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marine toxins

Lorena M Durán-Riveroll, Allan D Cembella
Guanidinium toxins, such as saxitoxin (STX), tetrodotoxin (TTX) and their analogs, are naturally occurring alkaloids with divergent evolutionary origins and biogeographical distribution, but which share the common chemical feature of guanidinium moieties. These guanidinium groups confer high biological activity with high affinity and ion flux blockage capacity for voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV). Members of the STX group, known collectively as paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are produced among three genera of marine dinoflagellates and about a dozen genera of primarily freshwater or brackish water cyanobacteria...
October 13, 2017: Marine Drugs
Miriam Friedemann, Claus Doberauer, Gereon R Fink, Lothar Burghaus
Ciguatoxine sind potente, von Mikroalgen produzierte, marine Biotoxine, die sich in tropischen Raubfischen, lokal und saisonal unterschiedlich stark, anreichern können. Kurze Zeit nach dem Fischverzehr treten gastrointestinale, neurologische und/oder kardiovaskuläre Vergiftungssymptome auf. Durch die hohe Affinität der Toxine zu neuronalen Natriumkanälen sind neurologische Symptome für Ciguatera-Vergiftungen charakteristisch. Nahezu pathognomonisch ist dabei die Kälteallodynie, bei der kalte Oberflächen als heiß, schmerzhaft oder extrem unangenehm empfunden werden...
October 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Laetitia Koppe, Pascaline M Alix, Marine L Croze, Stéphane Chambert, Raymond Vanholder, Griet Glorieux, Denis Fouque, Christophe O Soulage
Background: The role of uraemic toxins in insulin resistance associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is gaining interest. p-Cresol has been defined as the intestinally generated precursor of the prototype protein-bound uraemic toxins p-cresyl sulphate (p-CS) as the main metabolite and, at a markedly lower concentration in humans, p-cresyl glucuronide (p-CG). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the metabolism of p-cresol in mice and to decipher the potential role of both conjugates of p-cresol on glucose metabolism...
August 3, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Daniel Leclair, Jeffrey M Farber, Franco Pagotto, Sandy Suppa, Bill Doidge, John W Austin
Botulism in Nunavik, Quebec is associated with the consumption of aged marine mammal meat and fat. The objective was to identify meat handling practices presenting a risk of contamination of seal meat with C. botulinum. Potential sources of contamination were assessed through interviews with igunaq producers from five communities of Nunavik. These sources were verified by detection and isolation of C. botulinum from igunaq prepared in the field from seal carcasses. Interviews indicated practices presenting a risk for contamination included: placing meat or fat on coastal rocks, using seawater for rinsing, and ageing meat in inverted seal skin pouches...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Yedidia Bentur, Sergey Altunin, Iris Levdov, Daniel Golani, Ehud Spanier, Dor Edelist, Yael Lurie
CONTEXT: Plotosus lineatus is a venomous fish that has migrated from the Indo-Pacific region to the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrant). Its presence in the Mediterranean Sea was first recorded in 2002 and was observed in growing schools. Its spines contain toxins with lytic, hemolytic and edematous activities. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the injuries caused by Plotosus lineatus in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea. METHODS: A prospective observational case series of consultations provided by a national Poison Center pertaining to Plotosus lineatus from 2007 to 2016...
October 5, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
Lei Pan, Junhui Chen, Huihui Shen, Xiuping He, Guangjiu Li, Xincheng Song, Deshan Zhou, Chengjun Sun
Extracellular toxins released by marine toxigenic algae into the marine environment have attracted increasing attention in recent years. In this study, profiling, characterization and quantification of extracellular toxin compounds associated with diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP) in the culture medium of toxin-producing dinoflagellates were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. Results showed that solid-phase extraction can effectively enrich and clean the DSP compounds in the culture medium of Prorocentrum lima (P...
September 30, 2017: Toxins
Daniela Catania, Mindy L Richlen, Yim Ling Mak, Steve L Morton, Elizabeth H Laban, Yixiao Xu, Donald M Anderson, Leo Lai Chan, Michael L Berumen
This study confirms the presence of the toxigenic benthic dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus belizeanus and Ostreopsis spp. in the central Red Sea. To our knowledge, this is also the first report of these taxa in coastal waters of Saudi Arabia, indicating the potential occurrence of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in that region. During field investigations carried out in 2012 and 2013, a total of 100 Turbinaria and Halimeda macroalgae samples were collected from coral reefs off the Saudi Arabian coast and examined for the presence of Gambierdiscus and Ostreopsis, two toxigenic dinoflagellate genera commonly observed in coral reef communities around the world...
September 2017: Harmful Algae
Sarah Karafas, Sing Tung Teng, Chui Pin Leaw, Catharina Alves-de-Souza
The genus Amphidinium is an important group of athecated dinoflagellates because of its high abundance in marine habitats, its member's ability to live in a variety of environmental conditions and ability to produce toxins. Furthermore, the genus is of particular interest in the biotechnology field for its potential in the pharmaceutical arena. Taxonomically the there is a history of complication and confusion over the proper identities and placements of Amphidinium species due to high genetic variability coupled with high morphological conservation...
September 2017: Harmful Algae
Georgia G Kournoutou, Panagiota C Giannopoulou, Eleni Sazakli, Michel Leotsinidis, Dimitrios L Kalpaxis
Numerous studies have shown the ability of trace metals to accumulate in marine organisms and cause oxidative stress that leads to perturbations in many important intracellular processes, including protein synthesis. This study is mainly focused on the exploration of structural changes, like base modifications, scissions, and conformational changes, caused in 18S and 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) isolated from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to 40μg/L Cu, 30μg/L Hg, or 100μg/L Cd, for 5 or 15days...
September 6, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Chinnasamy Mani, Jeyaperumal Selvakumari, YeonSoo Han, YongHun Jo, Krishnaraj Thirugnanasambantham, Somaiah Sundarapandian, Subbiah Poopathi
A marine Bacillus cereus (VCRC B540) with mosquitocidal effect was recently reported from red snapper fish (Lutjanus sanguineous) gut and surface layer protein (S-layer protein, SLP) was reported to be mosquito larvicidal factor. In this present study, the gene encoding the surface layer protein was amplified from the genomic DNA and functionally characterized. Amplification of SLP-encoding gene revealed 1,518 bp PCR product, and analysis of the sequence revealed the presence of 1482 bp open reading frame with coding capacity for a polypeptide of 493 amino acids...
September 26, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Frances M Van Dolah, Gurjeet S Kohli, Jeanine S Morey, Shauna A Murray
Dinoflagellates are prolific producers of polyketide compounds, many of which are potent toxins with adverse impacts on human and marine animal health. To identify polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in the brevetoxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, we assembled a transcriptome from 595 million Illumina reads, sampled under different growth conditions. The assembly included 125,687 transcripts greater than 300 nt in length, with over half having >100x coverage. We found 121 transcripts encoding Type I ketosynthase (KS) domains, of which 99 encoded single KS domains, while 22 contained multiple KS domains arranged in 1-3 protein modules...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Phycology
N G Rasamimanana, J C Randrianandrasana, K D Andrianarimanana, H Rabesandratana, N E Raveloson, A Ralison
Chelonitoxism is a form of food poisoning due to the consumption of sea turtle flesh or viscera, which contain marine toxins called chelonitoxins. Because the passage of these toxins into breast milk is thought to be fatal to breastfed babies, we sought to confirm the possibility of this transmission of toxins through breastfeeding and to determine the symptoms of mothers and the severity of poisoning in babies. A recent case of collective consumption of sea turtle meat from the species Eretmochelys imbricata in western Madagascar affected 76 victims...
August 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Byung-Hwa Min, Yuvaraj Ravikumar, Do-Hee Lee, Kwang Seek Choi, Bo-Mi Kim, Jae-Sung Rhee
Microcystins (MCs) are naturally occurring algal toxins in the aquatic environment and pose a serious threat to the ecosystem. In general, aquatic populations are structured by organisms of different ages, with varying degrees of biochemical and physiological responses. In this study, juvenile and adult marine mysids (Neomysis awatschensis) were exposed to MC-Leucine Arginine (MC-LR) (0.1, 1, and 10 μg L(-1)) for 7 days, and the bioconcentration dynamics and responses of antioxidant defense system were measured during the exposure and additional depuration periods (7 days)...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Qing Li, Neda Barghi, Aiping Lu, Alexander E Fedosov, Pradip K Bandyopadhyay, Arturo O Lluisma, Gisela P Concepcion, Mark Yandell, Baldomero M Olivera, Helena Safavi-Hemami
The genus Conus comprises approximately 700 species of venomous marine cone snails that are highly efficient predators of worms, snails, and fish. In evolutionary terms, cone snails are relatively young with the earliest fossil records occurring in the Lower Eocene, 55 Ma. The rapid radiation of cone snail species has been accompanied by remarkably high rates of toxin diversification. To shed light on the molecular mechanisms that accompany speciation, we investigated the toxin repertoire of two sister species, Conus andremenezi and Conus praecellens, that were until recently considered a single variable species...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
Motohiro Shiotani, Toby B Cole, Sungwoo Hong, Julie Ju Young Park, William C Griffith, Thomas M Burbacher, Tomomi Workman, Lucio G Costa, Elaine M Faustman
Domoic acid (DA) is an algal toxin which has been associated with significant neurotoxicity in humans, non-human primates, rodents, and marine mammals. Developmental exposure to DA is believed to result in neurotoxicity that may persist into adulthood. DA is produced by harmful algal blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia, raising concerns about the consumption of contaminated seafood. We evaluated oral exposures to DA during pregnancy in mice. Doses of 0 (vehicle), 1 or 3mg/kg/d of DA were administered by gavage to C57BL/6J mice on gestational days 10 to 17...
September 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Junhui Chen, Tongzhu Han, Xiaotong Li, Xiuping He, Yanlong Wang, Farong Chen, Xincheng Song, Deshan Zhou, Xiaoru Wang
For the first time, the composition, concentration and distribution characteristics of typical lipophilic marine algal toxins (LMATs) are investigated in surface seawater, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments from the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea, China. Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) and okadaic acid (OA) were detected in offshore surface seawater samples (n=67) of the Yellow and Bohai Seas, and PTX2 was found in higher concentrations than OA. The concentrations of PTX2 were between 0.49 and 14.14ng/L. OA, dinophysistoxin-1(DTX1), PTX2 and gymnodimine (GYM) were detected in the nearshore surface seawater samples (n=20) of the Haizhou Bay of the Yellow Sea...
September 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Marcia Bodero, Toine F H Bovee, Si Wang, Ron L A P Hoogenboom, Mirjam D Klijnstra, Liza Portier, Peter J M Hendriksen, Arjen Gerssen
The neuro-2a bioassay is considered as one of the most promising cell-based in vitro bioassays for the broad screening of seafood products for the presence of marine biotoxins. The neuro-2a assay has been shown to detect a wide array of toxins like paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs), ciguatoxins, and also lipophilic marine biotoxins (LMBs). However, the neuro-2a assay is rarely used for routine testing of samples due to matrix effects that, for example, lead to false positives when testing for LMBs. As a result there are only limited data on validation and evaluation of its performance on real samples...
September 8, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Filip Touska, Simon Sattler, Philipp Malsch, Richard J Lewis, Peter W Reeh, Katharina Zimmermann
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are marine toxins that cause ciguatera fish poisoning, a debilitating disease dominated by sensory and neurological disturbances that include cold allodynia and various painful symptoms as well as long-lasting pruritus. Although CTXs are known as the most potent mammalian sodium channel activator toxins, the etiology of many of its neurosensory symptoms remains unresolved. We recently described that local application of 1 nM Pacific Ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1) into the skin of human subjects induces a long-lasting, painful axon reflex flare and that CTXs are particularly effective in releasing calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) from nerve terminals...
August 30, 2017: Marine Drugs
Stefano Accoroni, Luciana Tartaglione, Emma Dello Iacovo, Salvatore Pichierri, Mauro Marini, Alessandra Campanelli, Carmela Dell'Aversano, Cecilia Totti
Intense blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis have been a recurrent phenomenon along several Mediterranean coasts. Blooms have been associated with noxious effects on human health and mortality of marine organisms, due to the production of palytoxin-like compounds. We analyzed the toxin concentrations throughout an O. cf. ovata bloom to highlight their relationships with environmental parameters in the Conero Riviera, northern Adriatic Sea. High temperature and balanced nutrient conditions were the optimal environmental conditions to start and sustain blooms as well as to maximize toxin production...
August 29, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Luis M Botana, Vitor Vasconcelos
Rex Munday was a scientist working for AgResearch Ltd. in New Zealand. He was a leading figure in the area of marine toxin toxicity. His passing in July 2017 marked a loss for his family, as well as for colleagues who knew him as a dedicated professional, and a lively scientist with a great sense of humor.
August 24, 2017: Toxins
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