pitted keratolysis (PK), also known as keratosis plantaris sulcatum, is a non-inflammatory, bacterial, superficial cutaneous infection, characterized by many discrete superficial crateriform ''pits'' and erosions in the thickly keratinized skin of the weight-bearing regions of the soles of the feet (1). The disease often goes unnoticed by the patient, but when it is noticed it is because of the unbearable malodor and hyperhidrosis of the feet, which are socially unacceptable and cause great anxiety to many of the patients...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
Lucía Soliño, Pedro Reis Costa
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are fish metabolism products and a result of biotransformation of precursor gambiertoxins produced, in the first instance, by benthic dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. Ciguatoxins are potent neurotoxins that selectively open voltage gated sodium channels in excitable cells causing the human food poisoning known as Ciguatera (CFP). Endemic from tropical areas in central Pacific and West Indian Ocean, and the Caribbean Sea, CTX may affect up to 500,000 people annually due to fish consumption...
May 17, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Deon C Louw, Gregory J Doucette, Nina Lundholm
The Benguela upwelling system, considered the world's most productive marine ecosystem, has a long record of potentially toxic diatoms belonging to the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Species of Pseudo-nitzschia were reported as early as 1936 from the northern Benguela upwelling system (nBUS). For the current study, long-term phytoplankton monitoring data (2004-2011) for the Namibian coast were analysed to examine inshore and offshore temporal distribution of Pseudo-nitzschia species, their diversity and ultrastructure...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
N Cuevas, M Martins, A P Rodrigo, C Martins, P M Costa
Motivated by biotechnological prospects, there is increasing evidence that we may just be scraping the tip of the iceberg of poisonous marine invertebrates, among which the Polychaeta are promising candidates for bioprospecting. Here we show that an inconspicuous phyllodocid uses toxins in its uncanny feeding strategy. The worm, a jawless active predator characterised by its bright green colour, preys on larger invertebrates (including conspecifics) by extracting tissue portions with its powerful proboscis through suction...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniel G Beach, Elliott S Kerrin, Krista Thomas, Michael A Quilliam, Pearse McCarron
Polar marine toxins are more challenging to analyze by mass spectrometry-based methods than lipophilic marine toxins, which are now routinely measured in shellfish by multiclass reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methods. Capillary electrophoresis (CE)-MS/MS is a technique that is well suited for the analysis of polar marine toxins, and has the potential of providing very high resolution separation. Here, we present a CE-MS/MS method developed, with use of a custom-built interface, for the sensitive multiclass analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins, tetrodotoxins, and domoic acid in seafood...
May 16, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Juan Andrés Rubiolo, Carmen Vale, Andrea Boente-Juncal, Masahiro Hirama, Shuji Yamashita, Mercedes Camiña, Mercedes R Vieytes, Luis M Botana
Ciguatoxins are polyether marine toxins that act as sodium channel activators. These toxins cause ciguatera, one of the most widespread nonbacterial forms of food poisoning, which presents several symptoms in humans including long-term neurological alterations. Earlier work has shown that both acute and chronic exposure of primary cortical neurons to synthetic ciguatoxin CTX3C have profound impacts on neuronal function. Thus, the present work aimed to identify relevant neuronal genes and metabolic pathways that could be altered by ciguatoxin exposure...
May 10, 2018: Toxins
Choonshik Shin, Hyejin Jo, Sheen-Hee Kim, Gil-Jin Kang
Paralytic shellfish poisoning is caused by saxitoxin and its analogues. The paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are produced by marine dinoflagellates and can be accumulated in filter feeding shellfish, such as mussel, clam, oyster and ark shell. The worldwide regulatory limits for PSTs in shellfish are set at 80 μg STX eq./100 g meat and this is widely accepted as providing adequate public health protection. In this study, we have determined five individual PSTs (STX, GTX1, GTX2, GTX3 and GTX4) in shellfish using LC-MS/MS and assessed the human acute and chronic exposures to PSTs through shellfish consumption...
June 2018: Food Research International
Andrea Boente Juncal, Carmen Vale, Amparo Alfonso, Luis M Botana
Maitotoxins (MTX) are among the most potent marine toxins identified to date causing cell death trough massive calcium influx. However, the exact mechanism for the MTX-induced calcium entry and cytotoxicity is still unknown. In this work, the effect of MTX-1 on the cytosolic free calcium concentration and cellular viability of human neuronal stem cells was evaluated. MTX elicited a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability which was already evident after 1 hour of treatment with 0.25 nM MTX; however at a concentration of 0...
May 7, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Tomasz M Karpiński, Artur Adamczak
Despite much progress in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, tumour diseases constitute one of the main reasons of deaths worldwide. The side effects of chemotherapy and drug resistance of some cancer types belong to the significant current therapeutic problems. Hence, searching for new anticancer substances and medicines are very important. Among them, bacterial proteins and peptides are a promising group of bioactive compounds and potential anticancer drugs. Some of them, including anticancer antibiotics (actinomycin D, bleomycin, doxorubicin, mitomycin C) and diphtheria toxin, are already used in the cancer treatment, while other substances are in clinical trials (e...
April 30, 2018: Pharmaceutics
María García-Portela, Beatriz Reguera, Manoella Sibat, Andreas Altenburger, Francisco Rodríguez, Philipp Hess
Photosynthetic species of the genus Dinophysis are obligate mixotrophs with temporary plastids (kleptoplastids) that are acquired from the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum , which feeds on cryptophytes of the Teleaulax-Plagioselmis-Geminigera clade. A metabolomic study of the three-species food chain Dinophysis-Mesodinium-Teleaulax was carried out using mass spectrometric analysis of extracts of batch-cultured cells of each level of that food chain. The main goal was to compare the metabolomic expression of Galician strains of Dinophysis acuminata and D...
April 26, 2018: Marine Drugs
Lazar Kopanja, Zorana Kovacevic, Marin Tadic, Monika Cecilija Žužek, Milka Vrecl, Robert Frangež
Detailed shape analysis of cells is important to better understand the physiological mechanisms of toxins and determine their effects on cell morphology. This study aimed to develop a procedure for accurate morphological analysis of cell shape and use it as a tool to estimate toxin activity. With the aim of optimizing the method of cell morphology analysis, we determined the influence of ostreolysin A and pleurotolysin B complex (OlyA/PlyB) on the morphology of murine neuronal NG108-15 cells. A computational method was introduced and successfully applied to quantify morphological attributes of the NG108-15 cell line before and after 30 and 60 min exposure to OlyA/PlyB using confocal microscopy...
April 23, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Mélanie Roué, Hélène Taiana Darius, Mireille Chinain
The Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) technology, first introduced in 2004, uses porous synthetic resins capable of passively adsorbing toxins produced by harmful microalgae or cyanobacteria and dissolved in the water. This method allows for the detection of toxic compounds directly in the water column and offers numerous advantages over current monitoring techniques (e.g., shellfish or fish testing and microalgae/cyanobacteria cell detection), despite some limitations. Numerous laboratory and field studies, testing different adsorbent substrates of which Diaion® HP20 resin appears to be the most versatile substrate, have been carried out worldwide to assess the applicability of these passive monitoring devices to the detection of toxins produced by a variety of marine and freshwater microorganisms...
April 20, 2018: Toxins
Shu-Fei Zhang, Yong Zhang, Lin Lin, Da-Zhi Wang
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of potent neurotoxic alkaloids mainly produced by marine dinoflagellates and their biosynthesis is associated with the cell cycle. Study shows that colchicine can cease cell division and inhibit PST production of dinoflagellates. However, the molecular mechanism behind this linkage is unknown. Here, we applied the iTRAQ-based proteomic approach to investigate protein expression profiles of a toxigenic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella (ACHK-T) and its non-toxigenic mutant (ACHK-NT) when treated with colchicine...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
J Castrec, P Soudant, L Payton, D Tran, P Miner, C Lambert, N Le Goïc, A Huvet, V Quillien, F Boullot, Z Amzil, H Hégaret, C Fabioux
Blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp., known as producers of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are regularly detected on the French coastline. PSTs accumulate into harvested shellfish species, such as the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, and can cause strong disorders to consumers at high doses. The impacts of Alexandrium minutum on C. gigas have often been attributed to its production of PSTs without testing separately the effects of the bioactive extracellular compounds (BECs) with allelopathic, hemolytic, cytotoxic or ichthyotoxic properties, which can also be produced by these algae...
June 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Jun Hee Lee, Chul Won Yun, Jin Hur, Sang Hun Lee
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a source for cell-based therapy. Although MSCs have the potential for tissue regeneration, their therapeutic efficacy is restricted by the uremic toxin, p -cresol, in chronic kidney disease (CKD). To address this issue, we investigated the effect of fucoidan, a marine sulfated polysaccharide, on cellular senescence in MSCs. After p -cresol exposure, MSC senescence was induced, as indicated by an increase in cell size and a decrease in proliferation capacity. Treatment of senescent MSCs with fucoidan significantly reversed this cellular senescence via regulation of SMP30 and p21, and increased proliferation through the regulation of cell cycle-associated proteins (CDK2, CDK4, cyclin D1, and cyclin E)...
April 6, 2018: Marine Drugs
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