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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073557/diatom-nitzschia-navis-varingica-bacillariophyceae-and-its-domoic-acid-production-from-the-mangrove-environments-of-malaysia
#1
Suh Nih Tan, Sing Tung Teng, Hong Chang Lim, Yuichi Kotaki, Stephen S Bates, Chui Pin Leaw, Po Teen Lim
The distribution of the toxic pennate diatom Nitzschia was investigated at four mangrove areas along the coastal brackish waters of Peninsular Malaysia. Eighty-two strains of N. navis-varingica were isolated and established, and their identity confirmed morphologically and molecularly. Frustule morphological characteristics of the strains examined are identical to previously identified N. navis-varingica, but with a sightly higher density of the number of areolae per 1μm (4-7 areolae). Both LSU and ITS rDNAs phylogenetic trees clustered all strains in the N...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073526/prevalence-of-algal-toxins-in-alaskan-marine-mammals-foraging-in-a-changing-arctic-and-subarctic-environment
#2
Kathi A Lefebvre, Lori Quakenbush, Elizabeth Frame, Kathy Burek Huntington, Gay Sheffield, Raphaela Stimmelmayr, Anna Bryan, Preston Kendrick, Heather Ziel, Tracey Goldstein, Jonathan A Snyder, Tom Gelatt, Frances Gulland, Bobette Dickerson, Verena Gill
Current climate trends resulting in rapid declines in sea ice and increasing water temperatures are likely to expand the northern geographic range and duration of favorable conditions for harmful algal blooms (HABs), making algal toxins a growing concern in Alaskan marine food webs. Two of the most common HAB toxins along the west coast of North America are the neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and saxitoxin (STX). Over the last 20 years, DA toxicosis has caused significant illness and mortality in marine mammals along the west coast of the USA, but has not been reported to impact marine mammals foraging in Alaskan waters...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073524/distribution-occurrence-and-biotoxin-composition-of-the-main-shellfish-toxin-producing-microalgae-within-european-waters-a-comparison-of-methods-of-analysis
#3
Sara E McNamee, Linda K Medlin, Jessica Kegel, Gary R McCoy, Robin Raine, Lucia Barra, Maria Valeria Ruggiero, Wiebe H C F Kooistra, Marina Montresor, Johannes Hagstrom, Eva Perez Blanco, Edna Graneli, Francisco Rodríguez, Laura Escalera, Beatriz Reguera, Simon Dittami, Bente Edvardsen, Joe Taylor, Jane M Lewis, Yolanda Pazos, Christopher T Elliott, Katrina Campbell
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a natural global phenomena emerging in severity and extent. Incidents have many economic, ecological and human health impacts. Monitoring and providing early warning of toxic HABs are critical for protecting public health. Current monitoring programmes include measuring the number of toxic phytoplankton cells in the water and biotoxin levels in shellfish tissue. As these efforts are demanding and labour intensive, methods which improve the efficiency are essential. This study compares the utilisation of a multitoxin surface plasmon resonance (multitoxin SPR) biosensor with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and analytical methods such as high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for toxic HAB monitoring efforts in Europe...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073509/harmful-effects-of-dinophysis-to-the-ciliate-mesodinium-rubrum-implications-for-prey-capture
#4
Luiz L Mafra, Satoshi Nagai, Hajime Uchida, Camila P S Tavares, Bruno P Escobar, Toshiyuki Suzuki
Toxigenic Dinophysis spp. are obligate mixotrophic dinoflagellates that require a constant supply of prey-Mesodinium rubrum-to achieve long-term growth by means of kleptoplasty. Mesodinium rubrum is, however, a fast moving, jumping ciliate exhibiting an effective escape response from suspensivorous predators. In the present study, a series of laboratory experiments evaluating the motility and survival of M. rubrum in the presence of Dinophysis cells and/or substances contained in their culture medium was designed, in order to assess the mechanisms involved in prey capture by Dinophysis spp...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073507/evidence-of-freshwater-algal-toxins-in-marine-shellfish-implications-for-human-and-aquatic-health
#5
Corinne M Gibble, Melissa B Peacock, Raphael M Kudela
The occurrence of freshwater harmful algal bloom toxins impacting the coastal ocean is an emerging threat, and the potential for invertebrate prey items to concentrate toxin and cause harm to human and wildlife consumers is not yet fully recognized. We examined toxin uptake and release in marine mussels for both particulate and dissolved phases of the hepatotoxin microcystin, produced by the freshwater cyanobacterial genus Microcystis. We also extended our experimental investigation of particulate toxin to include oysters (Crassostrea sp...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073504/distribution-of-dinophysis-species-and-their-association-with-lipophilic-phycotoxins-in-plankton-from-the-argentine-sea
#6
Elena Fabro, Gastón O Almandoz, Martha Ferrario, Urban Tillmann, Allan Cembella, Bernd Krock
Dinophysis is a cosmopolitan genus of marine dinoflagellates, considered as the major proximal source of diarrheic shellfish toxins and the only producer of pectenotoxins (PTX). From three oceanographic expeditions carried out during autumn, spring and late summer along the Argentine Sea (∼38-56°S), lipophilic phycotoxins were determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in size-fractionated plankton samples. Lipophilic toxin profiles were associated with species composition by microscopic analyses of toxigenic phytoplankton...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073499/physiological-and-transcriptional-responses-to-inorganic-nutrition-in-a-tropical-pacific-strain-of-alexandrium-minutum-implications-for-the-saxitoxin-genes-and-toxin-production
#7
Kieng Soon Hii, Po Teen Lim, Nyuk Fong Kon, Yoshinobu Takata, Gires Usup, Chui Pin Leaw
Saxitoxins (STXs) constitute a family of potent sodium channel blocking toxins, causative agents of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), and are produced by several species of marine dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria. Two STX-core genes, sxtA and sxtG, have been well elucidated in Alexandrium but the expression of these genes under various nutritional modes in tropical species remains unclear. This study investigates the physiological responses of a tropical Pacific strain of Alexandrium minutum growing with nitrate or ammonium, and with various nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) supply ratios...
June 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073495/influence-of-nitrogen-availability-on-the-expression-of-genes-involved-in-the-biosynthesis-of-saxitoxin-and-analogs-in-cylindrospermopsis-raciborskii
#8
Paula Vico, Luis Aubriot, Fátima Martigani, Natalia Rigamonti, Sylvia Bonilla, Claudia Piccini
The development of cyanobacterial blooms in inland aquatic ecosystems is greatly promoted by nutrient availability, especially nitrogen and phosphorous. When blooms are dominated by toxigenic species the harmful effects of nutrient loading becomes particularly relevant. Among toxic species, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii found in South American ecosystems is characterized by the production of saxitoxin and analogs (Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning, PSP), for which the factors that trigger their production have not been elucidated...
June 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073476/health-impacts-from-cyanobacteria-harmful-algae-blooms-implications-for-the-north-american-great-lakes
#9
REVIEW
Wayne W Carmichael, Gregory L Boyer
Harmful cyanobacterial blooms (cHABs) have significant socioeconomic and ecological costs, which impact drinking water, fisheries, agriculture, tourism, real estate, water quality, food web resilience and habitats, and contribute to anoxia and fish kills. Many of these costs are well described, but in fact are largely unmeasured. Worldwide cHABs can produce toxins (cyanotoxins), which cause acute or chronic health effects in mammals (including humans) and other organisms. There are few attempts to characterize the full health-related effects other than acute incidences, which may go unrecorded...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073471/biochemistry-and-genetics-of-taste-and-odor-producing-cyanobacteria
#10
REVIEW
Susan B Watson, Paul Monis, Peter Baker, Steven Giglio
Cyanobacteria are one of the principal sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which cause offensive taste and odor (T&O) in drinking and recreational water, fish, shellfish and other seafood. Although non-toxic to humans, these T&O compounds severely undermine public trust in these commodities, resulting in substantial costs in treatment, and lost revenue to drinking water, aquaculture, food and beverage and tourist/hospitality industries. Mitigation and control have been hindered by the complexity of the communities and processes which produce and modify T&O events, making it difficult to source-track the major producer(s) and the factors governing VOC production and fate...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073466/quantity-of-the-dinoflagellate-sxta4-gene-and-cell-density-correlates-with-paralytic-shellfish-toxin-production-in-alexandrium-ostenfeldii-blooms
#11
Henna Savela, Kirsi Harju, Lisa Spoof, Elin Lindehoff, Jussi Meriluoto, Markus Vehniäinen, Anke Kremp
Many marine dinoflagellates, including several species of the genus Alexandrium, Gymnodinium catenatum, and Pyrodinium bahamense are known for their capability to produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), which can cause severe, most often food-related poisoning. The recent discovery of the first PST biosynthesis genes has laid the foundation for the development of molecular detection methods for monitoring and study of PST-producing dinoflagellates. In this study, a probe-based qPCR method for the detection and quantification of the sxtA4 gene present in Alexandrium spp...
February 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073449/harmful-algal-bloom-forecast-system-for-sw-ireland-part-ii-are-operational-oceanographic-models-useful-in-a-hab-warning-system
#12
Caroline Cusack, Tomasz Dabrowski, Kieran Lyons, Alan Berry, Guy Westbrook, Rafael Salas, Conor Duffy, Glenn Nolan, Joe Silke
This study investigated the application of a three-dimensional physical hydrodynamic model in a harmful algal bloom forecast system for Bantry Bay, southwest Ireland. Modelled oceanographic conditions were studied and used to help understand observed changes in the chemical and biological patterns from the national biotoxins and phytoplankton monitoring program. The study focused on two toxic events in 2013. An upwelling event was predicted by the model prior to the appearance and population increase of potentially toxic diatoms, Pseudo-nitzschia, and associated domoic acid in shellfish...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073443/a-hab-warning-system-for-shellfish-harvesting-in-portugal
#13
A Silva, L Pinto, S M Rodrigues, H de Pablo, M Santos, T Moita, M Mateus
The development of sustainable shellfish aquaculture is highly dependent on the provision of reliable monitoring and predictive information on the occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). The Portuguese HAB early warning system and shellfish closures presented here is a prototype, developed in the ASIMUTH project. It relies on weekly monitoring data composed of observations of HAB species and toxin concentrations within shellfish, and ocean circulation forecasts generated by an operational oceanographic model...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073441/applied-simulations-and-integrated-modelling-for-the-understanding-of-toxic-and-harmful-algal-blooms-asimuth-integrated-hab-forecast-systems-for-europe-s-atlantic-arc
#14
Julie Maguire, Caroline Cusack, Manuel Ruiz-Villarreal, Joe Silke, Deirdre McElligott, Keith Davidson
Reasons for the emergent interest in HABs are abundant, including concerns associated with human health, adverse effects on biological resources, economic losses attributed to recreation, tourism and seafood related industries, and the cost of maintaining public advisory services and monitoring programs for shellfish toxins and water quality. The impact of HABs can potentially be mitigated by early warning of their development. In this regard the project ASIMUTH (Applied Simulations and Integrated Modelling for the Understanding of Toxic and Harmful algal blooms) was borne in order to develop short term HAB alert systems for Atlantic Europe...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073439/the-competitive-dynamics-of-toxic-alexandrium-fundyense-and-non-toxic-alexandrium-tamarense-the-role-of-temperature
#15
Lisa K Eckford-Soper, Eileen Bresnan, Jean-Pierre Lacaze, David H Green, Keith Davidson
The dinoflagellate Alexandrium produces paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins. The genus is globally distributed, with Scottish waters being of particular interest due to the co-occurrence of different species and strains. In Scottish waters, Alexandrium was historically thought to be dominated by the highly toxic (Group I) Alexandrium fundyense. However, the morphologically indistinguishable (Group III) Alexandrium tamarense has recently also been found to co-occur, raising important questions in relation to Alexandrium biogeography...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073437/a-high-resolution-hydrodynamic-model-system-suitable-for-novel-harmful-algal-bloom-modelling-in-areas-of-complex-coastline-and-topography
#16
Dmitry Aleynik, Andrew C Dale, Marie Porter, Keith Davidson
Fjordic coastlines provide sheltered locations for finfish and shellfish aquaculture, and are often subject to harmful algal blooms (HABs) some of which develop offshore and are then advected to impact nearshore aquaculture. Numerical models are a potentially important tool for providing early warning of such HAB events. However, the complex topography of fjordic shelf regions is a significant challenge to modelling. This is frequently compounded by complex bathymetry and local weather patterns. Existing structured grid models do not provide the resolution needed to represent these coastlines in their wider shelf context...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073048/perfluoroalkyl-substances-and-fish-consumption
#17
Krista Y Christensen, Michelle Raymond, Michael Blackowicz, Yangyang Liu, Brooke A Thompson, Henry A Anderson, Mary Turyk
BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are an emerging class of contaminants. Certain PFAS are regulated or voluntarily limited due to concern about environmental persistence and adverse health effects, including thyroid disease and dyslipidemia. The major source of PFAS exposure in the general population is thought to be consumption of seafood. OBJECTIVES: In this analysis we examine PFAS levels and their determinants, as well as associations between PFAS levels and self-reported fish and shellfish consumption, using a representative sample of the U...
January 7, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069959/climatic-regulation-of-the-neurotoxin-domoic-acid
#18
S Morgaine McKibben, William Peterson, A Michelle Wood, Vera L Trainer, Matthew Hunter, Angelicque E White
Domoic acid is a potent neurotoxin produced by certain marine microalgae that can accumulate in the foodweb, posing a health threat to human seafood consumers and wildlife in coastal regions worldwide. Evidence of climatic regulation of domoic acid in shellfish over the past 20 y in the Northern California Current regime is shown. The timing of elevated domoic acid is strongly related to warm phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the Oceanic Niño Index, an indicator of El Niño events. Ocean conditions in the northeast Pacific that are associated with warm phases of these indices, including changes in prevailing currents and advection of anomalously warm water masses onto the continental shelf, are hypothesized to contribute to increases in this toxin...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065550/nitrogen-extraction-potential-of-wild-and-cultured-bivalves-harvested-from-nearshore-waters-of-cape-cod-usa
#19
Joshua Reitsma, Diane C Murphy, Abigail F Archer, Richard H York
As nitrogen entering coastal waters continues to be an issue, much attention has been generated to identify potential options that may help alleviate this stressor to estuaries, including the propagation of bivalves to remove excess nitrogen. Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and quahogs (Mercenaria mercenaria) from numerous Cape Cod, MA, (USA) sources were analyzed for nitrogen content stored in tissues that would represent a net removal of nitrogen from a water body if harvested. Results showed local oysters average 0...
January 5, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063701/physicochemical-characterization-of-atlantic-canadian-seafood-processing-plant-effluent
#20
Bryan Lee Jamieson, Graham A Gagnon, Alex Augusto Gonçalves
The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary assessment of the potential impacts of Atlantic Canadian seafood processing effluents on the aquatic environment through physical-chemical characterization. Shellfish and finfish effluent samples were collected and characterized by biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), adsorbable organic halides (AOX), soluble BOD5 and soluble COD. Effluent concentration ranges were BOD5 (179 to 276mgL(-1)), COD (458 to 1717mgL(-1)), turbidity (28...
January 4, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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