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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429861/extreme-ocean-acidification-reduces-the-susceptibility-of-eastern-oyster-shells-to-a-polydorid-parasite
#1
J C Clements, D Bourque, J McLaughlin, M Stephenson, L A Comeau
Ocean acidification poses a threat to marine organisms. While the physiological and behavioural effects of ocean acidification have received much attention, the effects of acidification on the susceptibility of farmed shellfish to parasitic infections are poorly understood. Here we describe the effects of moderate (pH 7.5) and extreme (pH 7.0) ocean acidification on the susceptibility of Crassostrea virginica shells to infection by a parasitic polydorid, Polydora websteri. Under laboratory conditions, shells were exposed to three pH treatments (7...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429183/label-free-okadaic-acid-detection-using-growth-of-gold-nanoparticles-in-sensor-gaps-as-a-conductive-tag
#2
Yuxiang Pan, Zijian Wan, Longjie Zhong, Xueqin Li, Qi Wu, Jun Wang, Ping Wang
Okadaic acid (OA) is a marine toxin ingested by shellfish. In this work, a simple, sensitive and label-free gap-based electrical competitive bioassay has been developed for this biotoxin detection. The gap-electrical biosensor is constructed by modifying interdigitated microelectrodes with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and using the self-catalytic growth of AuNPs as conductive bridges. In this development, the AuNPs growth is realized in the solution of glucose and chloroauric acid, with glucose oxidation used as the catalysis for growth of the AuNPs...
June 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427570/high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-based-screening-reveals-lipophilic-toxins-in-multiple-trophic-levels-from-the-north-sea
#3
Gabriel Orellana, Lieven Van Meulebroek, Maarten De Rijcke, Colin R Janssen, Lynn Vanhaecke
Lipophilic marine biotoxins, which are mainly produced by small dinoflagellates, are increasingly detected in coastal waters across the globe. As these producers are consumed by zooplankton and shellfish, the toxins are introduced, bioaccumulated and possibly biomagnified throughout marine food chains. Recent research has demonstrated that ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) is an excellent tool to detect marine toxins in algae and seafood. In this study, UHPLC-HRMS was used to screen lipophilic marine biotoxins in organisms from different trophic levels of the Belgian coastal zone ecosystem...
April 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427569/chronic-low-level-exposure-to-the-common-seafood-toxin-domoic-acid-causes-cognitive-deficits-in-mice
#4
Kathi A Lefebvre, Preston S Kendrick, Warren Ladiges, Emma M Hiolski, Bridget E Ferriss, Donald R Smith, David J Marcinek
The consumption of one meal of seafood containing domoic acid (DA) at levels high enough to induce seizures can cause gross histopathological lesions in hippocampal regions of the brain and permanent memory loss in humans and marine mammals. Seafood regulatory limits have been set at 20mgDA/kg shellfish to protect human consumers from symptomatic acute exposure, but the effects of repetitive low-level asymptomatic exposure remain a critical knowledge gap. Recreational and Tribal-subsistence shellfish harvesters are known to regularly consume low levels of DA...
April 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425396/development-and-single-laboratory-validation-of-a-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-quantitation-of-tetrodotoxin-in-mussels-and-oysters
#5
Andrew D Turner, Michael J Boundy, Monika Dhanji Rapkova
In recent years, evidence has grown for the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in bivalve mollusks, leading to the potential for consumers of contaminated products to be affected by Tetrodotoxin Shellfish Poisoning (TSP). A single-laboratory validation was conducted for the hydrophilic interaction LC (HILIC) tandem MS (MS/MS) analysis of TTX in common mussels and Pacific oysters-the bivalve species that have been found to contain TTXs in the United Kingdom in recent years. The method consists of a single-step dispersive extraction in 1% acetic acid, followed by a carbon SPE cleanup step before dilution and instrumental analysis...
April 20, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416091/corrigendum-to-glucose-enhances-tilapia-against-edwardsiella-tarda-infection-through-metabolome-reprogramming-fish-and-shellfish-immunol-61-2017-34-43
#6
Zao-Hai Zeng, Chao-Chao Du, Shi-Rao Liu, Hui Li, Xuan-Xian Peng, Bo Peng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414161/metabolism-of-okadaic-acid-by-nadph-dependent-enzymes-present-in-human-or-rat-liver-s9-fractions-results-in-different-toxic-effects
#7
Franziska Kolrep, Kathleen Rein, Alfonso Lampen, Stefanie Hessel
The lipophilic marine biotoxin okadaic acid (OA) represents a natural contaminant produced by algae accumulating in seafood. Acute intoxications result in diarrhetic shellfish poisoning causing symptoms like nausea, vomiting and abdominal cramps. OA was preincubated with liver enzymes present in S9 fractions from humans, rats and rats pretreated with enzyme inducers in the presence or absence of the cofactor NADPH to investigate hepatic metabolism. Cytotoxicity was examined in HepG2 cells and metabolites of OA were determined by LC-MS/MS...
April 14, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407948/sensory-and-chemical-drivers-of-wine-minerality-aroma-an-application-to-chablis-wines
#8
Heber Rodrigues, María-Pilar Sáenz-Navajas, Ernesto Franco-Luesma, Dominique Valentin, Purificación Fernández-Zurbano, Vicente Ferreira, Arancha De La Fuente Blanco, Jordi Ballester
The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of vineyard position on the minerality of wines and to establish relationships between minerality scores, sensory descriptors and chemical composition. Sensory analyses included minerality rating and free description performed by wine professionals under two conditions: orthonasal olfaction alone and global tasting. Chemical characterization included analysis of major and minor volatile compounds, volatile sulphur compounds, mercaptans, metals, anions and cations...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400055/oil-spill-off-the-coast-of-guimaras-island-philippines-distributions-and-changes-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-shellfish
#9
Seiichi Uno, Emiko Kokushi, Nathaniel C Añasco, Takenori Iwai, Kazuki Ito, Jiro Koyama
The sinking of the Solar 1 tanker caused serious heavy oil pollution around Guimaras Island, Philippines. In the present study, variations of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs (alkPAHs) in some shellfish were investigated around Guimaras Island and other small islands from 3months to 5years after the spill. The total PAHs and alkPAHs in shellfish were detected in high concentrations at 448 and 33,666ng/g dry weight, respectively, in November 2006. The concentrations of alkPAHs gradually decreased, while the parent PAHs in shellfish degraded more slowly than the alkPAHs, which was likely due to the persistent characteristics of PAHs...
April 8, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400015/bacteriophages-as-enteric-viral-indicators-in-bivalve-mollusc-management
#10
REVIEW
Kate R Hodgson, Valeria A Torok, Alison R Turnbull
Human enteric viruses, such as norovirus and hepatitis A virus, are spread by a variety of routes including faecal-oral transmission. Contaminated bivalve shellfish are regularly implicated in foodborne viral disease outbreaks internationally. Traditionally indicator bacteria, the coliforms and Escherichia coli, have been used to detect faecal pollution in growing waters and shellfish. However, studies have established that they are inadequate as indicators of the risk of human enteric viruses. Bacteriophages have been identified as potential indicators or surrogates for human enteric viruses due to their similarities in morphology, behaviour in water environments and resistance to disinfectant treatments...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394467/comparative-isolation-and-genetic-diversity-of-arcobacter-spp-from-fish-and-the-coastal-environment
#11
Srinu Rathlavath, Sanath Kumar, Binaya Bhusan Nayak
Arcobacter species are emerging food-borne and water-borne human pathogens associated mostly with food animals and their environment. The present study was aimed to isolate Arcobacter species from fish, shellfish and coastal water samples using two methods and to determine their genetic diversity. Of 201 samples of fish, shellfish and water samples analysed, 66 (32.8%) samples showed the presence of Arcobacter DNA from both Arcobacter enrichment broth (AEB) and Bolton broth (BB). Arcobacters were isolated from 58 (87...
April 10, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391510/evaluation-of-two-triplex-one-step-qrt-pcr-assays-for-the-quantification-of-human-enteric-viruses-in-environmental-samples
#12
Kata Farkas, Dafydd E Peters, James E McDonald, Alexis de Rougemont, Shelagh K Malham, Davey L Jones
Human enteric viruses are responsible for waterborne and shellfish-associated disease outbreaks worldwide. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is often used to assess the health risks associated with shellfish and environmental water, but viral titres in sediments are less commonly investigated. In this study, we developed and validated two multiplex qRT-PCR assays for aquatic sediment and shellfish samples targeting viruses that are a common cause of gastroenteritis (norovirus GI, GII and hepatitis A virus), two emerging viruses (sapovirus and hepatitis E virus), along with mengovirus (MgV), which is often used as a sample process control for the assessment of RNA extraction efficiency...
April 8, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374313/differential-mobility-spectrometry-for-improved-selectivity-in-hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-analysis-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins
#13
Daniel G Beach
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are neurotoxins produced by dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning in humans. PST quantitation by LC-MS is challenging because of their high polarity, lability as gas-phase ions, and large number of potentially interfering analogues. Differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) has the potential to improve the performance of LC-MS methods for PSTs in terms of selectivity and limits of detection. This work describes a comprehensive investigation of the separation of 16 regulated PSTs by DMS and the development of highly selective LC-DMS-MS methods for PST quantitation...
April 3, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366404/sulfated-diesters-of-okadaic-acid-and-dtx-1-self-protective-precursors-of-diarrhetic-shellfish-poisoning-dsp-toxins
#14
Tingmo Hu, Patricia LeBlanc, Ian W Burton, John A Walter, Pearse McCarron, Jeremy E Melanson, Wendy K Strangman, Jeffrey L C Wright
Many toxic secondary metabolites used for defense are also toxic to the producing organism. One important way to circumvent toxicity is to store the toxin as an inactive precursor. Several sulfated diesters of the diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxin okadaic acid have been reported from cultures of various dinoflagellate species belonging to the genus Prorocentrum. It has been proposed that these sulfated diesters are a means of toxin storage within the dinoflagellate cell, and that a putative enzyme mediated two-step hydrolysis of sulfated diesters such as DTX-4 and DTX-5 initially leads to the formation of diol esters and ultimately to the release of free okadaic acid...
March 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366399/species-occurrence-of-the-potentially-toxigenic-diatom-genus-pseudo-nitzschia-and-the-associated-neurotoxin-domoic-acid-in-the-argentine-sea
#15
Gastón O Almandoz, Elena Fabro, Martha Ferrario, Urban Tillmann, Allan Cembella, Bernd Krock
The marine diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia, the major known producer of the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA) responsible for the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) syndrome in humans and marine mammals, is globally distributed. The genus presents high species richness in the Argentine Sea and DA has been frequently detected in the last few years in plankton and shellfish samples, but the species identity of the producers remains unclear. In the present work, the distribution and abundance of Pseudo-nitzschia species and DA were determined from samples collected on two oceanographic cruises carried out through the Argentine Sea (∼39-47°S) during summer and spring 2013...
March 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366394/the-relationship-between-pseudo-nitzschia-peragallo-and-domoic-acid-in-scottish-shellfish
#16
E Bresnan, R J Fryer, S Fraser, N Smith, L Stobo, N Brown, E Turrell
The diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Peragallo) associated with the production of domoic acid (DA), the toxin reposnsible for amnesic shellfish poisoning, is abundant in Scottish waters. A two year study examined the relationship between Pseudo-nitzschia cells in the water column and DA concentration in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) at two sites, and king scallops (Pecten maximus) at one site. The rate of DA uptake and depuration differed greatly between the two species with M. edulis whole tissue accumulating and depurating 7μgg(-1) (now expressed as mgkg(-1)) per week...
March 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359039/spatiotemporal-patterns-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-and-their-relationships-with-environmental-variables-in-british-columbia-canada-from-2002-to-2012
#17
Stephen Finnis, Nikolas Krstic, Lorraine McIntyre, Trisalyn A Nelson, Sarah B Henderson
BACKGROUND: Harmful algal blooms produce paralytic shellfish toxins that accumulate in the tissues of filter feeding shellfish. Ingestion of these toxic shellfish can cause a serious and potentially fatal condition known as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). The coast of British Columbia is routinely monitored for shellfish toxicity, and this study uses data from the monitoring program to identify spatiotemporal patterns in shellfish toxicity events and their relationships with environmental variables...
March 27, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342032/densoviruses-in-oyster-crassostrea-ariakensis
#18
Yan-Jun Kang, Wei Huang, A-Li Zhao, Dan-Dan Lai, Lin Shao, Yan-Qin Shen, Xutao Deng, Eric Delwart, Wen Zhang
Densoviruses have short ssDNA genomes and mainly infect arthropods. To characterize viral nucleic acid in shellfish, oysters (Crassostrea ariakensis) were analyzed using viral metagenomics. Two large de novo assembled contigs, CaaDV1 and CaaDV2, consisting of nearly complete densovirus genomes (5860 nucleotides (nt) and 4034 nt) with two major ambisense protein coding regions were identified. Several potential non-structural proteins and capsid proteins were encoded by these genomes, but these were divergent from the existing densoviral species...
March 24, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341528/molecular-diagnosis-of-allergy-to-anisakis-simplex-and-gymnorhynchus-gigas-fish-parasites
#19
A Armentia, J Santos, Z Serrano, B Martín, S Martín, J Barrio, S Fernández, M González-Sagrado, F Pineda, R Palacios
BACKGROUND: There has been an increase in the prevalence of hypersensitivity to Anisakis simplex. There are fish parasites other than Anisakis simplex whose allergenicity has not yet been studied. OBJECTIVE: To assess IgE hypersensitivity caused by fish parasite allergens in patients with gastro-allergic symptoms after consumption of fish, shellfish or cephalopods, compared with healthy subjects, pollen allergic individuals and children with digestive symptoms after eating marine food...
March 21, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336489/current-applications-selection-and-possible-mechanisms-of-actions-of-synbiotics-in-improving-the-growth-and-health-status-in-aquaculture-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Truong-Giang Huynh, Ya-Li Shiu, Thanh-Phuong Nguyen, Quoc-Phu Truong, Jiann-Chu Chen, Chun-Hung Liu
Synbiotics, a conjunction between prebiotics and probiotics, have been used in aquaculture for over 10 years. However, the mechanisms of how synbiotics work as growth and immunity promoters are far from being unraveled. Here, we show that a prebiotic as part of a synbiotic is hydrolyzed to mono- or disaccharides as the sole carbon source with diverse mechanisms, thereby increasing biomass and colonization that is established by specific crosstalk between probiotic bacteria and the surface of intestinal epithelial cells of the host...
May 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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