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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726749/ladder-shaped-ion-channel-ligands-current-state-of-knowledge
#1
REVIEW
Yuri B Shmukler, Denis A Nikishin
Ciguatoxins (CTX) and brevetoxins (BTX) are polycyclic ethereal compounds biosynthesized by the worldwide distributed planktonic and epibenthic dinoflagellates of Gambierdiscus and Karenia genera, correspondingly. Ciguatera, evoked by CTXs, is a type of ichthyosarcotoxism, which involves a variety of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms, while BTXs cause so-called neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. Both types of toxins are reviewed together because of similar mechanisms of their action. These are the only molecules known to activate voltage-sensitive Na⁺-channels in mammals through a specific interaction with site 5 of its α-subunit and may compete for it, which results in an increase in neuronal excitability, neurotransmitter release and impairment of synaptic vesicle recycling...
July 20, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710688/death-by-food
#2
Roger W Byard
Although death from food is not an uncommon finding in forensic facilities worldwide, the range of underlying lethal mechanisms and associated conditions that should be sought at the time of autopsy is quite disparate. Deaths may occur from i) infectious agents including bacteria, viruses, protozoa, cestodes, nematodes and prions; ii) natural toxins including amanita toxins, tetrodotoxin, ciguatera and scombroid; iii) anaphylaxis; iv) poisoning; v) mechanical issues around airway and gut obstruction and/or perforation; and vi) miscellaneous causes...
July 15, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696400/the-epiphytic-genus-gambierdiscus-dinophyceae-in-the-kermadec-islands-and-zealandia-regions-of-the-southwestern-pacific-and-the-associated-risk-of-ciguatera-fish-poisoning
#3
Lesley L Rhodes, Kirsty F Smith, Sam Murray, D Tim Harwood, Tom Trnski, Rex Munday
Species in the genus Gambierdiscus produce ciguatoxins (CTXs) and/or maitotoxins (MTXs), which may cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in humans if contaminated fish are consumed. Species of Gambierdiscus have previously been isolated from macroalgae at Rangitahua (Raoul Island and North Meyer Islands, northern Kermadec Islands), and the opportunity was taken to sample for Gambierdiscus at the more southerly Macauley Island during an expedition in 2016. Gambierdiscus cells were isolated, cultured, and DNA extracted and sequenced to determine the species present...
July 11, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696398/maitotoxin-4-a-novel-mtx-analog-produced-by-gambierdiscus-excentricus
#4
Francesco Pisapia, Manoëlla Sibat, Christine Herrenknecht, Korian Lhaute, Greta Gaiani, Pierre-Jean Ferron, Valérie Fessard, Santiago Fraga, Silvia M Nascimento, R Wayne Litaker, William C Holland, Catherine Roullier, Philipp Hess
Maitotoxins (MTXs) are among the most potent toxins known. These toxins are produced by epi-benthic dinoflagellates of the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa and may play a role in causing the symptoms associated with Ciguatera Fish Poisoning. A recent survey revealed that, of the species tested, the newly described species from the Canary Islands, G. excentricus, is one of the most maitotoxic. The goal of the present study was to characterize MTX-related compounds produced by this species. Initially, lysates of cells from two Canary Island G...
July 11, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672845/regional-variations-in-the-risk-and-severity-of-ciguatera-caused-by-eating-moray-eels
#5
REVIEW
Thomas Y K Chan
Moray eels (Gymnothorax species) from tropical waters have long been known to be high-risk species, and the consumption of particularly the viscera or ungutted eels can result in severe ciguatera (known as Gymnothorax or moray eel poisoning), characterized by prominent neurological features. In this review, the main objective was to describe the risk and severity of ciguatera caused by eating moray eels in different parts of the world. Moray eels can accumulate very high ciguatoxin (CTX) levels in the flesh and particularly the liver...
June 26, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672825/maitotoxin-is-a-potential-selective-activator-of-the-endogenous-transient-receptor-potential-canonical-type-1-channel-in-xenopus-laevis-oocytes
#6
Pedro L Flores, Emma Rodríguez, Estrella Zapata, Roxana Carbó, José María Farías, Martín Martínez
Maitotoxin (MTX) is the most potent marine toxin known to date. It is responsible for a particular human intoxication syndrome called ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). Several reports indicate that MTX is an activator of non-selective cation channels (NSCC) in different cell types. The molecular identity of these channels is still an unresolved topic, and it has been proposed that the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are involved in this effect. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, MTX at picomolar (pM) concentrations induces the activation of NSCC with functional and pharmacological properties that resemble the activity of TRP channels...
June 25, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665362/ciguatoxins-and-maitotoxins-in-extracts-of-sixteen-gambierdiscus-isolates-and-one-fukuyoa-isolate-from-the-south-pacific-and-their-toxicity-to-mice-by-intraperitoneal-and-oral-administration
#7
Rex Munday, Sam Murray, Lesley L Rhodes, Michaela E Larsson, D Tim Harwood
Ciguatoxins (CTXs), and possibly maitotoxins (MTXs), are responsible for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning, an important health problem for consumers of reef fish (such as inhabitants of islands in the South Pacific Ocean). The habitational range of the Gambierdiscus species is expanding, and new species are being discovered. In order to provide information on the potential health risk of the Gambierdiscus species, and one Fukuyoa species (found in the Cook Islands, the Kermadec Islands, mainland New Zealand, and New South Wales, Australia), 17 microalgae isolates were collected from these areas...
June 30, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661447/biooxidation-of-ciguatoxins-leads-to-species-specific-toxin-profiles
#8
Tsuyoshi Ikehara, Kyoko Kuniyoshi, Naomasa Oshiro, Takeshi Yasumoto
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) contaminate fish worldwide and cause the foodborne illness ciguatera. In the Pacific, these toxins are produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, which accumulates in fish through the food chain and undergoes oxidative modification, giving rise to numerous analogs. In this study, we examined the oxidation of CTXs in vitro with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis using reference toxins, and found that CTX4A, CTX4B, and CTX3C, which are produced by the alga, are oxidized to the analogs found in fish, namely CTX1B, 52-epi-54-deoxyCTX1B, 54-deoxyCTX1B, 2-hydroxyCTX3C, and 2,3-dihydroxyCTX3C...
June 29, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602250/lsu-rdna-based-rflp-assays-for-the-routine-identification-of-gambierdiscus-species
#9
Yihua Lyu, Mindy L Richlen, Taylor R Sehein, Mireille Chinain, Masao Adachi, Tomohiro Nishimura, Yixiao Xu, Michael L Parsons, Tyler B Smith, Tianling Zheng, Donald M Anderson
The Gambierdiscus genus is a group of benthic dinoflagellates commonly associated with ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), which is generally found in tropical or sub-tropical regions around the world. Morphologically similar species within the genus can vary in toxicity; however, species identifications are difficult or sometimes impossible using light microscopy. DNA sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) is thus often used to identify and describe Gambierdiscus species and ribotypes, but the expense and time can be prohibitive for routine culture screening and/or large-scale monitoring programs...
June 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593018/rheumatoid-arthritis-following-ciguatera-poisoning-a-case-report
#10
Ryuichi Ohta, Akira Shimabukuro, Mitsuyo Kinjo
Objective: To report the first case of ciguatera-associated rheumatoid arthritis in Japan. Patient: A 53-year-old man presented to our clinic with morning stiffness and pain in the fingers and wrists. Results: For six months, he had suffered from chronic pain in both hands and shoulders caused by ciguatera poisoning. He was referred to a local general hospital and diagnosed with RA. Conclusion: When synovitis becomes evident in chronic ciguatera poisoning, reevaluation is necessary, including investigation of chronic arthritis, which might be associated with the onset of RA...
May 2017: Journal of Rural Medicine: JRM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535116/is-mannitol-the-treatment-of-choice-for-patients-with-ciguatera-fish-poisoning
#11
Michael E Mullins, Robert S Hoffman
CONTEXT: Ciguatera fish poisoning arises primarily from consumption of carnivorous reef fish caught in tropical and sub-tropical waters. Ciguatoxins, a class of tasteless, heat-stable, polycyclic toxins produced by dinoflagellates, accumulate through the food chain and concentrate in various carnivorous fish, such as groupers, barracudas, wrasses, amberjack, kingfishes, and eels. Characteristics of ciguatera fish poisoning include early nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea in the first one to two days post ingestion, followed by the appearance of sensory disturbances...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532167/how-the-marine-biotoxins-affect-human-health
#12
Silvia Morabito, Serena Silvestro, Caterina Faggio
Several marine microalgae produce dangerous toxins very damaging to human health, aquatic ecosystems and coastal resources. These Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in recent decades seem greatly increased regarding frequency, severity and biogeographical level, causing serious health risks as a consequence of the consumption of contaminated seafood. Toxins can cause various clinically described syndromes, characterised by a wide range of symptoms: amnesic (ASP), diarrhoetic (DSP), azaspirazid (AZP), neurotoxic (NSP) and paralytic (PSP) shellfish poisonings and ciguatera fish poisoning...
May 22, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526119/effects-of-temperature-salinity-and-composition-of-the-dinoflagellate-assemblage-on-the-growth-of-gambierdiscus-carpenteri-isolated-from-the-great-barrier-reef
#13
Leanne Sparrow, Paolo Momigliano, Garry R Russ, Kirsten Heimann
Increases in reported incidence of ciguatera fish poisoning (hereafter ciguatera) have been linked to warmer sea temperatures that are known to trigger coral bleaching events. The drivers that trigger blooms of ciguatera-causing dinoflagellates on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of increased temperatures and lowered salinities, often associated with environmental disturbance events, on the population growth of two strains of the potentially ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate, Gambierdiscus carpenteri (NQAIF116 and NQAIF380)...
May 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470151/a-medical-enigma%C3%A2-what-gale-chinoise-chinese-scabies-meant%C3%A2-150-years-ago
#14
B-A Gaüzere, P Aubry
CONTEXT: The meaning of the term "gale chinoise" mentioned in some articles about French overseas territories in the 19th century, remains unclear. In response to a query of an American colleague dermatologist trying to find out what it meant 150 years ago, we attempted to elucidate the nature of this ancient disease, which today would be translated literally as Chinese scabies. METHOD: We submitted the query to a panel of civilian and military French tropical medicine specialists including dermatologists, through two networks : Association Amicale Santé Navale et d'Outre-Mer and Société de Pathologie Exotique...
May 4, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437641/human-neuronal-cell-based-assay-a-new-in-vitro-model-for-toxicity-evaluation-of-ciguatoxin
#15
Teresa Coccini, Francesca Caloni, Uliana De Simone
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are emerging marine neurotoxins representing the main cause of ciguatera fish poisoning, an intoxication syndrome which configures a health emergency and constitutes an evolving issue constantly changing due to new vectors and derivatives of CTXs, as well as their presence in new non-endemic areas. The study applied the neuroblastoma cell model of human origin (SH-SY5Y) to evaluate species-specific mechanistic information on CTX toxicity. Metabolic functionality, cell morphology, cytosolic Ca(2+)i responses, neuronal cell growth and proliferation were assessed after short- (4-24h) and long-term exposure (10days) to P-CTX-3C...
April 14, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366392/toxicity-screening-of-13-gambierdiscus-strains-using-neuro-2a-and-erythrocyte-lysis-bioassays
#16
Francesco Pisapia, William C Holland, D Ransom Hardison, R Wayne Litaker, Santiago Fraga, Tomohiro Nishimura, Masao Adachi, Lam Nguyen-Ngoc, Véronique Séchet, Zouher Amzil, Christine Herrenknecht, Philipp Hess
Species in the epi-benthic dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus produce ciguatoxins (CTXs) and maitotoxins (MTXs), which are among the most potent marine toxins known. Consumption of fish contaminated with sufficient quantities of CTXs causes Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP), the largest cause of non-bacterial food poisoning worldwide. Maitotoxins, which can be found in the digestive system of fish, could also contribute to CFP if such tissues are consumed. Recently, an increasing number of Gambierdiscus species have been identified; yet, little is known about the variation in toxicity among Gambierdiscus strains or species...
March 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335428/an-updated-review-of-ciguatera-fish-poisoning-clinical-epidemiological-environmental-and-public-health-management
#17
REVIEW
Melissa A Friedman, Mercedes Fernandez, Lorraine C Backer, Robert W Dickey, Jeffrey Bernstein, Kathleen Schrank, Steven Kibler, Wendy Stephan, Matthew O Gribble, Paul Bienfang, Robert E Bowen, Stacey Degrasse, Harold A Flores Quintana, Christopher R Loeffler, Richard Weisman, Donna Blythe, Elisa Berdalet, Ram Ayyar, Danielle Clarkson-Townsend, Karen Swajian, Ronald Benner, Tom Brewer, Lora E Fleming
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs), diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients...
March 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225079/multiple-sodium-channel-isoforms-mediate-the-pathological-effects-of-pacific-ciguatoxin-1
#18
Marco C Inserra, Mathilde R Israel, Ashlee Caldwell, Joel Castro, Jennifer R Deuis, Andrea M Harrington, Angelo Keramidas, Sonia Garcia-Caraballo, Jessica Maddern, Andelain Erickson, Luke Grundy, Grigori Y Rychkov, Katharina Zimmermann, Richard J Lewis, Stuart M Brierley, Irina Vetter
Human intoxication with the seafood poison ciguatoxin, a dinoflagellate polyether that activates voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV), causes ciguatera, a disease characterised by gastrointestinal and neurological disturbances. We assessed the activity of the most potent congener, Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1), on NaV1.1-1.9 using imaging and electrophysiological approaches. Although P-CTX-1 is essentially a non-selective NaV toxin and shifted the voltage-dependence of activation to more hyperpolarising potentials at all NaV subtypes, an increase in the inactivation time constant was observed only at NaV1...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214734/developmental-toxicity-and-molecular-responses-of-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma-embryos-to-ciguatoxin-p-ctx-1-exposure
#19
Meng Yan, Priscilla T Y Leung, Jack C H Ip, Jin-Ping Cheng, Jia-Jun Wu, Jia-Rui Gu, Paul K S Lam
Ciguatoxins are produced by toxic benthic dinoflagellates and cause ciguatera fish poisoning worldwide, but the toxic effects on developing marine fish have not been well investigated. The Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1), is a potent sodium channel agonist, which is one of the most toxic members among all CTXs. This study evaluated the toxic effects of microinjecting purified Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1) on embryonic development of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma. A lower 96h-LD50 value was estimated for eleuthero-embryos (1...
April 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211202/role-of-modular-polyketide-synthases-in-the-production-of-polyether-ladder-compounds-in-ciguatoxin-producing-gambierdiscus-polynesiensis-and-g-excentricus-dinophyceae
#20
Gurjeet S Kohli, Katrina Campbell, Uwe John, Kirsty F Smith, Santiago Fraga, Lesley L Rhodes, Shauna A Murray
Gambierdiscus, a benthic dinoflagellate, produces ciguatoxins that cause the human illness Ciguatera. Ciguatoxins are polyether ladder compounds that have a polyketide origin, indicating that polyketide synthases (PKS) are involved in their production. We sequenced transcriptomes of Gambierdiscus excentricus and Gambierdiscus polynesiensis and found 264 contigs encoding single domain ketoacyl synthases (KS; G. excentricus: 106, G. polynesiensis: 143) and ketoreductases (KR; G. excentricus: 7, G. polynesiensis: 8) with sequence similarity to type I PKSs, as reported in other dinoflagellates...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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