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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677131/solid-phase-adsorption-toxin-tracking-spatt-technology-for-the-monitoring-of-aquatic-toxins-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Mélanie Roué, Hélène Taiana Darius, Mireille Chinain
The Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) technology, first introduced in 2004, uses porous synthetic resins capable of passively adsorbing toxins produced by harmful microalgae or cyanobacteria and dissolved in the water. This method allows for the detection of toxic compounds directly in the water column and offers numerous advantages over current monitoring techniques (e.g., shellfish or fish testing and microalgae/cyanobacteria cell detection), despite some limitations. Numerous laboratory and field studies, testing different adsorbent substrates of which Diaion® HP20 resin appears to be the most versatile substrate, have been carried out worldwide to assess the applicability of these passive monitoring devices to the detection of toxins produced by a variety of marine and freshwater microorganisms...
April 20, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670604/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-a-toxigenic-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-catenella-and-its-non-toxigenic-mutant-exposed-to-a-cell-cycle-inhibitor-colchicine
#2
Shu-Fei Zhang, Yong Zhang, Lin Lin, Da-Zhi Wang
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of potent neurotoxic alkaloids mainly produced by marine dinoflagellates and their biosynthesis is associated with the cell cycle. Study shows that colchicine can cease cell division and inhibit PST production of dinoflagellates. However, the molecular mechanism behind this linkage is unknown. Here, we applied the iTRAQ-based proteomic approach to investigate protein expression profiles of a toxigenic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella (ACHK-T) and its non-toxigenic mutant (ACHK-NT) when treated with colchicine...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653309/bioactive-extracellular-compounds-produced-by-the-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-minutum-are-highly-detrimental-for-oysters
#3
J Castrec, P Soudant, L Payton, D Tran, P Miner, C Lambert, N Le Goïc, A Huvet, V Quillien, F Boullot, Z Amzil, H Hégaret, C Fabioux
Blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp., known as producers of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are regularly detected on the French coastline. PSTs accumulate into harvested shellfish species, such as the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, and can cause strong disorders to consumers at high doses. The impacts of Alexandrium minutum on C. gigas have often been attributed to its production of PSTs without testing separately the effects of the bioactive extracellular compounds (BECs) with allelopathic, hemolytic, cytotoxic or ichthyotoxic properties, which can also be produced by these algae...
March 29, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642406/fucoidan-rescues-p-cresol-induced-cellular-senescence-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-fak-akt-twist-axis
#4
Jun Hee Lee, Chul Won Yun, Jin Hur, Sang Hun Lee
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a source for cell-based therapy. Although MSCs have the potential for tissue regeneration, their therapeutic efficacy is restricted by the uremic toxin, p -cresol, in chronic kidney disease (CKD). To address this issue, we investigated the effect of fucoidan, a marine sulfated polysaccharide, on cellular senescence in MSCs. After p -cresol exposure, MSC senescence was induced, as indicated by an increase in cell size and a decrease in proliferation capacity. Treatment of senescent MSCs with fucoidan significantly reversed this cellular senescence via regulation of SMP30 and p21, and increased proliferation through the regulation of cell cycle-associated proteins (CDK2, CDK4, cyclin D1, and cyclin E)...
April 6, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621159/bioactive-compounds-isolated-from-neglected-predatory-marine-gastropods
#5
REVIEW
Ashlin H Turner, David J Craik, Quentin Kaas, Christina I Schroeder
A diverse range of predatory marine gastropods produce toxins, yet most of these molecules remain uncharacterized. Conus species have received the most attention from researchers, leading to several conopeptides reaching clinical trials. This review aims to summarize what is known about bioactive compounds isolated from species of neglected marine gastropods, especially in the Turridae, Terebridae, Babyloniidae, Muricidae, Buccinidae, Colubrariidae, Nassariidae, Cassidae, and Ranellidae families. Multiple species have been reported to contain bioactive compounds with potential toxic activity, but most of these compounds have not been characterized or even clearly identified...
April 5, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617191/alpha-galactosylceramide-%C3%AE-galcer-enhances-vaccine-induced-protection-in-a-model-of-ricin-intoxication
#6
Jennifer L Yates, Elizabeth Leadbetter, Nicholas J Mantis
Alpha-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) is a glycolipid derived from a marine sponge that is a potent activator of both mouse and human invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. For that reason, αGalCer is a promising vaccine adjuvant that has been shown to improve both humoral and cellular immunity when co-administered with various vaccines, including candidate vaccines for biodefense. In the current study, we tested the effectiveness of αGalCer as an adjuvant for the clinically-relevant ricin toxin subunit vaccine, RiVax...
April 4, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616558/synthetic-analogs-of-the-snail-toxin-6-bromo-2-mercaptotryptamine-dimer-brmt-reveal-that-lipid-bilayer-perturbation-does-not-underlie-its-modulation-of-voltage-gated-potassium-channels
#7
Christopher Dockendorff, Disha Manoj Gandhi, Ian H Kimball, Kenneth S Eum, Radda Rusinova, Helgi I Ingólfsson, Ruchi Kapoor, Thasin Peyear, Matthew W Dodge, Stephen F Martin, Richard Aldrich, Olaf S Andersen, Jon T Sack
Drugs do not act solely by canonical ligand-receptor binding interactions. Amphiphilic drugs partition into membranes thereby perturbing bulk lipid bilayer properties and possibly altering the function of membrane proteins. Distinguishing membrane perturbation from more direct protein-ligand interactions is an ongoing challenge in chemical biology. Herein, we present one strategy for doing so using dimeric 6-bromo-2-mercaptotryptamine (BrMT) and synthetic analogs. BrMT is a chemically unstable marine snail toxin that has unique effects on voltage-gated K+ channel proteins, making it an attractive medicinal chemistry lead...
April 4, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602502/blurred-lines-multiple-freshwater-and-marine-algal-toxins-at-the-land-sea-interface-of-san-francisco-bay-california
#8
Melissa B Peacock, Corinne M Gibble, David B Senn, James E Cloern, Raphael M Kudela
San Francisco Bay (SFB) is a eutrophic estuary that harbors both freshwater and marine toxigenic organisms that are responsible for harmful algal blooms. While there are few commercial fishery harvests within SFB, recreational and subsistence harvesting for shellfish is common. Coastal shellfish are monitored for domoic acid and paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), but within SFB there is no routine monitoring for either toxin. Dinophysis shellfish toxins (DSTs) and freshwater microcystins are also present within SFB, but not routinely monitored...
March 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597338/dose-response-modelling-of-paralytic-shellfish-poisoning-psp-in-humans
#9
Nathalie Arnich, Anne Thébault
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by a group of marine toxins with saxitoxin (STX) as the reference compound. Symptoms in humans after consumption of contaminated shellfish vary from slight neurological and gastrointestinal effects to fatal respiratory paralysis. A systematic review was conducted to identify reported cases of human poisoning associated with the ingestion of shellfish contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). Raw data were collected from 143 exposed individuals (113 with symptoms, 30 without symptoms) from 13 studies...
March 28, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593666/factors-involved-in-the-persistence-of-a-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-strain-in-bovine-feces-and-gastro-intestinal-content
#10
Audrey Segura, Pauline Auffret, Delphine Bibbal, Marine Bertoni, Alexandra Durand, Grégory Jubelin, Monique Kérourédan, Hubert Brugère, Yolande Bertin, Evelyne Forano
Healthy cattle are the primary reservoir for O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli responsible for human food-borne infections. Because farm environment acts as a source of cattle contamination, it is important to better understand the factors controlling the persistence of E. coli O157:H7 outside the bovine gut. The E. coli O157:H7 strain MC2, identified as a persistent strain in French farms, possessed the characteristics required to cause human infections and genetic markers associated with clinical O157:H7 isolates...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561785/cyanobacteria-scytonema-javanicum-and-scytonema-ocellatum-lipopolysaccharides-elicit-release-of-superoxide-anion-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-cytokines-and-chemokines-by-rat-microglia-in-vitro
#11
Lucas C Klemm, Evan Czerwonka, Mary L Hall, Philip G Williams, Alejandro M S Mayer
Cosmopolitan Gram-negative cyanobacteria may affect human and animal health by contaminating terrestrial, marine and freshwater environments with toxins, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The cyanobacterial genus Scytonema ( S ) produces several toxins, but to our knowledge the bioactivity of genus Scytonema LPS has not been investigated. We recently reported that cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. LPS elicited classical and alternative activation of rat microglia in vitro. Thus, we hypothesized that treatment of brain microglia in vitro with either cyanobacteria S...
March 21, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558709/multi-biomarker-analysis-of-pollution-effect-on-resident-populations-of-blue-mussels-from-the-baltic-sea
#12
Josefine Larsson, Katarzyna Smolarz, Justyna Świeżak, Magda Turower, Natalia Czerniawska, Mats Grahn
Anthropogenic pollution including metals, petroleum, toxins, nutrients and many others is a growing problem in the marine environment. These are important factors altering the environment and by that the fate of many local populations of marine organisms. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of selected point pollution sources on resident populations of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis trossulus) in the Baltic Sea using multiple biomarker approach. The study used a nested sampling scheme in which sites from reference (REF) habitats are geographically paired with selected sites from sewage treatment plants (STP) and harbors (HAR)...
March 1, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554636/the-role-of-marine-biotoxins-on-the-trophic-transfer-of-mn-and-zn-in-fish
#13
Simon Pouil, Rachel J Clausing, Marc Metian, Paco Bustamante, Marie-Yasmine Dechraoui Bottein
Essential nutrients are critical for physiological processes of organisms. In fish, they are obtained primarily from the diet, and their transfer and accumulation are known to be impacted by environmental variables such as water temperature, pH and salinity, as well as by diet composition and matrices. Yet, prey items consumed by fish may also contain toxic compounds such as marine toxins associated with harmful algae. These biotoxins have the potential to affect essential trace element assimilation in fish through chemical interactions such as the formation of trace element-toxin complexes or by affecting general fish physiology as in the modification of ion-specific transport pathways...
March 5, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547537/toxins-in-drug-discovery-and-pharmacology
#14
EDITORIAL
Steve Peigneur, Jan Tytgat
Venoms from marine and terrestrial animals (cone snails, scorpions, spiders, snakes, centipedes, cnidarian, etc.) can be seen as an untapped cocktail of biologically active compounds, being increasingly recognized as a new emerging source of peptide-based therapeutics.
March 16, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518322/in-vitro-effects-of-chronic-spirolide-treatment-on-human-neuronal-stem-cell-differentiatiation-and-cholinergic-system-development
#15
Andrea Boente Juncal, Aida G Mendez, Carmen Vale, Mercedes R Vieytes, Luis M Botana
Spirolides are marine toxins, produced by dinoflagellates that act as potent antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These compounds are not toxic for humans and since there are no reports of human intoxications caused by this group of toxins they are not yet currently regulated in Europe. Currently 13-desmethyl spirolide C, 13,19-didesmethyl spirolide C and 20-methyl spirolide G are commercially available as reference materials. Previous work in our laboratory has demonstrated that after 4 days of treatment of primary mice cortical neurons with 13-desmethyl spirolide C, the compound ameliorated the glutamate induced toxicity and increased acetylcholine levels and the expression of the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme being useful both in vitro and in vivo to decrease the brain pathology associated with Alzheimer´s disease...
March 8, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515532/transmission-and-toxigenic-potential-of-vibrio-cholerae-in-hilsha-fish-tenualosa-ilisha-for-human-consumption-in-bangladesh
#16
Zenat Z Hossain, Israt Farhana, Suhella M Tulsiani, Anowara Begum, Peter K M Jensen
Fish have been considered natural reservoirs of Vibrio cholerae , the deadly diarrheal pathogen. However, little is known about the role of fish in the transmission of V. cholerae from the Bay of Bengal to the households of rural and urban Bangladesh. This study analyzes the incidence and pathogenic potential of V. cholerae in Hilsha ( Tenualosa ilisha ), a commonly caught and consumed fish that exhibits a life cycle in both freshwater and marine environments in Bangladesh. During the period from October 2014 to October 2015, samples from the gills, recta, intestines, and scale swabs of a total of 48 fish were analyzed...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514313/targeted-sequencing-of-venom-genes-from-cone-snail-genomes-improves-understanding-of-conotoxin-molecular-evolution
#17
Mark A Phuong, Gusti N Mahardika
To expand our capacity to discover venom sequences from the genomes of venomous organisms, we applied targeted sequencing techniques to selectively recover venom gene superfamilies and non-toxin loci from the genomes of 32 cone snail species (family, Conidae), a diverse group of marine gastropods that capture their prey using a cocktail of neurotoxic peptides (conotoxins). We were able to successfully recover conotoxin gene superfamilies across all species with high confidence (> 100X coverage) and used these data to provide new insights into conotoxin evolution...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509715/preliminary-results-on-the-evaluation-of-the-occurrence-of-tetrodotoxin-associated-to-marine-vibrio-spp-in-bivalves-from-the-galician-rias-northwest-of-spain
#18
Jose Manuel Leão, Antonio Lozano-Leon, Jorge Giráldez, Óscar Vilariño, Ana Gago-Martínez
Tetrodotoxins (TTX) are a potent group of natural neurotoxins putatively produced by symbiotic microorganisms and affecting the aquatic environment. These neurotoxins have been recently found in some species of bivalves and gastropods along the European Coasts (Greece, UK, and The Netherlands) linked to the presence of high concentrations of Vibrio , in particular Vibrio parahaemolyticus . This study is focused on the evaluation of the presence of Vibrio species and TTX in bivalves (mussels, oysters, cockles, clams, scallops, and razor clams) from Galician Rias (northwest of Spain)...
March 6, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502403/selective-extraction-and-purification-of-azaspiracids-from-blue-mussels-mytilus-edulis-using-boric-acid-gel
#19
Christopher O Miles, Jane Kilcoyne, Pearse McCarron, Sabrina D Giddings, Thor Waaler, Thomas Rundberget, Ingunn A Samdal, Kjersti E Løvberg
Azaspiracids (AZAs) belong to a family of more than 50 polyether toxins originating from marine dinoflagellates such as Azadinium spinosum. All of the AZAs reported thus far contain a 21,22-dihydroxy group. Boric acid gel (BAG) can bind selectively to compounds containing vic-diols or α-hydroxycarboxylic acids via formation of reversible boronate complexes. Here we report use of BAG to selectively capture and release AZAs from extracts of blue mussels. Analysis of the extracts and BAG fractions by LC-MS showed that this procedure resulted in an excellent clean-up of the AZAs in the extract...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495385/fatal-canine-intoxications-linked-to-the-presence-of-saxitoxins-in-stranded-marine-organisms-following-winter-storm-activity
#20
Andrew D Turner, Monika Dhanji-Rapkova, Karl Dean, Steven Milligan, Mike Hamilton, Julie Thomas, Chris Poole, Jo Haycock, Jo Spelman-Marriott, Alice Watson, Katherine Hughes, Bridget Marr, Alan Dixon, Lewis Coates
At the start of 2018, multiple incidents of dog illnesses were reported following consumption of marine species washed up onto the beaches of eastern England after winter storms. Over a two-week period, nine confirmed illnesses including two canine deaths were recorded. Symptoms in the affected dogs included sickness, loss of motor control, and muscle paralysis. Samples of flatfish, starfish, and crab from the beaches in the affected areas were analysed for a suite of naturally occurring marine neurotoxins of dinoflagellate origin...
February 26, 2018: Toxins
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