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Alessandro Graziano Mudadu, Giuseppa Lorenzoni, Anna Maria Bazzoni, Riccardo Bazzardi, Giuseppe Tedde, Igor Arras, Giovanna Sanna, Cinzia Santucciu, Edoardo Marongiu, Sebastiano Virgilio
This work reports the first communication relating to the presence of yessotoxins in Mytilus galloprovincialis from coastal mussel farms (Sardinia, western Mediterranean) detected during 2008 and 2013 through a monitoring programme. The paper emphasizes how the changes both in yessotoxin permitted limits and used methods, established by legislation, have influenced the interpretation of the obtained results. Consequently, the samples that resulted negative during 2008 would have been positive until August 2013 and negative from September 2013 up to now, and the samples that were positive in 2013 would have been positive in 2008 and negative nowadays, according to Regulation currently in force...
October 20, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
Patrizia Serratore, Emanuele Zavatta, Eleonora Fiocchi, Emanuele Serafini, Andrea Serraino, Federica Giacometti, Giorgia Bignami
V. vulnificus is a Gram-negative bacterium, commonly found in estuarine and coastal habitats, that can infect humans through seafood consumption or wound exposure. This study represents the first attempt to correlate the genotype of Vibrio vulnificus strains isolated in the north-western Adriatic Sea coastal area, with their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. On the whole, 40 V. vulnificus strains, isolated from shellfish (n=20), different coastal water bodies (n=19), and the blood of a Carretta carretta turtle (n=1), were utilized...
October 20, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
Alicia Coupe, Laryssa Howe, Elizabeth Burrows, Abigail Sine, Anthony Pita, Niluka Velathanthiri, Emilie Vallée, David Hayman, Karen Shapiro, Wendi D Roe
Pollution of marine ecosystems with the protozoan parasites Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis can be studied using bivalve shellfish as biosentinels. Although evidence suggests that these parasites are present in New Zealand coastal waters, the extent of protozoal pollution has not been investigated. This study used optimised molecular methods to detect the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis and T. gondii in commercially sourced green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus), an endemic species found throughout coastal New Zealand...
March 17, 2018: Parasitology Research
Michael A Taylor, Jong W Yu, Thomas L Howell, Stephen H Jones
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-borne human infections in the United States, and many of these illnesses are associated with consumption of raw molluscan shellfish. V. parahaemolyticus levels in shellfish vary temporally and spatially with environmental conditions in and around production areas. The objective of this study was to study the potential for reducing levels of V. parahaemolyticus in live oysters by relaying them during higher-risk warm weather to a site with elevated salinity and consistently low V...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
David I Walker, Andrew Younger, Louise Stockley, Craig Baker-Austin
A wide variety of pathogenic agents such as bacteria, viruses and parasites can be greatly concentrated in filter feeding bivalve molluscan shellfish (BMS), that are grown in faecally contaminated waters. Human health risks associated with the consumption of BMS are also compounded by the traditional pattern of consuming them raw or lightly cooked. Because of these well-established food safety risks, food legislation such as that in Europe stipulates that BMS production areas are monitored for faecal contamination and classified accordingly...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Paul McMenemy, Adam Kleczkowski, David N Lees, James Lowther, Nick Taylor
Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis, with shellfish consumption being identified as one potential norovirus entry point into the human population. Minimising shellfish norovirus levels is therefore important for both the consumer's protection and the shellfish industry's reputation. One method used to reduce microbiological risks in shellfish is depuration; however, this process also presents additional costs to industry. Providing a mechanism to estimate norovirus levels during depuration would therefore be useful to stakeholders...
2018: PloS One
Chiara Copat, Alfina Grasso, Maria Fiore, Antonio Cristaldi, Pietro Zuccarello, Salvatore Santo Signorelli, Gea Oliveri Conti, Margherita Ferrante
Fish and shellfish belonging to five different species among pelagic, benthonic and molluscs, were collected from the Gulf of Catania in 2017 to evaluate arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn). Risk of developing chronic systemic effects derived from seafood consumption was evaluated with the Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) and compared with the results obtained from the same area and the species, collected in 2012. Hg, Cd and Pb concentrations were found below the limits set by European Community for human consumption in all the analyzed species...
March 3, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Tracey M Dalton, Di Jin
This study explores public interests associated with shellfish aquaculture development in coastal waters of Rhode Island (US). Specifically, we examine (1) the levels of public support for (or opposition to) shellfish aquaculture development and (2) factors driving the levels of support, using survey data and ordinal logistic regressions. Results of the analysis identify several key attitudinal factors affecting individual's support for shellfish aquaculture in Rhode Island (RI). The level of support is positively associated with attitudes related to shellfish aquaculture's benefits to the local economy and its role as a nutritional food option, and negatively influenced by attitudes related to aquaculture farms' effects on aesthetic quality and their interference with other uses...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Management
Gemma Martínez-Laiz, Macarena Ros, José M Guerra-García
Effective management of marine bioinvasions starts with prevention, communication among the scientific community and comprehensive updated data on the distribution ranges of exotic species. Despite being a hotspot for introduction due to numerous shipping routes converging at the Strait of Gibraltar, knowledge of marine exotics in the Iberian Peninsula is scarce, especially of abundant but small-sized and taxonomically challenging taxa such as the Order Isopoda. To fill this gap, we conducted several sampling surveys in 44 marinas and provide the first comprehensive study of marine exotic isopods from the Iberian Peninsula, the southern side of the Strait of Gibraltar (northern Africa) and the Balearic Islands...
2018: PeerJ
Dandan Yang, Shaoshuai Liang, Qiankun Yang, Danwen Liu, Zhenkui Qin, Zhifeng Zhang
Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is an important transcription factor involving in formation and maintenance of muscles in mammals. However, no data are available on KLF4 function in shellfish muscles which play vital roles in the movement, stress response, and physiology in shellfish. In the present study, we revealed that the Klf4 mRNA of Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri was expressed in most tissues, which has high level in adductor muscle, mantle, kidney, and testis. Positive signals of the Klf4 mRNA and protein were visible in all skeletal muscle fibers of adductor muscle, and all the cells of C...
March 3, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Wiebke Schmidt, David Raymond, David Parish, Ian G C Ashton, Peter I Miller, Carlos J A Campos, Jamie D Shutler
The need to ensure future food security and issues of varying estuarine water quality is driving the expansion of aquaculture into near-shore coastal waters. It is prudent to fully evaluate new or proposed aquaculture sites, prior to any substantial financial investment in infrastructure and staffing. Measurements of water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen can be used to gain insight into the physical, chemical and biological water quality conditions within a farm site, towards identifying its suitability for farming, both for the stock species of interest and for assessing the potential risk from harmful or toxic algae...
January 2018: Aquacultural Engineering
Lynn M Grattan, Carol J Boushey, Yuanyuan Liang, Kathi A Lefebvre, Laura J Castellon, Kelsey A Roberts, Alexandra C Toben, J G Morris
Domoic Acid (DA) is a marine-based neurotoxin. Dietary exposure to high levels of DA via shellfish consumption has been associated with Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning, with milder memory decrements found in Native Americans (NAs) with repetitive, lower level exposures. Despite its importance for protective action, the clinical relevance of these milder memory problems remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether repeated, lower-level exposures to DA impact everyday memory (EM), i.e., the frequency of memory failures in everyday life...
February 28, 2018: Toxins
Clémence Mahana Iti Gatti, Davide Lonati, Hélène Taiana Darius, Arturo Zancan, Mélanie Roué, Azzurra Schicchi, Carlo Alessandro Locatelli, Mireille Chinain
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most prevalent non-bacterial food-borne form of poisoning in French Polynesia, which results from the consumption of coral reef fish naturally contaminated with ciguatoxins produced by dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus . Since the early 2000s, this French territory has also witnessed the emergence of atypical forms of ciguatera, known as ciguatera shellfish poisoning (CSP), associated with the consumption of marine invertebrates. In June 2014, nine tourists simultaneously developed a major and persistent poisoning syndrome following the consumption of the gastropod Tectus niloticus collected in Anaho, a secluded bay of Nuku Hiva Island (Marquesas Archipelago, French Polynesia)...
February 28, 2018: Toxins
Andrew D Turner, Monika Dhanji-Rapkova, Karl Dean, Steven Milligan, Mike Hamilton, Julie Thomas, Chris Poole, Jo Haycock, Jo Spelman-Marriott, Alice Watson, Katherine Hughes, Bridget Marr, Alan Dixon, Lewis Coates
At the start of 2018, multiple incidents of dog illnesses were reported following consumption of marine species washed up onto the beaches of eastern England after winter storms. Over a two-week period, nine confirmed illnesses including two canine deaths were recorded. Symptoms in the affected dogs included sickness, loss of motor control, and muscle paralysis. Samples of flatfish, starfish, and crab from the beaches in the affected areas were analysed for a suite of naturally occurring marine neurotoxins of dinoflagellate origin...
February 26, 2018: Toxins
Hodaka Suzuki, Yumiko Okada
The mouse bioassay for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins has been used worldwide. In this study, dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) and okadaic acid (OA) were compared for toxicity. The lethality rate increased and the median survival time decreased in a dose-dependent manner in both DTX-1 and OA. The median lethal dose value was 150.4 μg/kg (95% confidence interval = 130.1-171.2 μg/kg) for DTX-1 and 185.6 μg/kg (95% confidence interval = 161.2-209.6 μg/kg) for OA. The toxicity equivalent factor 1:1 has been used for OA and DTX-1 in the EU and Japan...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Alba Pérez-Cataluña, Nuria Salas-Massó, María José Figueras
Four bacterial strains recovered from shellfish (n=3) and from the water (n=1) of a canal contaminated with urban sewage were recognized as belonging to a novel species of the genus Arcobacter (represented by strain F138-33T ) by using a polyphasic characterization. All the new isolates required 2 % NaCl to grow. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that all strains clustered together, with the most closely related species being Arcobacter marinus and Arcobactermolluscorum. However, phylogenetic analyses using the concatenated sequences of housekeeping genes (atpA, gyrB, hsp60, gyrA and rpoB) showed that all the novel strains formed a distinct lineage within the genus Arcobacter...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Jane Kilcoyne, Pearse McCarron, Michael J Twiner, Frode Rise, Philipp Hess, Alistair L Wilkins, Christopher O Miles
Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins produced by the genera Azadinium and Amphidoma, pelagic marine dinoflagellates that may accumulate in shellfish resulting in human illness following consumption. The complexity of these toxins has been well documented, with more than 40 structural variants reported that are produced by dinoflagellates, result from metabolism in shellfish, or are extraction artifacts. Approximately 34 μg of a new AZA with MW 823 Da (AZA26 (3)) was isolated from blue mussels (Mytilus edulis), and its structure determined by MS and NMR spectroscopy...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Takashi Yarita, Shinsuke Inagaki, Taichi Yamazaki, Migaku Kawaguchi, Hajime Uchida, Akiko Takatsu, Toshiyuki Suzuki
An interlaboratory comparison (ILC) was organized as a measure of the analytical competency in the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantification of okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) in scallop midgut gland samples. The test sample was prepared using boiled midgut glands of naturally contaminated scallops with DTX1 and its esters by spiking with OA, and homogeneity and stability of this test sample was assessed to be appropriate. Twenty laboratories participated in the ILC based on the Japanese official testing method; they submitted two sets of analytical concentrations of target analytes along with the details of their analytical protocols...
June 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Mary R Gradoville, Byron C Crump, Claudia C Häse, Angelicque E White
Vibrio spp. have been a persistent concern for coastal bivalve hatcheries, which are vulnerable to environmental pathogens in seawater used for rearing larvae, yet the biogeochemical drivers of oyster-pathogenic Vibrio in their planktonic state are poorly understood. Here, we present data tracking oyster-pathogenic Vibrio bacteria in Netarts Bay and Yaquina Bay, Oregon, USA, as well as in adjacent coastal waters and a local shellfish hatchery, through the 2015 upwelling season. Vibrio populations were quantified using a culture-independent approach of high-throughput Vibrio -specific 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing paired with droplet digital PCR, and abundances were analyzed in the context of local biogeochemistry...
February 23, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Victoria Wan, Lorraine McIntyre, Debra Kent, Dennis Leong, Sarah B Henderson
BACKGROUND: Data from poison centers have the potential to be valuable for public health surveillance of long-term trends, short-term aberrations from those trends, and poisonings occurring in near-real-time. This information can enable long-term prevention via programs and policies and short-term control via immediate public health response. Over the past decade, there has been an increasing use of poison control data for surveillance in the United States, Europe, and New Zealand, but this resource still remains widely underused...
February 23, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
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