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harmful algae

Lei Bi, Gang Pan
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) induced by eutrophication is becoming a serious global environmental problem affecting public health and aquatic ecological sustainability. A novel strategy for the utilization of biomass from HABs was developed by converting the algae cells into hollow mesoporous bio-hydrochar microspheres via hydrothermal carbonization method. The hollow microspheres were used as microreactors and carriers for constructing CaO2 core-mesoporous shell-CaO2 shell microspheres (OCRMs). The CaO2 shells could quickly increase dissolved oxygen to extremely anaerobic water in the initial 40 min until the CaO2 shells were consumed...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Spencer R Saraf, Amy Frenkel, Matthew J Harke, Jennifer G Jankowiak, Christopher J Gobler, Anne E McElroy
Freshwater cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) caused by algae in the genus Microcystis have been increasing in frequency and severity in recent decades. Microcystis blooms threaten aquatic organisms through effects associated with the rapid increase of biomass and the production of the hepatotoxin microcystin (MC) by toxic strains. Among fish, effects of blooms are likely to be more severe for early life stages, and physiological impacts on this life stage could significantly impact recruitment and fish populations...
November 2, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Adriane Clark Jones, K David Hambright, David A Caron
Microbial communities are comprised of complex assemblages of highly interactive taxa. We employed network analyses to identify and describe microbial interactions and co-occurrence patterns between microbial eukaryotes and bacteria at two locations within a low salinity (0.5-3.5 ppt) lake over an annual cycle. We previously documented that the microbial diversity and community composition within Lake Texoma, southwest USA, were significantly affected by both seasonal forces and a site-specific bloom of the harmful alga, Prymnesium parvum...
November 7, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Mary Figgatt, James Hyde, David Dziewulski, Eric Wiegert, Scott Kishbaugh, Grant Zelin, Lloyd Wilson
Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, are photosynthetic, aquatic organisms found in fresh, brackish, and marine water around the world (1). Rapid proliferation and accumulation of potentially toxin-producing cyanobacteria characterize one type of harmful algal bloom (HAB). HABs have the potential to cause illness in humans and animals (2,3); however, the epidemiology of these illnesses has not been well characterized. Statewide in 2015, a total of 139 HABs were identified in New York, 97 (70%) of which were confirmed through laboratory analysis; 77 independent beach closures were ordered at 37 beaches on 20 different bodies of water...
November 3, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Wen-Wen Wang, Xin-Ya Yan, Yun-Hui Li, De-Ren Yu, Hong-Ye Li, Wei-Dong Yang, Jie-Sheng Liu
  To obtain new modified clays with excellent algae removal efficiency, three gemini surfactants including ethylene bis (dodecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride), ethylene bis (octadecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) and ethylene bis (dodecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide) (EDAB), and a poly quaternary ammonium salt, poly dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride, were screened with Chattonella marina. The four chemicals all exhibited high removal efficiencies against C. marina, with EDAB achieving the highest. A series of organ-clays with different ratios of EDAB were prepared, and the associated removal efficiencies were evaluated...
November 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Lishuang Wu, Xingliang Guo, Xianglong Liu, Hong Yang
Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have severely impaired freshwater quality and threatened human health worldwide. Here, a Gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus sp. strain S51107, which exhibits strong algicidal activity against Microcystis aeruginosa, was isolated from Lake Taihu. We found that the algicidal activity of strain S51107 was regulated primarily by NprR-NprX quorum sensing (QS), in which the mature form of the signaling peptide NprX was identified as the SKPDIVG heptapeptide. Disruption of the nprR-nprX cassette markedly decreased the algicidal activity, and complemented strains showed significantly recovered algicidal activity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kyoko Yarimizu, Ricardo Cruz-López, Hendrik Auerbach, Larissa Heimann, Volker Schünemann, Carl J Carrano
The iron uptake and storage systems of terrestrial/higher plants are now reasonably well understood with two basic strategies being distinguished: Strategy I involves the induction of an Fe(III)-chelate reductase (ferrireductase) along with Fe(II) or Fe(III) transporter proteins while strategy II plants have evolved sophisticated systems based on high-affinity, iron specific, binding compounds called phytosiderophores. In contrast, there is little knowledge about the corresponding systems in marine, plant-like lineages...
October 24, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Long Xu, Andrew J Sinclair, Muniba Faiza, Daoming Li, Xianlin Han, Huiyong Yin, Yonghua Wang
Furan fatty acids are found in plants, algae, and fish, and reported to have some positive health benefits, including anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and inhibition of non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation. A major metabolite of furan fatty acids, 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF), has been reported to be increased in patients who progress from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes, although CMPF is not necessarily associated with impaired glucose metabolism. Other studies report that CMPF levels are lower in subjects with diabetes than control subjects...
October 16, 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
Antonio J Pazos, Pablo Ventoso, Roi Martínez-Escauriaza, M Luz Pérez-Parallé, Juan Blanco, Juan C Triviño, José L Sánchez
Bivalve molluscs are filter feeding species that can accumulate biotoxins in their body tissues during harmful algal blooms. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) is caused by species of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia, which produces the toxin domoic acid. The Mytilus galloprovincialis digestive gland transcriptome was de novo assembled based on the sequencing of 12 cDNA libraries, six obtained from control mussels and six from mussels naturally exposed to domoic acid-producing diatom Pseudo-nitzschia australis...
October 12, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Lawrence Sekaluvu, Lefei Zhang, Margaret Gitau
Severe environmental and health impacts have been experienced in the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB) because of eutrophication and associated proliferation of harmful algae blooms. Efforts to improve water quality within the WLEB have been on-going for several decades. However, water quality improvements in the basin have not been realized as anticipated. In this study, factors affecting water quality within the WLEB were evaluated with a view to differentiating their impacts and informing further assessments in the basin...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Nina Dzhembekova, Shingo Urusizaki, Snejana Moncheva, Petya Ivanova, Satoshi Nagai
In this study the plankton diversity in 13 environmental samples from Varna Bay (in the western Black Sea) was analyzed using massively parallel sequencing (MPS). This preliminary study was undertaken to assess the potential of this technology for future implementation in monitoring programs in the Black Sea. Amplicon sequences of the 18S rRNA gene (V4-5 regions) were obtained using the Illumina MiSeq 250PE platform. A total of 1137 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained among which 242 OTUs with >0...
September 2017: Harmful Algae
Sheean T Haley, Harriet Alexander, Andrew R Juhl, Sonya T Dyhrman
The marine eukaryotic alga Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae) is known for forming ichthyotoxic harmful algal blooms (HABs). In the past 50 years, H. akashiwo blooms have increased, occurring globally in highly eutrophic coastal and estuarine systems. These systems often incur dramatic physicochemical changes, including macronutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) enrichment and depletion, on short timescales. Here, H. akashiwo cultures grown under nutrient replete, low N and low P growth conditions were examined for changes in biochemical and physiological characteristics in concert with transcriptome sequencing to provide a mechanistic perspective on the metabolic processes involved in responding to N and P stress...
September 2017: Harmful Algae
Ji Eun Kwon, Hae Jin Jeong, So Jin Kim, Se Hyeon Jang, Kyung Ha Lee, Kyeong Ah Seong
Heterotrophic nanoflagellates are ubiquitous and known to be major predators of bacteria. The feeding of free-living heterotrophic nanoflagellates on phytoplankton is poorly understood, although these two components usually co-exist. To investigate the feeding and ecological roles of major heterotrophic nanoflagellates Katablepharis spp., the feeding ability of Katablepharis japonica on bacteria and phytoplankton species and the type of the prey that K. japonica can feed on were explored. Furthermore, the growth and ingestion rates of K...
September 2017: Harmful Algae
Theresa K Hattenrath-Lehmann, Christopher J Gobler
Biotic interactions dominate plankton communities, yet the microbial consortia associated with harmful algal blooms (HABs) have not been well-described. Here, high-throughput amplicon sequencing of ribosomal genes was used to quantify the dynamics of bacterial (16S) and phytoplankton assemblages (18S) associated with blooms and cultures of two harmful algae, Alexandrium fundyense and Dinophysis acuminata. Experiments were performed to assess changes in natural bacterial and phytoplankton communities in response to the filtrate from cultures of these two harmful algae...
September 2017: Harmful Algae
Paula C Furey, Antonia Liess, Sylvia Lee
This survey of literature on substratumassociated microbiota from 2016 includes highlights of research findings associated with algae, cyanobacteria, and bacteria from a variety of aquatic environments, but primarily freshwaters. It covers topics of relevance to the Water Environment Federation along with those of emerging or recent interest such as nuisance, bloom forming and harmful algae, fossil fuel related contamination, and other environmental pollutants like nanoparticles. Additional interesting findings reported on include general ecology, method development, multistressor interactions, nutrient cycling, taxonomy and systematics, trophic interactions, and biomonitoring, bioassessment, and bioremediation...
October 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Andrew W Griffith, Christopher J Gobler
While early life-stage marine bivalves are vulnerable to ocean acidification, effects over successive generations are poorly characterized. The objective of this work was to assess the transgenerational effects of ocean acidification on two species of North Atlantic bivalve shellfish, Mercenaria mercenaria and Argopecten irradians. Adults of both species were subjected to high and low pCO2 conditions during gametogenesis. Resultant larvae were exposed to low and ambient pH conditions in addition to multiple, additional stressors including thermal stress, food-limitation, and exposure to a harmful alga...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Alberta Pinnola, Matteo Ballottari, Ilaria Bargigia, Marcelo Alcocer, Cosimo D'Andrea, Giulio Cerullo, Roberto Bassi
Light harvesting for oxygenic photosynthesis is regulated to prevent the formation of harmful photoproducts by activation of photoprotective mechanisms safely dissipating the energy absorbed in excess. Lumen acidification is the trigger for the formation of quenching states in pigment binding complexes. With the aim to uncover the photoprotective functional states responsible for excess energy dissipation in green algae and mosses, we compared the fluorescence dynamic properties of the light-harvesting complex stress-related (LHCSR1) protein, which is essential for fast and reversible regulation of light use efficiency in lower plants, as compared to the major LHCII antenna protein, which mainly fulfills light harvesting function...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Flavia Vidal, Daniela Sedan, Daniel D'Agostino, María Lorena Cavalieri, Eduardo Mullen, María Macarena Parot Varela, Cintia Flores, Josep Caixach, Dario Andrinolo
In January 2015, a 20-month-old child and her family took part in recreational activities at Carrasco and Malvín beaches (Montevideo, Uruguay). An intense harmful algae bloom (HAB) was developing along the coast at that time. A few hours after the last recreational exposure episode, the family suffered gastrointestinal symptoms which were self-limited except in the child's case, who was admitted to hospital in Uruguay with diarrhea, vomiting, fatigue, and jaundice. The patient had increased serum levels of liver enzymes and bilirubin and five days later presented acute liver failure...
August 31, 2017: Toxins
Rui Sun, Pengfei Sun, Jianhong Zhang, Sofia Esquivel-Elizondo, Yonghong Wu
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a worldwide problem with numerous negative effects on water systems, which have prompted researchers to study applicable measures to inhibit and control them. This review summarized the current microorganisms-based methods or technologies aimed at controlling HABs. Based on their characteristics, these methods can be divided into two categories: methods based on single-species microorganisms and methods based on microbial aggregates, and four types: methods for rapid decrease of algal cells density (e...
August 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Sigitas Šulčius, Danguolė Montvydienė, Hanna Mazur-Marzec, Jūratė Kasperovičienė, Rokas Rulevičius, Živilė Cibulskaitė
Sustainable and effective water management plans must have a reliable risk assessment strategies for harmful cyanobacterial blooms (HABs) that would enable timely decisions to be made, thus avoiding the trespassing of ecological thresholds, leading to the collapse of ecosystem structure and function. Such strategies are usually based on cyanobacterial biomass and/or on the monitoring of known toxins, which may, however, in many cases, under- or over-represent the actual toxicity of the HAB. Therefore, in this study, by the application of growth-inhibition assays using different bacteria, algae, zooplankton and fish species, we assessed the toxicological potential of two cyanobacterial blooms that differed in total cyanobacterial biomass, species composition and cyanopeptide profiles...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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