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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535116/is-mannitol-the-treatment-of-choice-for-patients-with-ciguatera-fish-poisoning
#1
Michael E Mullins, Robert S Hoffman
CONTEXT: Ciguatera fish poisoning arises primarily from consumption of carnivorous reef fish caught in tropical and sub-tropical waters. Ciguatoxins, a class of tasteless, heat-stable, polycyclic toxins produced by dinoflagellates, accumulate through the food chain and concentrate in various carnivorous fish, such as groupers, barracudas, wrasses, amberjack, kingfishes, and eels. Characteristics of ciguatera fish poisoning include early nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea in the first one to two days post ingestion, followed by the appearance of sensory disturbances...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526120/a-new-species-of-gambierdiscus-dinophyceae-from-the-south-west-pacific-gambierdiscus-honu-sp-nov
#2
Lesley Rhodes, Kirsty F Smith, Arjun Verma, Belinda G Curley, D Tim Harwood, Sam Murray, Gurjeet S Kohli, Dorothy Solomona, Teina Rongo, Rex Munday, Shauna A Murray
Two isolates of a new tropical, epiphytic dinoflagellate species, Gambierdiscus honu sp. nov., were obtained from macroalgae sampled in Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and from North Meyer Island, Kermadec Islands. Gambierdiscus honu sp. nov. had the common Gambierdiscus Kofoidian plate formula: Po, 3', 6″, 6C?, 6 or 7S, 5‴, 1p and 2⁗. The characteristic morphological features of this species were its relatively small short dorsoventral length and width and the shape of individual plates, in particular the combination of the hatchet-shaped 2' and pentagonal 3' plates and the length to width ratio of the antapical 1p plate...
May 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516259/-poisoning-caused-by-marine-biotoxins
#3
REVIEW
Philipp Hess
This paper presents a short summary of the knowledge on marine biotoxins. As toxins are known for their acute effects, they have been classified here according to the effects they cause in acute human poisoning incidents. Toxins may thus be distinguished into those that affect the nervous system (paralytic and other neurotoxins), memory (amnesic poisons), and the digestive system (diarrhetic toxins). Furthermore, newly emerging toxins, such as ciguatoxins or shark toxins, and factors that lead to the introduction of toxins in new areas, are presented...
May 17, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437641/human-neuronal-cell-based-assay-a-new-in-vitro-model-for-toxicity-evaluation-of-ciguatoxin
#4
Teresa Coccini, Francesca Caloni, Uliana De Simone
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are emerging marine neurotoxins representing the main cause of ciguatera fish poisoning, an intoxication syndrome which configures a health emergency and constitutes an evolving issue constantly changing due to new vectors and derivatives of CTXs, as well as their presence in new non-endemic areas. The study applied the neuroblastoma cell model of human origin (SH-SY5Y) to evaluate species-specific mechanistic information on CTX toxicity. Metabolic functionality, cell morphology, cytosolic Ca(2+)i responses, neuronal cell growth and proliferation were assessed after short- (4-24h) and long-term exposure (10days) to P-CTX-3C...
April 14, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366395/corrigendum-to-evidence-of-the-bioaccumulation-of-ciguatoxins-in-giant-clams-tridacna-maxima-exposed-to-gambierdiscus-spp-cells-harmful-algae-57-2016-78-87
#5
Mélanie Roué, Hélène Taiana Darius, Sandy Picot, André Ung, Jérôme Viallon, Nabila Gaertner-Mazouni, Manoella Sibat, Zouher Amzil, Mireille Chinain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366392/toxicity-screening-of-13-gambierdiscus-strains-using-neuro-2a-and-erythrocyte-lysis-bioassays
#6
Francesco Pisapia, William C Holland, D Ransom Hardison, R Wayne Litaker, Santiago Fraga, Tomohiro Nishimura, Masao Adachi, Lam Nguyen-Ngoc, Véronique Séchet, Zouher Amzil, Christine Herrenknecht, Philipp Hess
Species in the epi-benthic dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus produce ciguatoxins (CTXs) and maitotoxins (MTXs), which are among the most potent marine toxins known. Consumption of fish contaminated with sufficient quantities of CTXs causes Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP), the largest cause of non-bacterial food poisoning worldwide. Maitotoxins, which can be found in the digestive system of fish, could also contribute to CFP if such tissues are consumed. Recently, an increasing number of Gambierdiscus species have been identified; yet, little is known about the variation in toxicity among Gambierdiscus strains or species...
March 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335428/an-updated-review-of-ciguatera-fish-poisoning-clinical-epidemiological-environmental-and-public-health-management
#7
REVIEW
Melissa A Friedman, Mercedes Fernandez, Lorraine C Backer, Robert W Dickey, Jeffrey Bernstein, Kathleen Schrank, Steven Kibler, Wendy Stephan, Matthew O Gribble, Paul Bienfang, Robert E Bowen, Stacey Degrasse, Harold A Flores Quintana, Christopher R Loeffler, Richard Weisman, Donna Blythe, Elisa Berdalet, Ram Ayyar, Danielle Clarkson-Townsend, Karen Swajian, Ronald Benner, Tom Brewer, Lora E Fleming
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs), diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients...
March 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225079/multiple-sodium-channel-isoforms-mediate-the-pathological-effects-of-pacific-ciguatoxin-1
#8
Marco C Inserra, Mathilde R Israel, Ashlee Caldwell, Joel Castro, Jennifer R Deuis, Andrea M Harrington, Angelo Keramidas, Sonia Garcia-Caraballo, Jessica Maddern, Andelain Erickson, Luke Grundy, Grigori Y Rychkov, Katharina Zimmermann, Richard J Lewis, Stuart M Brierley, Irina Vetter
Human intoxication with the seafood poison ciguatoxin, a dinoflagellate polyether that activates voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV), causes ciguatera, a disease characterised by gastrointestinal and neurological disturbances. We assessed the activity of the most potent congener, Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1), on NaV1.1-1.9 using imaging and electrophysiological approaches. Although P-CTX-1 is essentially a non-selective NaV toxin and shifted the voltage-dependence of activation to more hyperpolarising potentials at all NaV subtypes, an increase in the inactivation time constant was observed only at NaV1...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214734/developmental-toxicity-and-molecular-responses-of-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma-embryos-to-ciguatoxin-p-ctx-1-exposure
#9
Meng Yan, Priscilla T Y Leung, Jack C H Ip, Jin-Ping Cheng, Jia-Jun Wu, Jia-Rui Gu, Paul K S Lam
Ciguatoxins are produced by toxic benthic dinoflagellates and cause ciguatera fish poisoning worldwide, but the toxic effects on developing marine fish have not been well investigated. The Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1), is a potent sodium channel agonist, which is one of the most toxic members among all CTXs. This study evaluated the toxic effects of microinjecting purified Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1) on embryonic development of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma. A lower 96h-LD50 value was estimated for eleuthero-embryos (1...
April 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211202/role-of-modular-polyketide-synthases-in-the-production-of-polyether-ladder-compounds-in-ciguatoxin-producing-gambierdiscus-polynesiensis-and-g-excentricus-dinophyceae
#10
Gurjeet S Kohli, Katrina Campbell, Uwe John, Kirsty F Smith, Santiago Fraga, Lesley L Rhodes, Shauna A Murray
Gambierdiscus, a benthic dinoflagellate, produces ciguatoxins that cause the human illness Ciguatera. Ciguatoxins are polyether ladder compounds that have a polyketide origin, indicating that polyketide synthases (PKS) are involved in their production. We sequenced transcriptomes of Gambierdiscus excentricus and Gambierdiscus polynesiensis and found 264 contigs encoding single domain ketoacyl synthases (KS; G. excentricus: 106, G. polynesiensis: 143) and ketoreductases (KR; G. excentricus: 7, G. polynesiensis: 8) with sequence similarity to type I PKSs, as reported in other dinoflagellates...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208796/recent%C3%A2-trends%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-marine%C3%A2-phycotoxins%C3%A2-from%C3%A2-australian%C3%A2-coastal%C3%A2-waters
#11
Penelope Ajani, D Tim Harwood, Shauna A Murray
Phycotoxins, which are produced by harmful microalgae and bioaccumulate in the  marine food web, are of growing concern for Australia. These harmful algae pose a threat to  ecosystem and human health, as well as constraining the progress of aquaculture, one of the fastest  growing food sectors in the world. With better monitoring, advanced analytical skills and an  increase in microalgal expertise, many phycotoxins have been identified in Australian coastal  waters in recent years...
February 9, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073562/a-new-gambierdiscus-species-dinophyceae-from-rarotonga-cook-islands-gambierdiscus-cheloniae-sp-nov
#12
Kirsty F Smith, Lesley Rhodes, Arjun Verma, Belinda G Curley, D Tim Harwood, Gurjeet S Kohli, Dorothy Solomona, Teina Rongo, Rex Munday, Shauna A Murray
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) has been reported for many years in Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and has had the world's highest reported incidence of this illness for the last 20 years. Following intensive sampling to understand the distribution of the causative organisms of CFP, an undescribed Gambierdiscus species was isolated from the Rarotongan lagoon. Gambierdiscus cheloniae sp. nov. has the common Gambierdiscus Kofoidian plate formula (except for a variability in the number of precingular plates in aberrant cells): Po, 3', 6″ (7″), 6C?, 6 or 7S, 5'″, 1p and 2″″...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073543/corrigendum-to-production-of-ciguatoxin-and-maitotoxin-by-strains-of-gambierdiscus-australes-g-pacificus-and-g-polynesiensis-dinophyceae-isolated-from-rarotonga-cook-islands-harmful-algae-39-2014-185-190
#13
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997033/brain-mechanisms-of-abnormal-temperature-perception-in-cold-allodynia-induced-by-ciguatoxin
#14
Anneka Eisenblätter, Richard Lewis, Arnd Dörfler, Clemens Forster, Katharina Zimmermann
OBJECTIVE: Cold allodynia occurs as a major symptom of neuropathic pain states. It remains poorly treated with current analgesics. Ciguatoxins (CTXs), ichthyosarcotoxins that cause ciguatera, produce a large peripheral sensitization to dynamic cold stimuli in Aδ-fibers by activating sodium channels without producing heat or mechanical allodynia. We used CTXs as a surrogate model of cold allodynia to dissect the framework of cold allodynia-activated central pain pathways. METHODS: Reversible cold allodynia was induced in healthy male volunteers by shallow intracutaneous injection of low millimolar concentrations of CTX into the dorsal skin of the forefoot...
January 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885668/characterization-of-gambierdiscus-lapillus-sp-nov-gonyaulacales-dinophyceae-a-new-toxic-dinoflagellate-from-the-great-barrier-reef-australia
#15
Anna Liza Kretzschmar, Arjun Verma, Tim Harwood, Mona Hoppenrath, Shauna Murray
Gambierdiscus is a genus of benthic dinoflagellates found worldwide. Some species produce neurotoxins (maitotoxins and ciguatoxins) that bioaccumulate and cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), a potentially fatal food-borne illness that is common worldwide in tropical regions. The investigation of toxigenic species of Gambierdiscus in CFP endemic regions in Australia is necessary as a first step to determine which species of Gambierdiscus are related to CFP cases occurring in this region. In this study, we characterized five strains of Gambierdiscus collected from Heron Island, Australia, a region in which ciguatera is endemic...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796937/cytotoxic-effects-of-environmental-toxins-on-human-glial-cells
#16
Fiona D'Mello, Nady Braidy, Helder Marçal, Gilles Guillemin, Fanny Rossi, Mirielle Chinian, Dominique Laurent, Charles Teo, Brett A Neilan
Toxins produced by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates have increasingly become a public health concern due to their degenerative effects on mammalian tissue and cells. In particular, emerging evidence has called attention to the neurodegenerative effects of the cyanobacterial toxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). Other toxins such as the neurotoxins saxitoxin and ciguatoxin, as well as the hepatotoxic microcystin, have been previously shown to have a range of effects upon the nervous system. However, the capacity of these toxins to cause neurodegeneration in human cells has not, to our knowledge, been previously investigated...
October 29, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778083/-first-ciguatera-outbreak-in-germany-in-2012
#17
Miriam Friedemann
In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year...
December 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725470/total-synthesis-and-related-studies-of-large-strained-and-bioactive-natural-products
#18
REVIEW
Masahiro Hirama
Our chemical syntheses and related scientific investigations of natural products with complex architectures and powerful biological activities are described, focusing on the very large 3 nm-long polycyclic ethers called the ciguatoxins, highly strained and labile chromoprotein antitumor antibiotics featuring nine-membered enediyne cores, and extremely potent anthelmintic macrolides called the avermectins.
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720471/physiological-and-behavioural-impacts-of-pacific-ciguatoxin-1-p-ctx-1-on-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma
#19
Yim Ling Mak, Jing Li, Chih-Ning Liu, Shuk Han Cheng, Paul K S Lam, Jinping Cheng, Leo L Chan
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are natural biotoxins produced by benthic dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus, which are bioaccumulated and biotransformed along food chains in coral ecosystems. They are neurotoxins that activate voltage-gated sodium channels and disrupt ion conductance in the excitable tissues. Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1) is the most prevalent and potent CTX congener present in fishes from the Pacific Ocean. In this study, P-CTX-1 was administrated to larval marine medaka (2h post-hatch) via microinjection...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613284/acute-exposure-to-pacific-ciguatoxin-reduces-electroencephalogram-activity-and-disrupts-neurotransmitter-metabolic-pathways-in-motor-cortex
#20
Gajendra Kumar, Ngan Pan Bennett Au, Elva Ngai Yu Lei, Yim Ling Mak, Leanne Lai Hang Chan, Michael Hon Wah Lam, Leo Lai Chan, Paul Kwan Sing Lam, Chi Him Eddie Ma
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a common human food poisoning caused by consumption of ciguatoxin (CTX)-contaminated fish affecting over 50,000 people worldwide each year. CTXs are classified depending on their origin from the Pacific (P-CTXs), Indian Ocean (I-CTXs), and Caribbean (C-CTXs). P-CTX-1 is the most toxic CTX known and the major source of CFP causing an array of neurological symptoms. Neurological symptoms in some CFP patients last for several months or years; however, the underlying electrophysiological properties of acute exposure to CTXs remain unknown...
September 10, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
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