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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135913/management-of-ciguatoxin-risk-in-eastern-australia
#1
Hazel Farrell, Shauna A Murray, Anthony Zammit, Alan W Edwards
Between 2014 and 2016, five cases of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), involving twenty four individuals, were linked to Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) caught in the coastal waters of the state of New South Wales (NSW) on the east coast of Australia. Previously, documented cases of CFP in NSW were few, and primarily linked to fish imported from other regions. Since 2015, thirteen individuals were affected across four additional CFP cases in NSW, linked to fish imported from tropical locations. The apparent increase in CFP in NSW from locally sourced catch, combined with the risk of CFP from imported fish, has highlighted several considerations that should be incorporated into risk management strategies to minimize CFP exposure for seafood consumers...
November 14, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045489/ciguatoxicity-of-gambierdiscus-and-fukuyoa-species-from-the-caribbean-and-gulf-of-mexico
#2
R Wayne Litaker, William C Holland, D Ransom Hardison, Francesco Pisapia, Philipp Hess, Steven R Kibler, Patricia A Tester
Dinoflagellate species belonging to the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa produce ciguatoxins (CTXs), potent neurotoxins that concentrate in fish causing ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in humans. While the structures and toxicities of ciguatoxins isolated from fish in the Pacific and Caribbean are known, there are few data on the variation in toxicity between and among species of Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. Quantifying the differences in species-specific toxicity is especially important to developing an effective cell-based risk assessment strategy for CFP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023382/quantification-of-representative-ciguatoxins-in-the-pacific-using-quantitative-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#3
Tsuyoshi Kato, Takeshi Yasumoto
The absolute quantification of five toxins involved in ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in the Pacific was carried out by quantitative ¹H-NMR. The targeted toxins were ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B), 52-epi-54-deoxyciguatoxin-1B (epideoxyCTX1B), ciguatoxin-3C (CTX3C), 51-hydroxyciguatoxin-3C (51OHCTX3C), and ciguatoxin-4A (CTX4A). We first calibrated the residual protons of pyridine-d₅ using certified reference material, 1,4-BTMSB-d₄, prepared the toxin solutions with the calibrated pyridin-d₅, measured the ¹H-NMR spectra, and quantified the toxin using the calibrated residual protons as the internal standard...
October 12, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017199/-ciguatera-or-why-you-should-enquire-about-fish-consumption-in-cases-of-cold-allodynia
#4
Miriam Friedemann, Claus Doberauer, Gereon R Fink, Lothar Burghaus
Ciguatoxine sind potente, von Mikroalgen produzierte, marine Biotoxine, die sich in tropischen Raubfischen, lokal und saisonal unterschiedlich stark, anreichern können. Kurze Zeit nach dem Fischverzehr treten gastrointestinale, neurologische und/oder kardiovaskuläre Vergiftungssymptome auf. Durch die hohe Affinität der Toxine zu neuronalen Natriumkanälen sind neurologische Symptome für Ciguatera-Vergiftungen charakteristisch. Nahezu pathognomonisch ist dabei die Kälteallodynie, bei der kalte Oberflächen als heiß, schmerzhaft oder extrem unangenehm empfunden werden...
October 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962987/corrigendum-to-canary-islands-ne-atlantic-as-a-biodiversity-hotspot-of-gambierdiscus-implications-for-future-trends-of-ciguatera-in-the-area
#5
Francisco Rodríguez, Santiago Fraga, Isabel Ramilo, Pilar Rial, Rosa Isabel Figueroa, Pilar Riobó, Isabel Bravo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962981/the-prevalence-of-benthic-dinoflagellates-associated-with-ciguatera-fish-poisoning-in-the-central-red-sea
#6
Daniela Catania, Mindy L Richlen, Yim Ling Mak, Steve L Morton, Elizabeth H Laban, Yixiao Xu, Donald M Anderson, Leo Lai Chan, Michael L Berumen
This study confirms the presence of the toxigenic benthic dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus belizeanus and Ostreopsis spp. in the central Red Sea. To our knowledge, this is also the first report of these taxa in coastal waters of Saudi Arabia, indicating the potential occurrence of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in that region. During field investigations carried out in 2012 and 2013, a total of 100 Turbinaria and Halimeda macroalgae samples were collected from coral reefs off the Saudi Arabian coast and examined for the presence of Gambierdiscus and Ostreopsis, two toxigenic dinoflagellate genera commonly observed in coral reef communities around the world...
September 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959656/qualitative-and-quantitative-assessment-of-the-presence-of-ciguatoxin-p-ctx-1b-in-spanish-mackerel-scomberomorus-commerson-from-waters-in-new-south-wales-australia
#7
Gurjeet S Kohli, Kristina Haslauer, Chowdhury Sarowar, Anna Liza Kretzschmar, Mark Boulter, D Tim Harwood, Olivier Laczka, Shauna A Murray
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is a tropical disease caused by the consumption of fish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). Currently, the only feasible prevention methods for CFP are to avoid the consumption of fish of certain species from some regions, avoid larger fish of certain species, or avoid all fish caught from specific regions. Here, we quantified levels of P-CTX-1B in Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), which is the main fish species that causes CFP in New South Wales and Queensland, Australia, using LC-MS detection against a toxin standard...
2017: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927792/heliotropiumides-a-and-b-new-phenolamides-with-n-carbamoyl-putrescine-moiety-from-heliotropium-foertherianum-collected-in-hawaii-and-their-biological-activities
#8
You-Sheng Cai, Ariel M Sarotti, Daniela Gündisch, Tamara P Kondratyuk, John M Pezzuto, James Turkson, Shugeng Cao
Two new compounds heliotropiumides A (1) and B (2), phenolamides each with an uncommon carbamoyl putrescine moiety, were isolated from the seeds of a naturalized Hawaiian higher plant, Heliotropium foertherianum Diane & Hilger in the borage family, which is widely used for the treatment of ciguatera fish poisoning. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were characterized based on MS spectroscopic and NMR analysis, and DP4+ calculations. The absolute configuration (AC) of compound 1 was determined by comparison of its optical rotation with those reported in literature...
October 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867800/ciguatoxins-evoke-potent-cgrp-release-by-activation-of-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-subtypes-nav1-9-nav1-7-and-nav1-1
#9
Filip Touska, Simon Sattler, Philipp Malsch, Richard J Lewis, Peter W Reeh, Katharina Zimmermann
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are marine toxins that cause ciguatera fish poisoning, a debilitating disease dominated by sensory and neurological disturbances that include cold allodynia and various painful symptoms as well as long-lasting pruritus. Although CTXs are known as the most potent mammalian sodium channel activator toxins, the etiology of many of its neurosensory symptoms remains unresolved. We recently described that local application of 1 nM Pacific Ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1) into the skin of human subjects induces a long-lasting, painful axon reflex flare and that CTXs are particularly effective in releasing calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) from nerve terminals...
August 30, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811602/identification-of-ciguatoxins-in-a-shark-involved-in-a-fatal-food-poisoning-in-the-indian-ocean
#10
Jorge Diogène, Laia Reverté, Maria Rambla-Alegre, Vanessa Del Río, Pablo de la Iglesia, Mònica Campàs, Oscar Palacios, Cintia Flores, Josep Caixach, Christian Ralijaona, Iony Razanajatovo, Agathe Pirog, Hélène Magalon, Nathalie Arnich, Jean Turquet
Severe food poisoning events after the consumption of sharks have been reported since the 1940s; however, there has been no clear understanding of their cause. Herein, we report for the first time the presence of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in sharks. The identification by mass spectrometry of CTXs, including two new analogues, in a bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas) that was consumed by humans, causing the poisoning and death of 11 people in Madagascar in 2013 is described. Typical neurotoxic ciguatera symptoms were recorded in patients, and toxicological assays on extracts of the shark demonstrated CTX-like activity...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767092/molecular-identification-of-gambierdiscus-and-fukuyoa-dinophyceae-from-environmental-samples
#11
Kirsty F Smith, Laura Biessy, Phoebe A Argyle, Tom Trnski, Tuikolongahau Halafihi, Lesley L Rhodes
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is increasing across the Pacific and the distribution of the causative dinoflagellates appears to be expanding. Subtle differences in thecal plate morphology are used to distinguish dinoflagellate species, which are difficult to determine using light microscopy. For these reasons we sought to develop a Quantitative PCR assay that would detect all species from both Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa genera in order to rapidly screen environmental samples for potentially toxic species. Additionally, a specific assay for F...
August 2, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755716/-canary-islands-ne-atlantic-as-a-biodiversity-hotspot-of-gambierdiscus-implications-for-future-trends-of-ciguatera-in-the-area
#12
Francisco Rodríguez, Santiago Fraga, Isabel Ramilo, Pilar Rial, Rosa Isabel Figueroa, Pilar Riobó, Isabel Bravo
In the present study the geographical distribution, abundance and composition of Gambierdiscus was described over a 600km longitudinal scale in the Canary Islands. Samples for cell counts, isolation and identification of Gambierdiscus were obtained from five islands (El Hierro, Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote). Average densities of Gambierdiscus spp. between 0 and 2200cellsg(-1) blot dry weight of macrophyte were recorded. Morphological (light microscopy and SEM techniques) and molecular analyses (LSU and SSU rDNA sequencing of cultures and single cells from the field) of Gambierdiscus was performed...
July 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755713/taxonomic-assignment-of-the-benthic-toxigenic-dinoflagellate-gambierdiscus-sp-type-6-as-gambierdiscus-balechii-dinophyceae-including-its-distribution-and-ciguatoxicity
#13
Xinfeng Dai, Yim Ling Mak, Chung-Kuang Lu, Hua-Hsuan Mei, Jia Jun Wu, Wai Hin Lee, Leo Lai Chan, Po Teen Lim, Nurin Izzati Mustapa, Hong Chang Lim, Matthias Wolf, Dongrong Li, Zhaohe Luo, Haifeng Gu, Chui Pin Leaw, Douding Lu
Recent molecular phylogenetic studies of Gambierdiscus species flagged several new species and genotypes, thus leading to revitalizing its systematics. The inter-relationships of clades revealed by the primary sequence information of nuclear ribosomal genes (rDNA), however, can sometimes be equivocal, and therefore, in this study, the taxonomic status of a ribotype, Gambierdiscus sp. type 6, was evaluated using specimens collected from the original locality, Marakei Island, Republic of Kiribati; and specimens found in Rawa Island, Peninsular Malaysia, were further used for comparison...
July 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753923/an-overview-of-seafood-supply-food-safety-and-regulation-in-new-south-wales-australia
#14
REVIEW
Malik A Hussain, Themy Saputra, Elizabeth A Szabo, Bruce Nelan
Seafood consumption is increasing in Australia, especially in New South Wales (NSW). Average per capita seafood consumption in NSW is higher than the national average. Seafood supply in NSW comes from domestic (wild catch and aquaculture) and overseas (seafood imports) sources. The contribution of wild catch and aquaculture in domestic seafood production (2012-2013) was 73.42% and 26.52%, respectively. Seafood-associated foodborne illness outbreaks are not common and on an average four outbreaks occur each year in NSW...
July 19, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726749/ladder-shaped-ion-channel-ligands-current-state-of-knowledge
#15
REVIEW
Yuri B Shmukler, Denis A Nikishin
Ciguatoxins (CTX) and brevetoxins (BTX) are polycyclic ethereal compounds biosynthesized by the worldwide distributed planktonic and epibenthic dinoflagellates of Gambierdiscus and Karenia genera, correspondingly. Ciguatera, evoked by CTXs, is a type of ichthyosarcotoxism, which involves a variety of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms, while BTXs cause so-called neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. Both types of toxins are reviewed together because of similar mechanisms of their action. These are the only molecules known to activate voltage-sensitive Na⁺-channels in mammals through a specific interaction with site 5 of its α-subunit and may compete for it, which results in an increase in neuronal excitability, neurotransmitter release and impairment of synaptic vesicle recycling...
July 20, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710688/death-by-food
#16
Roger W Byard
Although death from food is not an uncommon finding in forensic facilities worldwide, the range of underlying lethal mechanisms and associated conditions that should be sought at the time of autopsy is quite disparate. Deaths may occur from i) infectious agents including bacteria, viruses, protozoa, cestodes, nematodes and prions; ii) natural toxins including amanita toxins, tetrodotoxin, ciguatera and scombroid; iii) anaphylaxis; iv) poisoning; v) mechanical issues around airway and gut obstruction and/or perforation; and vi) miscellaneous causes...
July 15, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696400/the-epiphytic-genus-gambierdiscus-dinophyceae-in-the-kermadec-islands-and-zealandia-regions-of-the-southwestern-pacific-and-the-associated-risk-of-ciguatera-fish-poisoning
#17
Lesley L Rhodes, Kirsty F Smith, Sam Murray, D Tim Harwood, Tom Trnski, Rex Munday
Species in the genus Gambierdiscus produce ciguatoxins (CTXs) and/or maitotoxins (MTXs), which may cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in humans if contaminated fish are consumed. Species of Gambierdiscus have previously been isolated from macroalgae at Rangitahua (Raoul Island and North Meyer Islands, northern Kermadec Islands), and the opportunity was taken to sample for Gambierdiscus at the more southerly Macauley Island during an expedition in 2016. Gambierdiscus cells were isolated, cultured, and DNA extracted and sequenced to determine the species present...
July 11, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696398/maitotoxin-4-a-novel-mtx-analog-produced-by-gambierdiscus-excentricus
#18
Francesco Pisapia, Manoëlla Sibat, Christine Herrenknecht, Korian Lhaute, Greta Gaiani, Pierre-Jean Ferron, Valérie Fessard, Santiago Fraga, Silvia M Nascimento, R Wayne Litaker, William C Holland, Catherine Roullier, Philipp Hess
Maitotoxins (MTXs) are among the most potent toxins known. These toxins are produced by epi-benthic dinoflagellates of the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa and may play a role in causing the symptoms associated with Ciguatera Fish Poisoning. A recent survey revealed that, of the species tested, the newly described species from the Canary Islands, G. excentricus, is one of the most maitotoxic. The goal of the present study was to characterize MTX-related compounds produced by this species. Initially, lysates of cells from two Canary Island G...
July 11, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672845/regional-variations-in-the-risk-and-severity-of-ciguatera-caused-by-eating-moray-eels
#19
REVIEW
Thomas Y K Chan
Moray eels (Gymnothorax species) from tropical waters have long been known to be high-risk species, and the consumption of particularly the viscera or ungutted eels can result in severe ciguatera (known as Gymnothorax or moray eel poisoning), characterized by prominent neurological features. In this review, the main objective was to describe the risk and severity of ciguatera caused by eating moray eels in different parts of the world. Moray eels can accumulate very high ciguatoxin (CTX) levels in the flesh and particularly the liver...
June 26, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672825/maitotoxin-is-a-potential-selective-activator-of-the-endogenous-transient-receptor-potential-canonical-type-1-channel-in-xenopus-laevis-oocytes
#20
Pedro L Flores, Emma Rodríguez, Estrella Zapata, Roxana Carbó, José María Farías, Martín Martínez
Maitotoxin (MTX) is the most potent marine toxin known to date. It is responsible for a particular human intoxication syndrome called ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). Several reports indicate that MTX is an activator of non-selective cation channels (NSCC) in different cell types. The molecular identity of these channels is still an unresolved topic, and it has been proposed that the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are involved in this effect. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, MTX at picomolar (pM) concentrations induces the activation of NSCC with functional and pharmacological properties that resemble the activity of TRP channels...
June 25, 2017: Marine Drugs
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