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marine toxins

Ghada Souid, Nouha Souayed, Zohra Haouas, Khira Maaroufi
Okadaic Acid (OA) is a marine toxin responsible for DSP (Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning) in humans produced by dinoflagellate. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of OA have been well reported in mammalian experimental animals and in vitro cultured cells. However, there are no available investigations regarding the involvement of the oxidative stress pathways in OA toxicity, especially on aquatic animals such as fish. In this context, we aimed in the present work to demonstrate whether OA (7.5 μg/ml) induces oxidative stress and histopathological damages in the fish species Sparus aurata under short term exposure (2 h, 4 h and 24 h)...
February 7, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Elitza S Germanov, Andrea D Marshall, Lars Bejder, Maria Cristina Fossi, Neil R Loneragan
Microplastic pollution can impact filter-feeding marine megafauna, namely mobulid rays, filter-feeding sharks, and baleen whales. Emerging research on these flagship species highlights potential exposure to microplastic contamination and plastic-associated toxins. Research and its wide communication are needed to understand the magnitude of the issue and improve marine stewardship.
February 5, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Sumei Ling, Shiwei Xiao, Chengjie Xie, Rongzhi Wang, Linmao Zeng, Ke Wang, Danping Zhang, Xiulan Li, Shihua Wang
Brevetoxin-1 (BTX-1), a marine toxin mostly produced by the dinoflagellatae Karenia brevis, has caused the death of marine organisms and has had numerous toxicological effects on human health. Hence, it is very necessary to develop a rapid, economical, and reliable immunoassay method for BTX-1 detection. In this study, two kinds of complete antigen were synthesized using the succinic anhydride and isobutyl chloroformate two-step methods. Conjugate BTX-1-OVA was used as an antigen for mice immunization, and BTX-1-BSA for measuring the titer of the produced antibodies...
February 8, 2018: Toxins
Douglas Couet, Olivier Pringault, Chrystelle Bancon-Montigny, Nicolas Briant, Françoise Elbaz Poulichet, Sophie Delpoux, Ons Kefi-Daly Yahia, BenGharbia Hela, M'Rabet Charaf, Fabienne Hervé, Georges Rovillon, Zouher Amzil, Mohamed Laabir
Controlled laboratory experiments were conducted to test the effects of copper (Cu2+) and butyltins (BuT) on the growth, photosynthetic activity and toxin content of two HABs (Harmful Algal Blooms) dinoflagellates, the planktonic Alexandrium catenella and the benthic Ostreopsis cf. ovata. Microalgae were exposed to increasing concentrations of Cu2+ (10-4 to 31 nM) or BuT (0.084 to 84 nM) for seven days. When considering the growth, EC50 values were 0.16 (±0.09) nM and 0.03 (±0.02) nM of Cu2+ for A. catenella and O...
January 6, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Donatella Ottaviani, Laura Medici, Giulia Talevi, Maira Napoleoni, Patrizia Serratore, Emanuele Zavatta, Giorgia Bignami, Laura Masini, Serena Chierichetti, Stefano Fisichella, Francesca Leoni
Toxigenic and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and genetic relatedness of 42 non-O1/O139 V. cholerae strains, the majority of them isolated from seafood and marine water of the Adriatic sea, Italy, and 9 clinical strains, two of which with seawater of the Adriatic as the source of infection, were studied. All strains had hlyA El Tor gene but lacked ctxA gene. Four and two isolates, respectively, also had stn/sto and tcpA Class genes. More than 90% of strains showed susceptibility to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, cloramphenicol, tetracycline, trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole and intermediate or full resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin...
June 2018: Food Microbiology
Raquel A F Neves, Mariana Contins, Silvia M Nascimento
Blooms of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata have been recorded with increasing frequency, intensity and geographic distribution. This dinoflagellate produces potent toxins that may cause mortality of marine invertebrates. Adults of sea urchins are commonly affected by O. cf. ovata exposure with evidence of spines loss and high mortality during periods of high dinoflagellate abundances. Here, we report on the effects of the toxic dinoflagellate O. cf. ovata on fertilization and early development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, a key ecological herbivore...
February 2, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Theresa K Hattenrath-Lehmann, Mark W Lusty, Ryan B Wallace, Bennie Haynes, Zhihong Wang, Maggie Broadwater, Jonathan R Deeds, Steve L Morton, William Hastback, Leonora Porter, Karen Chytalo, Christopher J Gobler
Marine biotoxin-contaminated seafood has caused thousands of poisonings worldwide this century. Given these threats, there is an increasing need for improved technologies that can be easily integrated into coastal monitoring programs. This study evaluates approaches for monitoring toxins associated with recurrent toxin-producing Alexandrium and Dinophysis blooms on Long Island, NY, USA, which cause paralytic and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (PSP and DSP), respectively. Within contrasting locations, the dynamics of pelagic Alexandrium and Dinophysis cell densities, toxins in plankton, and toxins in deployed blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were compared with passive solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) samplers filled with two types of resin, HP20 and XAD-2...
January 13, 2018: Marine Drugs
Valeska Contardo-Jara, Torsten Schwanemann, Maranda Esterhuizen-Londt, Stephan Pflugmacher
Bioaccumulation of several cyanotoxins has been observed in numerous food webs. More recently, the neurotoxic, non-proteinogenic amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) was shown to biomagnify in marine food webs. It was thus necessary to assess whether a human exposure risk via a terrestrial food source could exist. As shown for other cyanotoxins, spray irrigation of crop plants with cyanobacterial bloom-contaminated surface water poses the risk of toxin transfer into edible plant parts. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated a possible transfer of BMAA via spray irrigation into the seeds of one of the world's most widely cultivated crop plants, Triticum aestivum...
January 11, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Qiwen Liao, Shengnan Li, Shirley Weng In Siu, Binrui Yang, Chen Huang, Judy Yuet-Wa Chan, Jean-Étienne Morlighem, Clarence Tsun Ting Wong, Gandhi Radis-Baptista, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee
Palythoa caribaeorum (class Anthozoa) is a zoanthid that together jellyfishes, hydra, and sea anemones, which are venomous and predatory, belongs to the Phyllum Cnidaria. The distinguished feature in these marine animals is the cnidocytes in the body tissues, responsible for toxin production and injection that are used majorly for prey capture and defense. With exception for other anthozoans, the toxin cocktails of zoanthids have been scarcely studied and are poorly known. Here, based on the analysis of P. caribaeorum transcriptome, numerous predicted venom-featured polypeptides were identified, including allergens, neurotoxins, membrane-active and Kunitz-like peptides (PcKuz)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
Masatoshi Hori, Futoshi Yazama, Yasuhiro Matsuura, Ryo Yoshimoto, Takeharu Kaneda, Takeshi Yasumoto, Hiroshi Ozaki, Hideaki Karaki
Pectenotoxin-2 (PCTX-2) is one of the polyether macrolide toxins isolated from scallops involved in diarrheic shellfish poisoning via actin depolymerization. In the present study, we examined the bioactive mechanism of PCTX-2 in smooth muscle cells and clarify mode of action of the PCTX-2-induced actin depolymerization using purified skeletal actin. PCTX-2 (300 nM-3 μM) non-selectively inhibited vascular smooth muscle contractions elicited by high K+ or phenylephrine in a dose-dependent manner. However, elevated cytosolic Ca2+ and myosin light chain phosphorylation stimulated by high K+ were only slightly inhibited by PCTX-2...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Qiao Yang, Xiaoling Zhang, Lingzhi Li, Ruonan Zhang, Lijuan Feng, Jun Mu
During an investigation of the biodiversity of the cultivable bacterial community associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin-producing marine dinoflagellate, Alexandrium minutum a novel algal-associated bacterium, designated strain AT2-AT was isolated. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis showed that the strain is a member of the genus Ponticoccus, with high sequence similarity to Ponticoccus litoralis DSM 18986T (97.9%) and Ponticoccus lacteus JCM 30379T (96.0%). However, based on the data obtained for the physiological and biochemical characteristics, and low level of DNA-DNA relatedness analysis, the strain could be genotypically and phenotypically differentiated from two type strains of the genus Ponticoccus...
December 12, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Catarina Churro, Joana Azevedo, Vitor Vasconcelos, Alexandra Silva
Cyanobacteria blooms are frequent in freshwaters and are responsible for water quality deterioration and human intoxication. Although, not a new phenomenon, concern exists on the increasing persistence, scale, and toxicity of these blooms. There is evidence, in recent years, of the transfer of these toxins from inland to marine waters through freshwater outflow. However, the true impact of these blooms in marine habitats has been overlooked. In the present work, we describe the detection of Planktothrix agardhii, which is a common microcystin producer, in the Portuguese marine coastal waters nearby a river outfall in an area used for shellfish harvesting and recreational activities...
December 3, 2017: Toxins
Craig J Forsyth, Nathaniel Kenton, Daniel Adu-Ampratwum, Antony A Okumu, Pearse McCarron, Jane Kilcoyne, Frode Rise, Alistair L Wilkins, Christopher O Miles
The previously accepted structure of the marine toxin azaspiracid-3 is revised based upon an original convergent and stereoselective total synthesis of the natural product. The development of a structural revision hypothesis, its testing, and corroboration are reported. Synthetic (6R,10R,13R,14R,16R,17R, 19S,20S,21R,24S,25S,28S,30S,32R,33R,34R,36S,37S,39R)-azaspiracid-3 chromatographically and spectroscopically matched naturally occurring azaspiracid-3, whereas the previously assigned (20R)-epimer did not.
November 28, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Masafumi Natsuike, Rui Saito, Amane Fujiwara, Kohei Matsuno, Atsushi Yamaguchi, Naonobu Shiga, Toru Hirawake, Takashi Kikuchi, Shigeto Nishino, Ichiro Imai
The eastern Bering Sea has a vast continental shelf, which contains various endangered marine mammals and large fishery resources. Recently, high numbers of toxic A. tamarense resting cysts were found in the bottom sediment surface of the eastern Bering Sea shelf, suggesting that the blooms have recently occurred. However, little is known about the presence of A. tamarense vegetative cells in the eastern Bering Sea. This study's goals were to detect the occurrence of A. tamarense vegetative cells on the eastern Bering Sea shelf and to find a relationship between environmental factors and their presence...
2017: PloS One
Karen D Weynberg, Patrick W Laffy, Elisha M Wood-Charlson, Dmitrij Turaev, Thomas Rattei, Nicole S Webster, Madeleine J H van Oppen
Stony corals (Scleractinia) are marine invertebrates that form the foundation and framework upon which tropical reefs are built. The coral animal associates with a diverse microbiome comprised of dinoflagellate algae and other protists, bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses. Using a metagenomics approach, we analysed the DNA and RNA viral assemblages of seven coral species from the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR), demonstrating that tailed bacteriophages of the Caudovirales dominate across all species examined, and ssDNA viruses, notably the Microviridae, are also prevalent...
2017: PeerJ
Olivia Samotus, Niraj Kumar, Philippe Rizek, Mandar Jog
BACKGROUND: There is a significant need for a targeted therapy for essential tremor (ET), as medications have not been developed specifically for ET, and the ones prescribed are often not well-tolerated, so that many patients remain untreated. Recent work has shown that, unlike previous experience, kinematically guided individualized botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections provide benefit along with minimal weakness. Ours is the first long-term (96-week) safety and efficacy study of BoNT-A as monotherapy for ET using kinematically driven injection parameters...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Jing Jing, Rebekah Petroff, Sara Shum, Brenda Crouthamel, Ariel R Topletz, Kimberly S Grant, Thomas M Burbacher, Nina Isoherranen
Domoic acid (DA), a neurotoxin, is produced by marine algae and has caused toxications worldwide in animals and humans. However, the toxicokinetics of DA has not been fully evaluated, and information is missing on the disposition of DA following oral exposures at doses that are considered safe for human consumption. In this study, toxicokinetics of DA were investigated in cynomolgus monkeys, following single doses of 5 µg/kg DA iv, 0.075 mg/kg DA po and 0.15 mg/kg DA po. Following iv dosing, DA had a systemic clearance of 124 ± 71 ml/hr/kg, volume of distribution at steady state of 131±71 ml/kg and elimination half-life of 1...
November 17, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Hela Ben Gharbia, Ons Kéfi-Daly Yahia, Philippe Cecchi, Estelle Masseret, Zouher Amzil, Fabienne Herve, Georges Rovillon, Habiba Nouri, Charaf M'Rabet, Douglas Couet, Habiba Zmerli Triki, Mohamed Laabir
Macrophytes are known to release allelochemicals that have the ability to inhibit the proliferation of their competitors. Here, we investigated the effects of the fresh leaves of two magnoliophytes (Zostera noltei and Cymodocea nodosa) and thalli of the macroalgae Ulva rigida on three HAB-forming benthic dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima, and Coolia monotis). The effects of C. nodosa and U. rigida were also tested against the neurotoxic planktonic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum Litaker sp...
2017: PloS One
Ana do Vale, Cassilda Pereira, Carlos R Osorio, Nuno M S Dos Santos
AIP56 (apoptosis-inducing protein of 56 kDa) is a key virulence factor of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Phdp), the causative agent of a septicaemia affecting warm water marine fish species. Phdp-associated pathology is triggered by AIP56, a short trip AB toxin with a metalloprotease A domain that cleaves the p65 subunit of NF-κB, an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that regulates the expression of inflammatory and anti-apoptotic genes and plays a central role in host responses to infection...
November 14, 2017: Toxins
Pedro Rebelo Wadt, Luiz Laureno Mafra, Camila Prestes Dos Santos Tavares, Luciano Felício Fernandes, Luís Antonio de Oliveira Proença
Pseudo-nitzschia is a diatom genus capable of producing the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA), which has been related to mortalities of marine vertebrates, and the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) in human consumers of contaminated bivalves. This study reports DA production among Pseudo-nitzschia strains isolated from shellfish farming areas in southern Brazil. Twenty-seven cultures of potentially toxigenic Pseudo-nitzschia species were established. Growth, stepped-chain formation, and DA production were evaluated in static, intermittently illuminated (12:12 photoperiod) batch cultures for 12 selected strains, and under continuous light and/or turbulence for a single Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha strain...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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