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Nanna Rørbo, Anita Rønneseth, Panos G Kalatzis, Bastian Barker Rasmussen, Kirsten Engell-Sørensen, Hans Petter Kleppen, Heidrun Inger Wergeland, Lone Gram, Mathias Middelboe
The aquaculture industry is suffering from losses associated with bacterial infections by opportunistic pathogens. Vibrio anguillarum is one of the most important pathogens, causing vibriosis in fish and shellfish cultures leading to high mortalities and economic losses. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics and inefficient vaccination at the larval stage of fish emphasizes the need for novel approaches, and phage therapy for controlling Vibrio pathogens has gained interest in the past few years. In this study, we examined the potential of the broad-host-range phage KVP40 to control four different V...
May 16, 2018: Antibiotics
Daniel G Beach, Elliott S Kerrin, Krista Thomas, Michael A Quilliam, Pearse McCarron
Polar marine toxins are more challenging to analyze by mass spectrometry-based methods than lipophilic marine toxins, which are now routinely measured in shellfish by multiclass reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methods. Capillary electrophoresis (CE)-MS/MS is a technique that is well suited for the analysis of polar marine toxins, and has the potential of providing very high resolution separation. Here, we present a CE-MS/MS method developed, with use of a custom-built interface, for the sensitive multiclass analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins, tetrodotoxins, and domoic acid in seafood...
May 16, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
I Loaiza, M De Troch, G De Boeck
Scallops and their potential predators were collected in Sechura Bay and in front of the Illescas Reserved Zone (north Peru), during El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) 2016, and analyzed for the metals chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). This study showed that ~20% of the molluscs exceeded the maximum residual levels (MRLs) for human consumption in inorganic As, while ~30% of the crustaceans did. For Cd, around 10% and 40% of the molluscs and the crustaceans were above the MRLs, respectively...
May 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jennifer M Rolland, Nirupama P Varese, Jodie B Abramovitch, Jessica Anania, Roni Nugraha, Sandip Kamath, Anita Hazard, Andreas L Lopata, Robyn E O'Hehir
SCOPE: Shellfish allergy is an increasing global health priority, frequently affecting adults. Molluscs are an important shellfish group causing food allergy but knowledge of their allergens and cross-reactivity is limited. Optimal diagnosis of mollusc allergy enabling accurate advice on food avoidance is difficult. We characterized allergens of four frequently ingested Asia-Pacific molluscs: Sydney Rock Oyster (Saccostrea glomerata), Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis), Saucer Scallop (Amusium balloti) and Southern Calamari (Sepioteuthis australis), examining cross-reactivity between species and with Blue Swimmer Crab tropomyosin, Por p 1...
May 14, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Y C Kim, W J Kwon, J G Min, H D Jeong
Betanodaviruses cause the disease viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in finfish. Using a novel approach with two consecutive PCRs, detection semi-nested two-step RT-PCR (DSN-2 RT-PCR) and discriminative multiplex two-step RT-PCR (DMT-2 RT-PCR), we have identified the presence of a new type of betanodavirus in shellfish and called it Korean shellfish nervous necrosis virus (KSNNV). Partial nucleotide sequences of the T4 region in RNA2 fragment of KSNNVs were 73%-75% homologous to those of other reported genotypes and formed a new cluster of betanodavirus in phylogenetic tree analysis...
May 13, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Md Hasan Al Amin, Chan Xiong, Ronald A Glabonjat, Kevin A Francesconi, Tomoko Oguri, Jun Yoshinaga
Arsenolipid concentrations were measured in 17 food composites prepared from 152 food items purchased in Shizuoka city, Japan, to (1) determine the food contributing to daily intake of arsenolipids, and (2) estimate the daily intake of arsenolipids. Analysis of arsenolipids was performed by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS/ESI-MS-MS). Arsenic containing hydrocarbons (AsHCs), arsenic containing fatty acids (AsFAs), and arsenosugar phospholipids (AsSugPLs) were detected only in "algae" and "fish and shellfish" of the 17 food composites in a concentration range of 4...
May 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Misaki Watanabe, Mikako Noguchi, Tamiko Hashimoto, Seisaku Yoshida
S-421 is a synergist of pyrethroid and organophosphorus pesticides, which are used as termiticides or household insecticides. S-421 is stable and ubiquitous in the environment. Here we describe the concentrations of S-421 in domestic and imported commercial fish collected from 2009 to 2016. Samples were extracted with acetone/hexane and S-421 was purified on a silica gel column. Quantitative analysis was performed by GC-ECD. S-421 was detected in 78 of 116 samples of domestic fish and shellfish at levels of <0...
2018: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan
Choonshik Shin, Hyejin Jo, Sheen-Hee Kim, Gil-Jin Kang
Paralytic shellfish poisoning is caused by saxitoxin and its analogues. The paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are produced by marine dinoflagellates and can be accumulated in filter feeding shellfish, such as mussel, clam, oyster and ark shell. The worldwide regulatory limits for PSTs in shellfish are set at 80 μg STX eq./100 g meat and this is widely accepted as providing adequate public health protection. In this study, we have determined five individual PSTs (STX, GTX1, GTX2, GTX3 and GTX4) in shellfish using LC-MS/MS and assessed the human acute and chronic exposures to PSTs through shellfish consumption...
June 2018: Food Research International
Witchaya Srisuwatchari, Pakit Vichyanond
Background: Prevalence of food allergy is increasing all over the world including in Asia. Diagnosis of food allergy in Asia is usually made after family complaints or by elimination and/or reintroduction foods. This could lead to an inaccurate diagnosis and to incorrect information on epidemiology of food allergy. We, herein, reported results of a 16-year experience (1996-2012) of oral food challenge (OFC) performed in pediatric patients at a major teaching hospital in Thailand. Objective: The major objectives of this report are to review types of foods selected for oral challenges, frequency of positive/negative challenges to these foods and the clinical reactions during challenges among these children...
April 2018: Asia Pacific Allergy
Bernard Yu-Hor Thong, Shalini Arulanandam, Sze-Chin Tan, Teck-Choon Tan, Grace Yin-Lai Chan, Justina Wei-Lyn Tan, Mark Chong-Wei Yeow, Chwee-Ying Tang, Jinfeng Hou, Khai-Pang Leong
Background: All Singaporean males undergo medical screening prior to compulsory military service. A history of possible food allergy may require referral to a specialist Allergy clinic to ensure that special dietary needs can be taken into account during field training and deployment. Objective: To study the pattern of food allergy among pre-enlistees who were referred to a specialist allergy clinic to work up suspected food allergy. Methods: Retrospective study of all pre-enlistees registered in the Clinical Immunology/Allergy New Case Registry referred to the Allergy Clinic from 1 August 2015 to 31 May 2016 for suspected food allergy...
April 2018: Asia Pacific Allergy
T P Alves, M A Schramm, L A O Proença, T O Pinto, L L Mafra
This study evaluated an 8-year dataset (2007 to 2015, except 2008) in the attempt to identify the most susceptible periods for the occurrence of diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) episodes associated with the presence of toxigenic dinoflagellates, Dinophysis spp., in the mussel farming area of Babitonga Bay (southern Brazil). Dinophysis acuminata complex was the most frequent (present in 66% of the samples) and abundant (max. 4100 cells L-1 ) taxon, followed by D. caudata (14%; max. 640 cells L-1 ) and D...
May 5, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Eman Zahran, Bruce Manning, Jung-Kil Seo, Edward J Noga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Sara E Cade, Li-Jung Kuo, Irvin R Schultz
Synthetic polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants and known to occur in most food items. Consumer fish products have been identified as having some of the highest PBDE levels found in USA food sources. Natural formation of hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) PBDEs are also known to occur in simple marine organisms, which may be bioaccumulated by seafood. In this study, we report findings of an initial survey of PBDE, OH-PBDE and MeO-PBDE content in common seafood items available to residents living in the Puget Sound region of Washington State...
July 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lusheng Xin, Bowen Huang, Changming Bai, Chongming Wang
Ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1) presents interspecies transmission among bivalves. Recently, events of mass mortalities of ark clams (Scapharca broughtonii) infected with OsHV-1 have been recorded. To accurately assess the gene responding patterns of ark clams post OsHV-1 infection, constant stable housekeeping genes (HKGs) are needed as internal control to normalize raw mRNA expression data. In this study, ten candidate HKGs were selected, including 18S rRNA (18S), beta-actin (ACT), Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), NADH dehydrogenase subunit (NADH), Elongation factor-1a (EF-1a), Elongation factor-1β (EF-1β), Elongation factor-1γ (EF-1γ), Ribosomal protein L7 (RL7), Ribosomal protein L15 (RL15) and Ribosomal protein S18 (S18)...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Damiano Baldan, Erika Maria Diletta Porporato, Roberto Pastres, Daniele Brigolin
A new R software package, RAC, is presented. RAC allows to simulate the rearing cycle of 4 species, finfish and shellfish, highly important in terms of production in the Mediterranean Sea. The package works both at the scale of the individual and of the farmed population. Mathematical models included in RAC were all validated in previous works, and account for growth and metabolism, based on input data characterizing the forcing functions-water temperature, and food quality/quantity. The package provides a demo dataset of forcings for each species, as well as a typical set of husbandry parameters for Mediterranean conditions...
2018: PloS One
J A Lowther, N E Gustar, A L Powell, S O'Brien, D N Lees
Contamination of bivalve shellfish, particularly oysters, with norovirus is recognised as a food safety risk and a potential contributor to the overall burden of gastroenteritis in the community. The United Kingdom (UK) has comprehensive national baseline data on the prevalence, levels, and seasonality of norovirus in oysters in production areas resulting from a previous two-year study (2009-2011). However, previously, data on final product as sold to the consumer have been lacking. As part of a wider project to establish the overall burden of foodborne norovirus in the UK, this study aimed to address this data gap...
May 2, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Kata Farkas, David M Cooper, James E McDonald, Shelagh K Malham, Alexis de Rougemont, Davey L Jones
Enteric viruses represent a global public health threat and are implicated in numerous foodborne and waterborne disease outbreaks. Nonetheless, relatively little is known of their fate and stability in the environment. In this study we used carefully validated methods to monitor enteric viruses, namely adenovirus (AdV), JC polyomavirus (JCV), noroviruses (NoVs), sapovirus (SaV) and hepatitis A and E viruses (HAV and HEV) from wastewater source to beaches and shellfish beds. Wastewater influent and effluent, surface water, sediment and shellfish samples were collected in the Conwy catchment (North Wales, UK) once a month for one year...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
David Polo, Julien Schaeffer, Peter Teunis, Vincent Buchet, Françoise S Le Guyader
Oysters, being filter feeders, can accumulate some human pathogens such as norovirus, a highly infectious calicivirus, most common cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Accumulated virus decays over a period of days to weeks, possibly rendering contaminated oysters safe again. Sensitive molecular methods have been set up for shellfish analysis but without answering the question of infectious virus detection. Using the Tulane virus (TV), a norovirus surrogate that recognizes the same ligand as human norovirus in oyster tissues, the genome and infectious virus decay rates were estimated using inverse linear regression in a Bayesian framework for genome copies...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Valentina Terio, Marilisa Bottaro, Angela Di Pinto, Giovanna Fusco, Teodosio Barresi, Giuseppina Tantillo, Vito Martella
AiV-1 is considered an emerging human enteric pathogens and foodborne transmission has been documented as an important source of exposure for humans, chiefly in relation to non-safe, risky food habits. We surveyed the presence of AiV-1 in retail shellfish, including oysters and mussles, identifying the virus in 3/170 (1.8%) of the analysed samples. The AiV-1 positive samples were of different geographic origin. Upon sequence analysis of a portion of the 3CD junction region, two AiV strains identified from harvesting areas in Northern Italy were characterised as genotype B and displayed 99-100% identity at the nucleotide level to other AiV-1 strains detected in sewages in Central Italy in 2012, suggesting that such strains are stably circulating in Italian ecosystems...
September 2018: Food Microbiology
Andrew D Turner, Maggie Broadwater, Frances Van Dolah
A receptor binding assay (RBA) for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxicity is formally validated through collaborative study and approved for regulatory monitoring use in the US for mussels and clams. However, to date, the method has not been tested on bivalve molluscs originating from European waters and no validation studies have been conducted for oysters, a shellfish species of great importance globally. This study firstly reports the work conducted to assess the performance of the assay in comparison with a regulatory chemical detection method for a range of shellfish species originating from Great Britain...
April 26, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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