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harmful algae

Agnese Lai, Federico Aulenta, Marina Mingazzini, Maria Teresa Palumbo, Marco Petrangeli Papini, Roberta Verdini, Mauro Majone
A sequential reductive-oxidative treatment was developed in this study in a continuous-flow bioelectrochemical reactor to address bioremediation of groundwater contaminated by trichloroethene (TCE) and less-chlorinated but still harmful intermediates, such as vinyl chloride. In order to optimize the anodic compartment, whereby the oxygen-driven microbial oxidation of TCE-daughter products occurs, abiotic batch experiments were performed with various anode materials poised at +1.20 V vs. SHE (i.e., graphite rods and titanium mesh anode coated with mixed metal oxides (MMO)) and setups (i...
November 22, 2016: Chemosphere
Bo Wang, Dan Wu, Ka Him Chu, Liqun Ye, Ho Yin Yip, Zhonghua Cai, Po Keung Wong
Fish-killing harmful algal blooms (HABs) of Chattonella marina causes serious hazards and risks to fish farming and environment throughout the world. At present, it is necessary to explore cost-effective and recyclable materials for controlling C. marina blooms to reduce the cost and control the potential side effect to the environment. A novel earth-abundant natural magnetic sphalerite (NMS) for removing C. marina was systematically investigated, including the effect of NMS dosage, temperature, pH and salinity on algal removal efficiency...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Yooeun Chae, Dokyung Kim, Youn-Joo An
Although fluoride occurs naturally in the environment, excessive amounts of fluoride in freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems can be harmful. We evaluated the toxicity of fluoride compounds on the growth, viability, and photosynthetic capacity of freshwater (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and terrestrial (Chlorococcum infusionum) algae. To measure algal growth inhibition, a flow cytometric method was adopted (i.e., cell size, granularity, and auto-fluorescence measurements), and algal yield was calculated to assess cell viability...
October 28, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Jahir Orozco, Elisa Villa, Carmem-Lara Manes, Linda K Medlin, Delphine Guillebault
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are becoming more frequent as climate changes, with tropical species moving northward. Monitoring programs detecting the presence of toxic algae before they bloom are of paramount importance to protect aquatic ecosystems, aquaculture, human health and local economies. Rapid and reliable species identification methods using molecular barcodes coupled to biosensor detection tools have received increasing attention over the past decade as an alternative to the impractical standard microscopic counting-based techniques...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Camille Detree, Gustavo Núñez-Acuña, Steven Roberts, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate
Saxitoxin (STX), a principal phycotoxin contributing to paralytic shellfish poisoning, is largely produced by marine microalgae of the genus Alexandrium. This toxin affects a wide range of species, inducing massive deaths in fish and other marine species. However, marine bivalves can resist and accumulate paralytic shellfish poisons. Despite numerous studies on the impact of STX in marine bivalves, knowledge regarding STX recognition at molecular level by benthic species remains scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel genes that interact with STX in the Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis...
2016: PloS One
Tarek G Ammari, Marrwa Al-Atiyat, Eyad S Abu-Nameh, Ayoup Ghrair, Daasan Jaradat
Cadmium can enter water, soil and food chain in amounts harmful to human health by industrial wastes. The use of intact and NaOH-treated dried algal tissues (Hydrodictyon reticulatum); a major ecosystem bio-component, for Cd removal from aqueous solutions was characterized. Cadmium biosorption was found to be dependent on solution pH, bioadsorbent dose, the interaction between pH and dose, contact time, and initial Cd concentration. The experimental results indicated that the biosorption performance of alkaline-treated algal tissues was better than that of intact tissues...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Hong Li, Hainan Ai, Li Kang, Xingfu Sun, Qiang He
Measures for removal of toxic harmful algal blooms often cause lysis of algal cells and release of microcystins (MCs). In this study, Acinetobacter sp. CMDB-2 that exhibiting distinct algal lysing activity and MCs degradation capability was isolated. The physiological response and morphological characteristics of toxin-producing Microcystis aeruginosa, the dynamics of intra- and extracellular MC-LR concentration were studied in an algal/bacterial co-cultured system. The results demonstrated that Acinetobacter sp...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Lingxiao Ren, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang, Juan Chen, Jun Hou, Jin Qian
Phosphorus (P) plays a critical role in algal growth; therefore, a better understanding of P availability is essential to control harmful algal blooms. Three algae species, Microcystis aeruginosa, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, were mono-cultured and co-cultured on three types of P substrates, dissolved inorganic P (DIP), phosphomonoesters glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) and β-glycerol phosphate (β-glycerol-P), and phosphonate (glyphosate), to explore their growth and P utilization...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
Quan Zhang, Qin Song, Cui Wang, Cong Zhou, Chengsheng Lu, Meirong Zhao
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have been emerging as a worldwide issue due to their detrimental effect to water quality and the threat to ecological health. However, there were scarcely reports on whether existing agrochemicals such as herbicides have potential effects on Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) which may form large surface blooms. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the effects of glufosinate, a widely use herbicide in the world, on the growth of M. aeruginosa. The change of the content of intracellular (intra-) and extracellular (extra-) levels of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) were also determined by HPLC...
September 7, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Lucy M Turner, Christian Alsterberg, Andrew D Turner, S K Girisha, Ashwin Rai, Jonathan N Havenhand, M N Venugopal, Indrani Karunasagar, Anna Godhe
There is growing evidence that climate change will increase the prevalence of toxic algae and harmful bacteria, which can accumulate in marine bivalves. However, we know little about any possible interactions between exposure to these microorganisms and the effects of climate change on bivalve health, or about how this may affect the bivalve toxin-pathogen load. In mesocosm experiments, mussels, Perna viridis, were subjected to simulated climate change (warming and/or hyposalinity) and exposed to harmful bacteria and/or toxin-producing dinoflagellates...
2016: Scientific Reports
Andreas F Haas, Mohamed F M Fairoz, Linda W Kelly, Craig E Nelson, Elizabeth A Dinsdale, Robert A Edwards, Steve Giles, Mark Hatay, Nao Hisakawa, Ben Knowles, Yan Wei Lim, Heather Maughan, Olga Pantos, Ty N F Roach, Savannah E Sanchez, Cynthia B Silveira, Stuart Sandin, Jennifer E Smith, Forest Rohwer
Microbialization refers to the observed shift in ecosystem trophic structure towards higher microbial biomass and energy use. On coral reefs, the proximal causes of microbialization are overfishing and eutrophication, both of which facilitate enhanced growth of fleshy algae, conferring a competitive advantage over calcifying corals and coralline algae. The proposed mechanism for this competitive advantage is the DDAM positive feedback loop (dissolved organic carbon (DOC), disease, algae, microorganism), where DOC released by ungrazed fleshy algae supports copiotrophic, potentially pathogenic bacterial communities, ultimately harming corals and maintaining algal competitive dominance...
2016: Nature Microbiology
M De Rijcke, E Van Acker, N Nevejan, K A C De Schamphelaere, C R Janssen
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) and marine pathogens - like Vibrio spp. - are increasingly common due to climate change. These stressors affect the growth, viability and development of bivalve larvae. Little is known, however, about the potential for interactions between these two concurrent stressors. While some mixed exposures have been performed with adult bivalves, no such work has been done with larvae which are generally more sensitive. This study examines whether dinoflagellates and bacteria may interactively affect the viability and immunological resilience of blue mussel Mytilus edulis larvae...
October 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ramaraj Sathasivam, Vinitha Ebenezer, Ruoyu Guo, Jang-Seu Ki
Chlorine (Cl2) is widely used as a disinfectant in water treatment plants and for cleaning swimming pools; it is finally discharged into aquatic environments, possibly causing damage to the non-target organisms in the receiving water bodies. Present study evaluated the effects of the biocide Cl2 to the green alga Closterium ehrenbergii (C. ehrenbergii). Growth rate, chlorophyll a levels, carotenoids, chlorophyll autofluorescence, and antioxidant enzymes were monitored up to 72-h after Cl2 exposure. C. ehrenbergii showed dose-dependent decrease in growth rate and cell division after exposure to Cl2...
November 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Lei Liu, Xiaona Chu, Pengyu Chen, Yan Xiao, Jiangyong Hu
The transfer of invasive organisms by ballast-water discharge has become a growing concern. UV treatment has become an attractive ballast water treatment technology due to its effectiveness, no harmful disinfection byproducts and easiness to handle. Two robust algae strains Microcystis viridis and Tetraselmis suecica were selected as indicator organisms to determine efficiency of medium-pressure (MP) UV-treatment on ballast water. Inactivation and potential repair of these two algae strains following MP UV irradiation were assessed under various turbidity, total organic carbon (TOC) and salinity conditions...
November 2016: Chemosphere
Theodoti Papadimitriou, Konstantinos Kormas, Dionysios D Dionysiou, Chrysi Laspidou
Toxins produced by cyanobacteria in freshwater ecosystems constitute a serious health risk worldwide for humans that may use the affected water bodies for recreation, drinking water, and/or irrigation. Cyanotoxins have also been deemed responsible for loss of animal life in many places around the world. This paper explores the effect of H2O2 treatments on cyanobacteria and microcystins in natural samples from a hypertrophic reservoir in microcosm experiments. According to the results, cyanobacteria were more easily affected by H2O2 than by other phytoplanktonic groups...
August 11, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hendrikje Jorissen, Christina Skinner, Ronald Osinga, Dirk de Beer, Maggy M Nugues
Although many coral reefs have shifted from coral-to-algal dominance, the consequence of such a transition for coral-algal interactions and their underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. At the microscale, it is unclear how diffusive boundary layers (DBLs) and surface oxygen concentrations at the coral-algal interface vary with algal competitors and competitiveness. Using field observations and microsensor measurements in a flow chamber, we show that coral (massive Porites) interfaces with thick turf algae, macroalgae, and cyanobacteria, which are successful competitors against coral in the field, are characterized by a thick DBL and hypoxia at night...
August 17, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Laura Coquereau, Aurélie Jolivet, Hélène Hégaret, Laurent Chauvaud
Harmful algal blooms produced by toxic dinoflagellates have increased worldwide, impacting human health, the environment, and fisheries. Due to their potential sensitivity (e.g., environmental changes), bivalves through their valve movements can be monitored to detect harmful algal blooms. Methods that measure valve activity require bivalve-attached sensors and usually connected cables to data transfers, leading to stress animals and limit the use to sessile species. As a non-intrusive and continuously deployable tool, passive acoustics could be an effective approach to detecting harmful algal blooms in real time based on animal sound production...
2016: PloS One
E M Hiolski, S Ito, J M Beggs, K A Lefebvre, A M Litke, D R Smith
Domoic acid is a neurotoxin produced by algae and is found in seafood during harmful algal blooms. As a glutamate agonist, domoic acid inappropriately stimulates excitatory activity in neurons. At high doses, this leads to seizures and brain lesions, but it is unclear how lower, asymptomatic exposures disrupt neuronal activity. Domoic acid has been detected in an increasing variety of species across a greater geographical range than ever before, making it critical to understand the potential health impacts of low-level exposure on vulnerable marine mammal and human populations...
September 2016: Neurotoxicology
Shengjuan Zhang, Wentong Xia, Xiaohui Yang, Tingting Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To study the inhibition effect of Salvinia natans ( L. ) All. on harmful algae. METHODS: With Microcystis aeruginosa as the subjects, deionized water, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate as solvent, four kinds of crude extracts from Salvinia natans (L.) All. were prepared, and their alga-inhibiting actions were verified, respectively. The crude extracts of Salvinia natans (L.) All. with better inhibition effect were selected. The components of algal inhibiting material through macroporous resin purification were obtained, and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
May 2016: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Xueqing Chen, Yuansheng Pei
Sodium pentaborate pentahydrate (SPP) is a rare mineral. In this study, SPP was synthesized from boric acid and borax through low-temperature crystallization, and its effects on the growth of the alga, Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) were assessed. The newly synthesized SPP was characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential thermal analysis. The changes in C. vulgaris growth, chlorophyll content, and enzyme activities upon exposure to SPP for 168h were evaluated...
October 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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