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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648045/first-identification-of-pltx-like-molecules-in-the-atlantic-coral-species-palythoa-canariensis
#1
María Fraga, Natalia Vilariño, M Carmen Louzao, Lucía Molina, Yanira López, Mark Poli, Luis M Botana
Palytoxin (PLTX) is a complex marine toxin produced by Zoanthids (Palyhtoa), dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis) and cyanobacteria (Trichodesmium). Contact with PLTX-like compounds present in aerosols or marine organisms has been associated with adverse effects on humans. The worldwide distribution of producer species and seafood contaminated with PLTX-like molecules illustrates the global threat to human health. The identification of species capable of palytoxin production is critical for human safety. We studied the presence of PLTX analogues in Palythoa canariensis, a coral species collected in the Atlantic Ocean never described as a PLTX-producer before...
June 24, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637411/venom-peptides-and-toxins-a-prospective-spearhead-in-cancer-treatment
#2
Janet Pik Ching Wong, Bin Li, Hang Fai Kwok
Cancer is a condition of genetically or environmentally mutated, uncontrollable cell growth that directly affects human morbidity and mortality. Many treatments have been adopted to reduce cancer cell proliferation; however, new mutated developments of some cancer cells have started to show resistance towards current therapies and treatments that cause some drugs to lose their efficacy. Additionally, deleterious side-effects of some hard application methods like radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery are less favorable...
June 21, 2017: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630155/haemolytic-actinoporins-interact-with-carbohydrates-using-their-lipid-binding-module
#3
Koji Tanaka, Jose M M Caaveiro, Koldo Morante, Kouhei Tsumoto
Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are proteins endowed with metamorphic properties that enable them to stably fold in water solutions as well as in cellular membranes. PFTs produce lytic pores on the plasma membranes of target cells conducive to lesions, playing key roles in the defensive and offensive molecular systems of living organisms. Actinoporins are a family of potent haemolytic toxins produced by sea anemones vigorously studied as a paradigm of α-helical PFTs, in the context of lipid-protein interactions, and in connection with nanopore technologies...
August 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604648/prevalence-variability-and-bioconcentration-of-saxitoxin-group-in-different-marine-species-present-in-the-food-chain
#4
Javiera Oyaneder Terrazas, Héctor R Contreras, Carlos García
The saxitoxin-group (STX-group) corresponds to toxic metabolites produced by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium, and Pyrodinium. Over the last decade, it has been possible to extrapolate the areas contaminated with the STX-group worldwide, including Chile, a phenomenon that has affected ≈35% of the Southern Pacific coast territory, generating a high economic impact. The objective of this research was to study the toxicity of the STX-group in all aquatic organisms (bivalves, algae, echinoderms, crustaceans, tunicates, cephalopods, gastropods, and fish) present in areas with a variable presence of harmful algal blooms (HABs)...
June 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586370/long-term-tremor-therapy-for-parkinson-and-essential-tremor-with-sensor-guided-botulinum-toxin-type-a-injections
#5
Olivia Samotus, Jack Lee, Mandar Jog
OBJECTIVE: Current pharmacological agents used to treat Parkinson disease (PD) tremor and essential tremor (ET) provide suboptimal benefit and are commonly associated with significant adverse effects. Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) has been shown to be effective for wrist tremor though functionally bothersome muscle weakness frequently occurs. This is the longest study to date demonstrating that BoNT-A therapy coupled with kinematic guidance can provide efficacious outcomes for upper limb tremor with minimized unwanted weakness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582796/relative-molar-response-of-lipophilic-marine-algal-toxins-in-liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#6
Zita Zendong, Manoella Sibat, Christine Herrenknecht, Philipp Hess, Pearse McCarron
RATIONALE: Accurate quantitative analysis of lipophilic toxins by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) requires calibration solution reference materials (RMs) for individual toxin analogs. Untargeted analysis is aimed at identifying a vast number of compounds and thus validation of fully quantitative untargeted methods is not feasible. However, a semi-quantitative approach allowing for profiling is still required and will be strengthened by knowledge of the relative molar response (RMR) of analogs in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI)...
June 5, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574452/two-synechococcus-genes-two-different-effects-on-cyanophage-infection
#7
Ayalla Fedida, Debbie Lindell
Synechococcus is an abundant marine cyanobacterium that significantly contributes to primary production. Lytic phages are thought to have a major impact on cyanobacterial population dynamics and evolution. Previously, an investigation of the transcriptional response of three Synechococcus strains to infection by the T4-like cyanomyovirus, Syn9, revealed that while the transcript levels of the vast majority of host genes declined soon after infection, those for some genes increased or remained stable. In order to assess the role of two such host-response genes during infection, we inactivated them in Synechococcus sp...
June 2, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554022/lipophilic-marine-toxins-discovered-in-the-bohai-sea-using-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#8
Yang Liu, Ren-Cheng Yu, Fan-Zhou Kong, Chen Li, Li Dai, Zhen-Fan Chen, Ming-Jiang Zhou
Some dinoflagellates can produce lipophilic marine toxins, which pose potent threats to seafood consumers. In the Bohai Sea, an important semi-closed inland sea with intensive mariculture industry in China, there is little knowledge concerning lipophilic marine toxins and their potential threats. In this study, net-concentrated phytoplankton samples were periodically collected from 5 typical mariculture zones around the Bohai Sea, including Laishan (LS), Laizhou (LZ), Hangu (HG), Qinhuangdao (QHD) and Huludao (HLD) in 2013 and 2014, and a method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a Q-Trap mass spectrometer was applied to analyze seven representative lipophilic marine toxins, including okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), yessotoxin (YTX), azaspiracid-1 (AZA1), gymnodimine (GYM), and 13-desmethyl spirolide C (desMeC)...
May 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535464/occurrence-of-marine-algal-toxins-in-oyster-and-phytoplankton-samples-in-daya-bay-south-china-sea
#9
Tao Jiang, Lei Liu, Yang Li, Jing Zhang, Zhijun Tan, Haiyan Wu, Tianjiu Jiang, Songhui Lu
The occurrence and seasonal variations of marine algal toxins in phytoplankton and oyster samples in Daya Bay (DYB), South China Sea were investigated. Two Dinophysis species, namely, D. caudata and D. acuminata complex, were identified as Okadaic acid (OA)/pectenotoxin (PTX) related species. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis demonstrated that 2.04-14.47 pg PTX2 per cell was the predominant toxin in single-cell isolates of D. caudata. D. acuminata was not subjected to toxin analysis...
May 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533000/clinical-immunological-and-microbiological-predictors-of-poor-outcome-in-clostridium-difficile-infection
#10
E Reigadas, L Alcalá, M Marín, A Martín, E Bouza
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes increased morbidity and mortality. Clinical data cannot clearly predict poor CDI outcome. Data on the value of microbiological predictors is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To identify early predictors of poor outcome of CDI. METHODS: We prospectively included patients with CDI aged >2years. Clinical, immunological (Toxin B IgG/Ig A and Toxin A IgG/Ig A), microbiological factors (bacterial load, toxin quantification, sporulation, germination, and metronidazole susceptibility) were evaluated to identify early independent predictors of poor outcome...
May 11, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532167/how-the-marine-biotoxins-affect-human-health
#11
Silvia Morabito, Serena Silvestro, Caterina Faggio
Several marine microalgae produce dangerous toxins very damaging to human health, aquatic ecosystems and coastal resources. These Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in recent decades seem greatly increased regarding frequency, severity and biogeographical level, causing serious health risks as a consequence of the consumption of contaminated seafood. Toxins can cause various clinically described syndromes, characterised by a wide range of symptoms: amnesic (ASP), diarrhoetic (DSP), azaspirazid (AZP), neurotoxic (NSP) and paralytic (PSP) shellfish poisonings and ciguatera fish poisoning...
May 22, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528177/tetrodotoxin-in-asian-newts-salamandridae
#12
Mari Yotsu-Yamashita, Stefan W Toennes, Dietrich Mebs
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues occur in a wide range of marine animals but also in terrestrial vertebrates such as frogs, toads and newts. Despite numerous studies on TTX in New World newts (Notophthalmus viridescens, Taricha spp.), few data only exist for Asian newts. Methanolic extracts of newts from China (Cynops orientalis, Pachytriton labiatus, Paramesotriton chinensis), Vietnam (Paramesotriton deloustali, P. guangxiensis), and Laos (Laotriton laoensis) were analyzed by liquid-chromatography-fluorescent detection (LC-FLD) and mass-spectrometry (LC-MS)...
May 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527836/native-ruditapes-decussatus-and-non-indigenous-r-%C3%A2-philippinarum-shellfish-species-living-in-sympatry-comparison-of-regulated-and-non-regulated-biotoxins-accumulation
#13
Ana C Braga, Sandra Lage, Mário Pacheco, Sara Rydberg, Pedro R Costa
The native Ruditapes decussatus and the non-indigenous Ruditapes philippinarum are an important target of shellfish industries. The aim of this study was to compare an invader with a native species living in sympatry in the view of marine biotoxins accumulation. Samples were analysed for regulated and non-regulated biotoxins. The consistently occurrence of okadaic acid-group toxins and BMAA, may cause human health problems and economical losses. A strong positive relationship was observed between species, with significantly higher DSP toxicity in R...
May 11, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516259/-poisoning-caused-by-marine-biotoxins
#14
REVIEW
Philipp Hess
This paper presents a short summary of the knowledge on marine biotoxins. As toxins are known for their acute effects, they have been classified here according to the effects they cause in acute human poisoning incidents. Toxins may thus be distinguished into those that affect the nervous system (paralytic and other neurotoxins), memory (amnesic poisons), and the digestive system (diarrhetic toxins). Furthermore, newly emerging toxins, such as ciguatoxins or shark toxins, and factors that lead to the introduction of toxins in new areas, are presented...
May 17, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513564/tetrodotoxin-producing-bacteria-detection-distribution-and-migration-of-the-toxin-in-aquatic-systems
#15
REVIEW
Timur Yu Magarlamov, Daria I Melnikova, Alexey V Chernyshev
This review is devoted to the marine bacterial producers of tetrodotoxin (TTX), a potent non-protein neuroparalytic toxin. In addition to the issues of the ecology and distribution of TTX-producing bacteria, this review examines issues relating to toxin migration from bacteria to TTX-bearing animals. It is shown that the mechanism of TTX extraction from toxin-producing bacteria to the environment occur through cell death, passive/active toxin excretion, or spore germination of spore-forming bacteria. Data on TTX microdistribution in toxic organs of TTX-bearing animals indicate toxin migration from the digestive system to target organs through the transport system of the organism...
May 17, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513110/separation-and-purification-of-two-minor-typical-diarrhetic-shellfish-poisoning-toxins-from-harmful-marine-microalgae-via-combined-liquid-chromatography-with-mass-spectrometric-detection
#16
Junhui Chen, Yanlong Wang, Lei Pan, Huihui Shen, Dan Fu, Boqiang Fu, Chengjun Sun, Li Zheng
A novel method was developed for the purification of two typical diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins from toxin-producing marine microalgae using macroporous resin, high-speed countercurrent chromatography-mass spectrometry, and semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Analytical high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for identification and purity analysis of okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1 because they exhibit no visible or ultraviolet absorption...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500903/microcystin-lr-bioconcentration-induces-antioxidant-responses-in-the-digestive-gland-of-two-marine-bivalves-crassostrea-gigas-and-mytilus-edulis
#17
Young Dae Kim, Won Jin Kim, Yun Kyung Shin, Do-Hee Lee, Youn-Jung Kim, Jang Kyun Kim, Jae-Sung Rhee
Microcystins (MCs) are a major group of potent cyanobacterial toxins found in freshwater and even brackish waterbodies. To understand the putative correlation between bioconcentration of MCs and antioxidant responses of the digestive gland of bivalves, Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and blue mussel Mytilus edulis were exposed to different concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 20μgL(-1)) of MC-Leucine-Arginine (LR) for seven days. MC-LR bioconcentrated in the digestive glands of both bivalves during exposure period...
May 8, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495477/quantification-of-saxitoxin-in-human-blood-by-elisa
#18
Rebekah E Wharton, Melanie C Feyereisen, Andrea L Gonzalez, Nicole L Abbott, Elizabeth I Hamelin, Rudolph C Johnson
Saxitoxin (STX) is a potent marine toxin that causes paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) which can result in significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Low lethal doses, rapid onset of PSP symptoms, and brief STX half-life in vivo require sensitive and rapid diagnostic techniques to monitor human exposures. Our laboratory has validated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantitative detection of STX from 0.020 to 0.80 ng/mL in human whole blood and from 0.06 to 2.0 ng/mL in dried human blood which is simple, sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective...
July 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472048/multispecies-mass-mortality-of-marine-fauna-linked-to-a-toxic-dinoflagellate-bloom
#19
Michel Starr, Stéphane Lair, Sonia Michaud, Michael Scarratt, Michael Quilliam, Denis Lefaivre, Michel Robert, Andrew Wotherspoon, Robert Michaud, Nadia Ménard, Gilbert Sauvé, Sylvie Lessard, Pierre Béland, Lena Measures
Following heavy precipitation, we observed an intense algal bloom in the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE) that coincided with an unusually high mortality of several species of marine fish, birds and mammals, including species designated at risk. The algal species was identified as Alexandrium tamarense and was determined to contain a potent mixture of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST). Significant levels of PST were found in the liver and/or gastrointestinal contents of several carcasses tested as well as in live planktivorous fish, molluscs and plankton samples collected during the bloom...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466205/effect-of-pure-microcystin-lr-on-activity-and-transcript-level-of-immune-related-enzymes-in-the-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#20
Yanyan Chen, Xianghu Huang, Jianzhu Wang, Changling Li
Microcystins (MCs) in freshwater and marine waters released by toxin-producing cyanobacteria have negative impacts to the aquatic environment. This study aimed to investigate the effect of pure microcystin-LR on activity and transcript level of immune-related enzymes in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. After exposed to varying concentrations of pure microcystin-LR (MC-LR) for 30 days, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), lysozyme (LZM), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), peroxidase (POD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and transcript level of cMn-sod, lzm, gpx were investigated in the hepatopancreas of white shrimp (L...
May 2, 2017: Ecotoxicology
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