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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914887/comparative-performance-of-four-immunological-test-kits-for-the-detection-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-in-tasmanian-shellfish
#1
Juan José Dorantes-Aranda, Katrina Campbell, Andrew Bradbury, Christopher T Elliott, D Tim Harwood, Shauna A Murray, Sarah C Ugalde, Katrina Wilson, Megan Burgoyne, Gustaaf M Hallegraeff
Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (Group 1) seriously impacted the Tasmanian shellfish industry during 2012 and 2015, necessitating product recalls and intensive paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) product testing. The performance of four commercial PST test kits, Abraxis™, Europroxima™, Scotia™ and Neogen™, was compared with the official AOAC LC-FLD method for contaminated mussels and oysters. Abraxis and Europroxima kits underestimated PST in 35-100% of samples when using standard protocols but quantification improved when concentrated extracts were further diluted (underestimation ≤18%)...
November 30, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912916/potentially-toxic-filamentous-fungi-associated-to-the-economically-important-nodipecten-nodosus-linnaeus-1758-scallop-farmed-in-southeastern-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#2
Antônia Santos, Rachel Ann Hauser-Davis, Manoel José Soares Santos, Salvatore Giovani De Simone
Numerous countries have been confronted with infectious diseases in mariculture activities, including fungi infections, although reports in scallops are scarce. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the occurrence of filamentous fungi in Nodipecten nodosus specimens from three marine farms in Southeastern Brazil. Eight fungi genera were observed in the branchial arches, intestine and muscle tissue of the scallop specimens. These include potentially toxin-producing species, such as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium...
November 29, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911995/allometry-data-and-equations-for-coastal-marsh-plants
#3
Meng Lu, Joshua S Caplan, Jonathan D Bakker, J Adam Langley, Thomas J Mozdzer, Bert G Drake, J Patrick Megonigal
Coastal marshes are highly valued for ecosystem services such as protecting inland habitats from storms, sequestering carbon, removing nutrients and other pollutants from surface water, and providing habitat for fish, shellfish, and birds. Because plants largely determine the structure and function of coastal marshes, quantifying plant biomass is essential for evaluating these ecosystem services, understanding the biogeochemical processes that regulate ecosystem function, and forecasting tidal wetland responses to accelerated sea level rise...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907126/variability-in-the-sxt-gene-clusters-of-psp-toxin-producing-aphanizomenon-gracile-strains-from-norway-spain-germany-and-north-america
#4
Andreas Ballot, Leonardo Cerasino, Vladyslava Hostyeva, Samuel Cirés
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin production has been detected worldwide in the cyanobacterial genera Anabaena, Lyngbya, Scytonema, Cuspidothrix and Aphanizomenon. In Europe Aphanizomenon gracile and Cuspidothrix issatschenkoi are the only known producers of PSP toxins and are found in Southwest and Central European freshwater bodies. In this study the PSP toxin producing Aphanizomenon sp. strain NIVA-CYA 851 was isolated from the Norwegian Lake Hillestadvannet. In a polyphasic approach NIVA-CYA 851 was morphologically and phylogenetically classified, and investigated for toxin production...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903421/-210-po-in-the-marine-biota-of-korean-coastal-waters-and-the-effective-dose-from-seafood-consumption
#5
S H Kim, G H Hong, H M Lee, B E Cho
The activity concentrations of (210)Po were determined in plankton and selected species of macroalgae, crustaceans, molluscs, and fish from Korean coastal waters to understand (210)Po distribution in these trophic levels and to assess the effective dose of (210)Po from seafood ingested by the average Korean. The activity concentration of (210)Po in macroalgae, mixed plankton, anchovy (whole body), abalone muscle, and abalone viscera was 0.97-1.43, 32-137, 59-392, 2.93 ± 0.86, and 1495 ± 484 Bq kg(-1) (w...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901501/identification-and-characterization-of-peptidases-secreted-by-quahog-parasite-unknown-qpx-the-protistan-parasite-of-hard-clams
#6
Ewelina Rubin, Glenn T Werneburg, Emmanuelle Pales Espinosa, David G Thanassi, Bassem Allam
Quahog parasite unknown (QPX) is a protistan parasite capable of causing deadly infections in the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria, one of the most valuable shellfish species in the USA. QPX is an extracellular parasite found mostly in the connective tissue of clam mantle and, in more severe cases of infection, other clam organs. Histopathologic examinations revealed that QPX cells within clam tissues are typically surrounded by hollow areas that have been hypothesized to be, at least in part, a result of extracellular digestion of clam proteins by the parasite...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901473/influence-of-solar-and-geomagnetic-activity-in-gymnodinium-catenatum-dinophyceae-cultures
#7
Paulo Vale
Laboratory cultures of the paralytic shellfish poisoning producing microalga Gymnodinium catenatum were subjected to a hypo-osmotic shock and changes in cell concentration were observed in two separate experiments of 8 and 24 hours duration, respectively. The increase in geomagnetic activity (GMA), radio and X-ray fluxes and solar X-ray flares were negatively correlated with cell numbers. Cell losses were observed in the short experiment, but not in the longest one. GMA action was related to the course of the experimental period, while electromagnetic radiation (EMR) was only significantly related when the previous hours before the experiments were considered...
November 30, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891729/low-prevalence-of-aichi-virus-in-molluscan-shellfish-samples-from-galicia-nw-spain
#8
Enrique Rivadulla, Miguel F Varela, Jesús L Romalde
AIM: The aim of this study was the detection and quantification of Aichi virus (AiV) in shellfish from three estuaries in Galicia, the main producer of molluscs in Europe. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 249 shellfish samples were analyzed using a reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) procedure. AiV was detected in 15 out of 249 (6.02%) samples. Ría de Ares-Betanzos showed the highest prevalence (11.1%), followed by Ría do Burgo (3.7%) and Ría de Vigo, (2...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891049/quantifying-the-seafood-consumption-patterns-of-recreational-anglers-in-charleston-and-berkeley-counties-south-carolina
#9
Matthew T Perkinson, Trevor D Faith, Grace M Vahey, John E Vena, Edith M Williams
This study was designed to provide self-reported data on the frequency of fish consumption and shellfish consumption in Charleston and Berkeley (CB) counties, South Carolina. While commercial fishing and recreational fishing have played an important role in the culture and history of the area, information on the specific patterns of consumption by recreational anglers has been previously unavailable. The pilot data presented here will help determine the feasibility of a large-scale survey of seafood consumption in coastal South Carolina...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888035/racial-differences-in-food-allergy-phenotype-and-health-care-utilization-among-us-children
#10
Mahboobeh Mahdavinia, Susan R Fox, Bridget M Smith, Christine James, Erica L Palmisano, Aisha Mohamed, Zeeshan Zahid, Amal H Assa'ad, Mary C Tobin, Ruchi S Gupta
BACKGROUND: Food allergy (FA) is a prevalent condition in the United States, but little is known about its phenotypes in racial minority groups. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize disease phenotypes and disparities in health care utilization among African American (AA), Hispanic, and white children with FA. METHODS: We conducted a large, 2-center, retrospective cohort study of children aged 0-17 years with FA seen in allergy/immunology clinics at 2 urban tertiary care centers in the United States...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887975/human-exposure-to-brominated-flame-retardants-through-the-consumption-of-fish-and-shellfish-in-tarragona-county-catalonia-spain
#11
Laura Trabalón, Lolita Vilavert, José L Domingo, Eva Pocurull, Francesc Borrull, Martí Nadal
The concentrations of 19 brominated flame retardants (BFRs) (8 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 8 methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) and 3 emerging flame retardants) were determined in 10 species of fish and shellfish widely consumed in Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain), by pressurized liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. A higher occurrence of PBDEs was found in all the analyzed samples, while MeO-PBDEs were only detected in a few ones and the levels of emerging pollutants were relatively low...
November 23, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886809/small-mammal-utilization-by-middle-stone-age-humans-at-die-kelders-cave-1-and-pinnacle-point-site-5-6-western-cape-province-south-africa
#12
Aaron Armstrong
Reported here are the results of a taphonomic analysis of the small mammals (between 0.75 kg and 4.5 kg adult body weight) and size 1 bovids (≤20 kg adult body weight) from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) sites of Die Kelders Cave 1 (DK1) and Pinnacle Point Site 5-6 (PP5-6), Western Cape Province, South Africa. This study provides a comprehensive taphonomic analysis of MSA small mammals with a focus on discerning the role of humans in their accumulation and the implications for human behavioral adaptations...
December 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884521/the-consequences-of-landscape-change-on-fishing-strategies
#13
Tracy Van Holt, Beatrice Crona, Jeffrey C Johnson, Stefan Gelcich
We show how land-use change can affect fisher-harvesting behavior. We test whether fisher harvesting behavior can be predicted by landscape change patterns at local (~200km) and regional (~1200km) levels. Our data suggest that fishers harvesting in areas near tree plantations reduced benthic-invertebrate harvests in favor of demersal and pelagic finfish that are usually located further offshore. Fishers' management areas, which were near tree plantations, had higher chlorophyll-a values, and contained shellfish with more endobionts...
November 21, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862045/capillary-electrophoresis-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry-combined-with-metal-tag-for-ultra-sensitively-determining-trace-saxitoxin-in-seafood
#14
Ye He, Fan Mo, Danlong Chen, LiangJun Xu, Yongning Wu, FengFu Fu
As one of paralytic shellfish toxins, the saxitoxin (STX) in the aqueous environment can be accumulated by most shellfish, and thus harms human health through the food chain. Therefore, it is crucial to determine trace STX in seafood samples in order to ensure the safety of seafood consumption. In this study, we developed a novel indirect method for ultra-sensitively determining trace STX in seafood by using capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CE-ICP-MS) together with Eu(3+) chelate labeling...
November 10, 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861866/fisheries-low-oxygen-and-climate-change-how-much-do-we-really-know
#15
REVIEW
B L Townhill, J K Pinnegar, D A Righton, J D Metcalfe
As a result of long-term climate change, regions of the ocean with low oxygen concentrations are predicted to occur more frequently and persist for longer periods of time in the future. When low levels of oxygen are present, this places additional pressure on marine organisms to meet their metabolic requirements, with implications for growth, feeding and reproduction. Extensive research has been carried out on the effects of acute hypoxia, but far less on long-term chronic effects of low oxygen zones, especially with regard to commercially important fishes and shellfishes...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848102/can-greening-of-aquaculture-sequester-blue-carbon
#16
Nesar Ahmed, Stuart W Bunting, Marion Glaser, Mark S Flaherty, James S Diana
Globally, blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions have been seriously augmented due to the devastating effects of anthropogenic pressures on coastal ecosystems including mangrove swamps, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. The greening of aquaculture, however, including an ecosystem approach to Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture (IAA) and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) could play a significant role in reversing this trend, enhancing coastal ecosystems, and sequestering blue carbon...
November 15, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846413/regional-variation-in-bycatches-associated-with-king-scallop-pecten-maximus-l-dredge-fisheries
#17
Claire L Szostek, Lee G Murray, Ewen Bell, Gwladys Lambert, Michel J Kaiser
The biomass and composition of bycatch from king scallop dredge fisheries was assessed and compared between the English Channel, Cardigan Bay in Wales and around the Isle of Man. Bycatch composition varied significantly at localised, and broad, geographic scales. The mean proportion of scallop dredge bycatch biomass in the English Channel was 19% of total catch biomass. The proportion of bycatch was lower in Cardigan Bay (15%) but notably higher around the Isle of Man (53%). The proportion of individual bycatch species in dredge catches were low, therefore scallop dredging is unlikely to cause a substantial increase the population mortality of individual commercially fished species beyond that caused by the target fisheries for those species, or bycatches of other fisheries...
November 10, 2016: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845210/changes-in-hemolymph-characteristics-of-ark-shell-scapharaca-broughtonii-dealt-with-vibrio-anguillarum-challenge-in-vivo-and-various-of-anticoagulants-in-vitro
#18
Liqing Zhou, Aiguo Yang, Zhihong Liu, Biao Wu, Xiujun Sun, Zhenming Lv, Ji-Teng Tian, Meirong Du
The ark shell Scapharca broughtonii is a commercially important shellfish in China. Alserver's solution (AS), modified Alserver's solution (MAS) and Heparin sodium solution (HSS) are common anticoagulants used for shellfish blood. To observe the immune response mediated by its hemocytes, we challenged in vivo S. broughtonii hemolymph with Vibrio anguillarum and dealt with the following three anticagulants in vitro: Alserver's solution (AS), modified Alserver's solution (MAS) and Heparin sodium solution (HSS)...
November 11, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835854/environmental-status-and-early-warning-value-of-the-pollutant-semicarbazide-in-jincheng-and-sishili-bays-shandong-peninsula-china
#19
Xiuhui Tian, Yingjiang Xu, Xianghong Gong, Dianfeng Han, Zhongquan Wang, Quanli Zhou, Chunxiao Sun, Chuanbo Ren, Jinglin Xue, Chuanhai Xia
A verified method for measuring Semicarbazide (SEM) in seawater, sediments, and shellfish was developed based on ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A total of 30 stations were radially distributed in Jincheng and Sishili Bays in the Bohai and Yellow Seas, and 1025 monitoring data were collected in 41 voyages, 615 seawater samples, 320 sediment samples and 90 shellfish samples. The concentration ranged from 0.011μg/L to 0.093μg/L and 0 to 0.75μg/kg in seawater and shellfish respectively, but SEM in sediment was all below the limit of detection...
November 8, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830316/a-mussel-tissue-certified-reference-material-for-multiple-phycotoxins-part-4-certification
#20
Pearse McCarron, Elliott Wright, Håkan Emteborg, Michael A Quilliam
A freeze-dried mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis) reference material (CRM-FDMT1) was produced containing multiple groups of shellfish toxins. Homogeneity and stability testing showed the material to be fit for purpose. The next phase of work was to assign certified values and uncertainties to 10 analytes from six different toxin groups. Efforts involved optimizing extraction procedures for the various toxin groups and performing measurements using liquid chromatography-based analytical methods. A key aspect of the work was compensating for matrix effects associated with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry through standard addition, dilution, or matrix-matched calibration...
November 9, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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