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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437641/human-neuronal-cell-based-assay-a-new-in-vitro-model-for-toxicity-evaluation-of-ciguatoxin
#1
Teresa Coccini, Francesca Caloni, Uliana De Simone
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are emerging marine neurotoxins representing the main cause of ciguatera fish poisoning, an intoxication syndrome which configures a health emergency and constitutes an evolving issue constantly changing due to new vectors and derivatives of CTXs, as well as their presence in new non-endemic areas. The study applied the neuroblastoma cell model of human origin (SH-SY5Y) to evaluate species-specific mechanistic information on CTX toxicity. Metabolic functionality, cell morphology, cytosolic Ca(2+)i responses, neuronal cell growth and proliferation were assessed after short- (4-24h) and long-term exposure (10days) to P-CTX-3C...
April 14, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366392/toxicity-screening-of-13-gambierdiscus-strains-using-neuro-2a-and-erythrocyte-lysis-bioassays
#2
Francesco Pisapia, William C Holland, D Ransom Hardison, R Wayne Litaker, Santiago Fraga, Tomohiro Nishimura, Masao Adachi, Lam Nguyen-Ngoc, Véronique Séchet, Zouher Amzil, Christine Herrenknecht, Philipp Hess
Species in the epi-benthic dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus produce ciguatoxins (CTXs) and maitotoxins (MTXs), which are among the most potent marine toxins known. Consumption of fish contaminated with sufficient quantities of CTXs causes Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP), the largest cause of non-bacterial food poisoning worldwide. Maitotoxins, which can be found in the digestive system of fish, could also contribute to CFP if such tissues are consumed. Recently, an increasing number of Gambierdiscus species have been identified; yet, little is known about the variation in toxicity among Gambierdiscus strains or species...
March 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335428/an-updated-review-of-ciguatera-fish-poisoning-clinical-epidemiological-environmental-and-public-health-management
#3
REVIEW
Melissa A Friedman, Mercedes Fernandez, Lorraine C Backer, Robert W Dickey, Jeffrey Bernstein, Kathleen Schrank, Steven Kibler, Wendy Stephan, Matthew O Gribble, Paul Bienfang, Robert E Bowen, Stacey Degrasse, Harold A Flores Quintana, Christopher R Loeffler, Richard Weisman, Donna Blythe, Elisa Berdalet, Ram Ayyar, Danielle Clarkson-Townsend, Karen Swajian, Ronald Benner, Tom Brewer, Lora E Fleming
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs), diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients...
March 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225079/multiple-sodium-channel-isoforms-mediate-the-pathological-effects-of-pacific-ciguatoxin-1
#4
Marco C Inserra, Mathilde R Israel, Ashlee Caldwell, Joel Castro, Jennifer R Deuis, Andrea M Harrington, Angelo Keramidas, Sonia Garcia-Caraballo, Jessica Maddern, Andelain Erickson, Luke Grundy, Grigori Y Rychkov, Katharina Zimmermann, Richard J Lewis, Stuart M Brierley, Irina Vetter
Human intoxication with the seafood poison ciguatoxin, a dinoflagellate polyether that activates voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV), causes ciguatera, a disease characterised by gastrointestinal and neurological disturbances. We assessed the activity of the most potent congener, Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1), on NaV1.1-1.9 using imaging and electrophysiological approaches. Although P-CTX-1 is essentially a non-selective NaV toxin and shifted the voltage-dependence of activation to more hyperpolarising potentials at all NaV subtypes, an increase in the inactivation time constant was observed only at NaV1...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214734/developmental-toxicity-and-molecular-responses-of-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma-embryos-to-ciguatoxin-p-ctx-1-exposure
#5
Meng Yan, Priscilla T Y Leung, Jack C H Ip, Jin-Ping Cheng, Jia-Jun Wu, Jia-Rui Gu, Paul K S Lam
Ciguatoxins are produced by toxic benthic dinoflagellates and cause ciguatera fish poisoning worldwide, but the toxic effects on developing marine fish have not been well investigated. The Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1), is a potent sodium channel agonist, which is one of the most toxic members among all CTXs. This study evaluated the toxic effects of microinjecting purified Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1) on embryonic development of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma. A lower 96h-LD50 value was estimated for eleuthero-embryos (1...
April 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211202/role-of-modular-polyketide-synthases-in-the-production-of-polyether-ladder-compounds-in-ciguatoxin-producing-gambierdiscus-polynesiensis-and-g-excentricus-dinophyceae
#6
Gurjeet S Kohli, Katrina Campbell, Uwe John, Kirsty F Smith, Santiago Fraga, Lesley L Rhodes, Shauna A Murray
Gambierdiscus, a benthic dinoflagellate, produces ciguatoxins that cause the human illness Ciguatera. Ciguatoxins are polyether ladder compounds that have a polyketide origin, indicating that polyketide synthases (PKS) are involved in their production. We sequenced transcriptomes of Gambierdiscus excentricus and Gambierdiscus polynesiensis and found 264 contigs encoding single domain ketoacyl synthases (KS; G. excentricus: 106, G. polynesiensis: 143) and ketoreductases (KR; G. excentricus: 7, G. polynesiensis: 8) with sequence similarity to type I PKSs, as reported in other dinoflagellates...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073562/a-new-gambierdiscus-species-dinophyceae-from-rarotonga-cook-islands-gambierdiscus-cheloniae-sp-nov
#7
Kirsty F Smith, Lesley Rhodes, Arjun Verma, Belinda G Curley, D Tim Harwood, Gurjeet S Kohli, Dorothy Solomona, Teina Rongo, Rex Munday, Shauna A Murray
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) has been reported for many years in Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and has had the world's highest reported incidence of this illness for the last 20 years. Following intensive sampling to understand the distribution of the causative organisms of CFP, an undescribed Gambierdiscus species was isolated from the Rarotongan lagoon. Gambierdiscus cheloniae sp. nov. has the common Gambierdiscus Kofoidian plate formula (except for a variability in the number of precingular plates in aberrant cells): Po, 3', 6″ (7″), 6C?, 6 or 7S, 5'″, 1p and 2″″...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073553/the-effects-of-light-intensity-on-the-growth-of-japanese-gambierdiscus-spp-dinophyceae
#8
Takamichi Yoshimatsu, Chaoyu Tie, Haruo Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Funaki, Chiho Honma, Kouki Tanaka, Masao Adachi
Marine toxic dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus are the causative agents of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), a form of seafood poisoning that is widespread in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions worldwide. The distributions of Gambierdiscus australes, Gambierdiscus scabrosus and two phylotypes of Gambierdiscus spp. type 2 and type 3 have been reported for the waters surrounding the main island of Japan. To explore the bloom dynamics and the vertical distribution of these Japanese species and phylotypes of Gambierdiscus, the effects of light intensity on their growth were tested, using a photoirradiation-culture system...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073552/ciguatera-fish-poisoning-incidence-health-costs-and-risk-perception-on-moorea-island-society-archipelago-french-polynesia
#9
Ewen Morin, Clémence Gatti, Tamatoa Bambridge, Mireille Chinain
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is a non-bacterial seafood poisoning well characterized in the remote archipelagos of French Polynesia, yet poorly documented in the Society archipelago, most notably on Moorea, the second most populated island in French Polynesia, which counts a high proportion of fishermen fishing on a regular basis. To address this knowledge gap, a holistic study of the ciguatera issue was conducted on Moorea. First, ciguatera risk was analysed in terms of incidence rate, fish species most commonly involved and risk stratification in Moorea lagoon based on 2007-2013 epidemiological data...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073467/quantitative-pcr-assay-for-detection-and-enumeration-of-ciguatera-causing-dinoflagellate-gambierdiscus-spp-gonyaulacales-in-coastal-areas-of-japan
#10
Tomohiro Nishimura, Naohito Hariganeya, Wittaya Tawong, Hiroshi Sakanari, Haruo Yamaguchi, Masao Adachi
In Japan, ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) has been increasingly reported not only in subtropical areas but also in temperate areas in recent years, causing a serious threat to human health. Ciguatera fish poisoning is caused by the consumption of fish that have accumulated toxins produced by an epiphytic/benthic dinoflagellate, genus Gambierdiscus. Previous studies revealed the existence of five Gambierdiscus species/phylotypes in Japan: Gambierdiscus australes, Gambierdiscus scabrosus, Gambierdiscus sp. type 2, Gambierdiscus sp...
February 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073464/gambierdiscus-balechii-sp-nov-dinophyceae-a-new-benthic-toxic-dinoflagellate-from-the-celebes-sea-sw-pacific-ocean
#11
Santiago Fraga, Francisco Rodríguez, Pilar Riobó, Isabel Bravo
A new benthic toxic dinoflagellate is described from the Celebes Sea. Gambierdiscus balechii sp. nov. was isolated from seaweeds growing in tidal ponds. Its morphology was studied by means of LM and SEM; G. balechii has a very ornamented theca, a hatchet shaped second apical plate, a narrow second antapical plate and an asymmetrical third precigular plate, a unique combination of characters among Gambierdiscus species. It has a very wide size range with widths from 36 to 88μm. Phylogenetic analyses of two G...
September 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997033/brain-mechanisms-of-abnormal-temperature-perception-in-cold-allodynia-induced-by-ciguatoxin
#12
Anneka Eisenblätter, Richard Lewis, Arnd Dörfler, Clemens Forster, Katharina Zimmermann
OBJECTIVE: Cold allodynia occurs as a major symptom of neuropathic pain states. It remains poorly treated with current analgesics. Ciguatoxins (CTXs), ichthyosarcotoxins that cause ciguatera, produce a large peripheral sensitization to dynamic cold stimuli in Aδ-fibers by activating sodium channels without producing heat or mechanical allodynia. We used CTXs as a surrogate model of cold allodynia to dissect the framework of cold allodynia-activated central pain pathways. METHODS: Reversible cold allodynia was induced in healthy male volunteers by shallow intracutaneous injection of low millimolar concentrations of CTX into the dorsal skin of the forefoot...
January 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966124/-ciguatera-a-multifaceted-and-puzzling-disorder
#13
REVIEW
Matthias Wjst
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885668/characterization-of-gambierdiscus-lapillus-sp-nov-gonyaulacales-dinophyceae-a-new-toxic-dinoflagellate-from-the-great-barrier-reef-australia
#14
Anna Liza Kretzschmar, Arjun Verma, Tim Harwood, Mona Hoppenrath, Shauna Murray
Gambierdiscus is a genus of benthic dinoflagellates found worldwide. Some species produce neurotoxins (maitotoxins and ciguatoxins) that bioaccumulate and cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), a potentially fatal food-borne illness that is common worldwide in tropical regions. The investigation of toxigenic species of Gambierdiscus in CFP endemic regions in Australia is necessary as a first step to determine which species of Gambierdiscus are related to CFP cases occurring in this region. In this study, we characterized five strains of Gambierdiscus collected from Heron Island, Australia, a region in which ciguatera is endemic...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806035/ciguatera-fish-poisoning
#15
Patrick Armstrong, Peter Murray, Annette Nesdale, Brad Peckler
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most common cause of seafood-toxin poisoning in the world and is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas. It causes gastroenteritis but also myriad neurological and cardiovascular symptoms. We present a cluster of CFP that occurred in Wellington Hospital, New Zealand. It resulted in three patients with life threatening cardiotoxicity and a fourth case with severe gastro-intestinal symptoms. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and public health issues are discussed...
October 28, 2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778083/-first-ciguatera-outbreak-in-germany-in-2012
#16
Miriam Friedemann
In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year...
December 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616971/harmful-algal-blooms-and-public-health
#17
Lynn M Grattan, Sailor Holobaugh, J Glenn Morris
The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries...
July 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613284/acute-exposure-to-pacific-ciguatoxin-reduces-electroencephalogram-activity-and-disrupts-neurotransmitter-metabolic-pathways-in-motor-cortex
#18
Gajendra Kumar, Ngan Pan Bennett Au, Elva Ngai Yu Lei, Yim Ling Mak, Leanne Lai Hang Chan, Michael Hon Wah Lam, Leo Lai Chan, Paul Kwan Sing Lam, Chi Him Eddie Ma
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a common human food poisoning caused by consumption of ciguatoxin (CTX)-contaminated fish affecting over 50,000 people worldwide each year. CTXs are classified depending on their origin from the Pacific (P-CTXs), Indian Ocean (I-CTXs), and Caribbean (C-CTXs). P-CTX-1 is the most toxic CTX known and the major source of CFP causing an array of neurological symptoms. Neurological symptoms in some CFP patients last for several months or years; however, the underlying electrophysiological properties of acute exposure to CTXs remain unknown...
September 10, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594814/gene-expression-patterns-in-peripheral-blood-leukocytes-in-patients-with-recurrent-ciguatera-fish-poisoning-preliminary-studies
#19
Maria-Cecilia Lopez, Ricardo F Ungaro, Henry V Baker, Lyle L Moldawer, Alison Robertson, Margaret Abbott, Sparkle M Roberts, Lynn M Grattan, J Glenn Morris
Ciguatera fish poisoning (ciguatera) is a common clinical syndrome in areas where there is dependence on tropical reef fish for food. A subset of patients develops recurrent and, in some instances, chronic symptoms, which may result in substantial disability. To identify possible biomarkers for recurrent/chronic disease, and to explore correlations with immune gene expression, peripheral blood leukocyte gene expression in 10 ciguatera patients (7 recurrent, 3 acute) from the U.S. Virgin Islands, and 5 unexposed Florida controls were evaluated...
July 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584136/intractable-seizures-and-rehabilitation-in-ciguatera-poisoning
#20
Armen Derian, Seema Khurana, Joshua Rothenberg, Charles Plumlee
Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most frequently reported seafood toxin illness associated with the ingestion of contaminated tropical fish. Diagnosis relies on a history of recent tropical fish ingestion and subsequent development of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological symptoms. Ciguatera poisoning usually has a self-limited time course, and its management involves symptomatic control and supportive care. This case report presents an uncommon case of ciguatera poisoning with prolonged intractable seizures refractory to standard antiseizure medications...
May 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
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