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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360534/immune-effects-of-the-neurotoxins-ciguatoxins-and-brevetoxins
#1
Ophelie Pierre, Laurent Misery, Matthieu Talagas, Raphaele Le Garrec
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) and brevetoxins (PbTxs) are phycotoxins that can accumulate along the marine food chain and thus cause seafood poisoning in humans, namely "ciguatera fish poisoning" (CFP) and "neurotoxic shellfish poisoning" (NSP), respectively. CFP is characterized by early gastrointestinal symptoms and typical sensory disorders (paraesthesia, pain, pruritus and cold dysaesthesia), which can persist several weeks and, in some cases, several months or years. NSP is considered a mild form of CFP with similar but less severe symptoms...
January 19, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349574/pacific-ciguatoxin-induces-excitotoxicity-and-neurodegeneration-in-the-motor-cortex-via-caspase-3-activation-implication-for-irreversible-motor-deficit
#2
Pallavi Asthana, Ni Zhang, Gajendra Kumar, Virendra Bhagawan Chine, Kunal Kumar Singh, Yim Ling Mak, Leo Lai Chan, Paul Kwan Sing Lam, Chi Him Eddie Ma
Consumption of fish containing ciguatera toxins or ciguatoxins (CTXs) causes ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). In some patients, CFP recurrence occurs even years after exposure related to CTXs accumulation. Pacific CTX-1 (P-CTX-1) is one of the most potent natural substances known that causes predominantly neurological symptoms in patients; however, the underlying pathogenies of CFP remain unknown. Using clinically relevant neurobehavioral tests and electromyography (EMG) to assess effects of P-CTX-1 during the 4 months after exposure, recurrent motor strength deficit occurred in mice exposed to P-CTX-1...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306662/ciguatoxins-activate-the-calcineurin-signalling-pathway-in-yeasts-potential-for-development-of-an-alternative-detection-tool
#3
Hélène Martin-Yken, Camille Gironde, Sylvain Derick, Hélène Taiana Darius, Christophe Furger, Dominique Laurent, Mireille Chinain
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are lipid-soluble polyether compounds produced by dinoflagellates from the genus Gambierdiscus spp. typically found in tropical and subtropical zones. This endemic area is however rapidly expanding due to environmental perturbations, and both toxic Gambierdiscus spp. and ciguatoxic fishes have been recently identified in the North Atlantic Ocean (Madeira and Canary islands) and Mediterranean Sea. Ciguatoxins bind to Voltage Gated Sodium Channels on the membranes of sensory neurons, causing Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) in humans, a disease characterized by a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological, neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306395/application-of-solid-phase-adsorption-toxin-tracking-spatt-devices-for-the-field-detection-of-gambierdiscus-toxins
#4
Mélanie Roué, Hélène Taiana Darius, Jérôme Viallon, André Ung, Clémence Gatti, D Tim Harwood, Mireille Chinain
Ciguatera fish poisoning is a food-borne illness caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs) produced by dinoflagellates in the Gambierdiscus genus. Since most surveillance programs currently rely on the survey of Gambierdiscus cell densities and species composition, supplementary toxin-based methods allowing the time- and spatially integrated sampling of toxins in ciguateric environments are needed for a more reliable assessment and management of the risks associated with Gambierdiscus proliferation...
January 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301247/toxicology-of-gambierdiscus-spp-dinophyceae-from-tropical-and-temperate-australian-waters
#5
Michaela E Larsson, Olivier F Laczka, D Tim Harwood, Richard J Lewis, S W A Himaya, Shauna A Murray, Martina A Doblin
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is a human illness caused by the consumption of marine fish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTX) and possibly maitotoxins (MTX), produced by species from the benthic dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus. Here, we describe the identity and toxicology of Gambierdiscus spp. isolated from the tropical and temperate waters of eastern Australia. Based on newly cultured strains, we found that four Gambierdiscus species were present at the tropical location, including G. carpenteri, G. lapillus and two others which were not genetically identical to other currently described species within the genus, and may represent new species...
January 1, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135913/management-of-ciguatoxin-risk-in-eastern-australia
#6
Hazel Farrell, Shauna A Murray, Anthony Zammit, Alan W Edwards
Between 2014 and 2016, five cases of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), involving twenty four individuals, were linked to Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) caught in the coastal waters of the state of New South Wales (NSW) on the east coast of Australia. Previously, documented cases of CFP in NSW were few, and primarily linked to fish imported from other regions. Since 2015, thirteen individuals were affected across four additional CFP cases in NSW, linked to fish imported from tropical locations. The apparent increase in CFP in NSW from locally sourced catch, combined with the risk of CFP from imported fish, has highlighted several considerations that should be incorporated into risk management strategies to minimize CFP exposure for seafood consumers...
November 14, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045489/ciguatoxicity-of-gambierdiscus-and-fukuyoa-species-from-the-caribbean-and-gulf-of-mexico
#7
R Wayne Litaker, William C Holland, D Ransom Hardison, Francesco Pisapia, Philipp Hess, Steven R Kibler, Patricia A Tester
Dinoflagellate species belonging to the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa produce ciguatoxins (CTXs), potent neurotoxins that concentrate in fish causing ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in humans. While the structures and toxicities of ciguatoxins isolated from fish in the Pacific and Caribbean are known, there are few data on the variation in toxicity between and among species of Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. Quantifying the differences in species-specific toxicity is especially important to developing an effective cell-based risk assessment strategy for CFP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023382/quantification-of-representative-ciguatoxins-in-the-pacific-using-quantitative-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#8
Tsuyoshi Kato, Takeshi Yasumoto
The absolute quantification of five toxins involved in ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in the Pacific was carried out by quantitative ¹H-NMR. The targeted toxins were ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B), 52-epi-54-deoxyciguatoxin-1B (epideoxyCTX1B), ciguatoxin-3C (CTX3C), 51-hydroxyciguatoxin-3C (51OHCTX3C), and ciguatoxin-4A (CTX4A). We first calibrated the residual protons of pyridine-d₅ using certified reference material, 1,4-BTMSB-d₄, prepared the toxin solutions with the calibrated pyridin-d₅, measured the ¹H-NMR spectra, and quantified the toxin using the calibrated residual protons as the internal standard...
October 12, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017199/-ciguatera-or-why-you-should-enquire-about-fish-consumption-in-cases-of-cold-allodynia
#9
Miriam Friedemann, Claus Doberauer, Gereon R Fink, Lothar Burghaus
Ciguatoxine sind potente, von Mikroalgen produzierte, marine Biotoxine, die sich in tropischen Raubfischen, lokal und saisonal unterschiedlich stark, anreichern können. Kurze Zeit nach dem Fischverzehr treten gastrointestinale, neurologische und/oder kardiovaskuläre Vergiftungssymptome auf. Durch die hohe Affinität der Toxine zu neuronalen Natriumkanälen sind neurologische Symptome für Ciguatera-Vergiftungen charakteristisch. Nahezu pathognomonisch ist dabei die Kälteallodynie, bei der kalte Oberflächen als heiß, schmerzhaft oder extrem unangenehm empfunden werden...
October 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962981/the-prevalence-of-benthic-dinoflagellates-associated-with-ciguatera-fish-poisoning-in-the-central-red-sea
#10
Daniela Catania, Mindy L Richlen, Yim Ling Mak, Steve L Morton, Elizabeth H Laban, Yixiao Xu, Donald M Anderson, Leo Lai Chan, Michael L Berumen
This study confirms the presence of the toxigenic benthic dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus belizeanus and Ostreopsis spp. in the central Red Sea. To our knowledge, this is also the first report of these taxa in coastal waters of Saudi Arabia, indicating the potential occurrence of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in that region. During field investigations carried out in 2012 and 2013, a total of 100 Turbinaria and Halimeda macroalgae samples were collected from coral reefs off the Saudi Arabian coast and examined for the presence of Gambierdiscus and Ostreopsis, two toxigenic dinoflagellate genera commonly observed in coral reef communities around the world...
September 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959656/qualitative-and-quantitative-assessment-of-the-presence-of-ciguatoxin-p-ctx-1b-in-spanish-mackerel-scomberomorus-commerson-from-waters-in-new-south-wales-australia
#11
Gurjeet S Kohli, Kristina Haslauer, Chowdhury Sarowar, Anna Liza Kretzschmar, Mark Boulter, D Tim Harwood, Olivier Laczka, Shauna A Murray
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is a tropical disease caused by the consumption of fish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). Currently, the only feasible prevention methods for CFP are to avoid the consumption of fish of certain species from some regions, avoid larger fish of certain species, or avoid all fish caught from specific regions. Here, we quantified levels of P-CTX-1B in Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), which is the main fish species that causes CFP in New South Wales and Queensland, Australia, using LC-MS detection against a toxin standard...
2017: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884655/screening-for-the-presence-of-lipophilic-marine-biotoxins-in-shellfish-samples-using-the-neuro-2a-bioassay
#12
Marcia Bodero, Toine F H Bovee, Si Wang, Ron L A P Hoogenboom, Mirjam D Klijnstra, Liza Portier, Peter J M Hendriksen, Arjen Gerssen
The neuro-2a bioassay is considered as one of the most promising cell-based in vitro bioassays for the broad screening of seafood products for the presence of marine biotoxins. The neuro-2a assay has been shown to detect a wide array of toxins like paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs), ciguatoxins, and also lipophilic marine biotoxins (LMBs). However, the neuro-2a assay is rarely used for routine testing of samples due to matrix effects that, for example, lead to false positives when testing for LMBs. As a result there are only limited data on validation and evaluation of its performance on real samples...
September 8, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867800/ciguatoxins-evoke-potent-cgrp-release-by-activation-of-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-subtypes-nav1-9-nav1-7-and-nav1-1
#13
Filip Touska, Simon Sattler, Philipp Malsch, Richard J Lewis, Peter W Reeh, Katharina Zimmermann
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are marine toxins that cause ciguatera fish poisoning, a debilitating disease dominated by sensory and neurological disturbances that include cold allodynia and various painful symptoms as well as long-lasting pruritus. Although CTXs are known as the most potent mammalian sodium channel activator toxins, the etiology of many of its neurosensory symptoms remains unresolved. We recently described that local application of 1 nM Pacific Ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1) into the skin of human subjects induces a long-lasting, painful axon reflex flare and that CTXs are particularly effective in releasing calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) from nerve terminals...
August 30, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836116/mechanisms-and-effects-posed-by-neurotoxic-products-of-cyanobacteria-microbial-eukaryotes-dinoflagellates-in-algae-blooms-a-review
#14
Fiona D Mello, Nady Braidy, Helder Marçal, Gilles Guillemin, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Brett A Neilan
Environmental toxins produced by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates have increasingly become a public health concern due to their ability to damage several tissues in humans. In particular, emerging evidence has called attention to the neurodegenerative effects of the cyanobacterial toxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). Furthermore, other toxins such as anatoxin, saxitoxin, microcystin, nodularin and ciguatoxin also have a different range of effects on human tissues, including hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity and gastrointestinal irritation...
August 23, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811602/identification-of-ciguatoxins-in-a-shark-involved-in-a-fatal-food-poisoning-in-the-indian-ocean
#15
Jorge Diogène, Laia Reverté, Maria Rambla-Alegre, Vanessa Del Río, Pablo de la Iglesia, Mònica Campàs, Oscar Palacios, Cintia Flores, Josep Caixach, Christian Ralijaona, Iony Razanajatovo, Agathe Pirog, Hélène Magalon, Nathalie Arnich, Jean Turquet
Severe food poisoning events after the consumption of sharks have been reported since the 1940s; however, there has been no clear understanding of their cause. Herein, we report for the first time the presence of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in sharks. The identification by mass spectrometry of CTXs, including two new analogues, in a bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas) that was consumed by humans, causing the poisoning and death of 11 people in Madagascar in 2013 is described. Typical neurotoxic ciguatera symptoms were recorded in patients, and toxicological assays on extracts of the shark demonstrated CTX-like activity...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767092/molecular-identification-of-gambierdiscus-and-fukuyoa-dinophyceae-from-environmental-samples
#16
Kirsty F Smith, Laura Biessy, Phoebe A Argyle, Tom Trnski, Tuikolongahau Halafihi, Lesley L Rhodes
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is increasing across the Pacific and the distribution of the causative dinoflagellates appears to be expanding. Subtle differences in thecal plate morphology are used to distinguish dinoflagellate species, which are difficult to determine using light microscopy. For these reasons we sought to develop a Quantitative PCR assay that would detect all species from both Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa genera in order to rapidly screen environmental samples for potentially toxic species. Additionally, a specific assay for F...
August 2, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755716/-canary-islands-ne-atlantic-as-a-biodiversity-hotspot-of-gambierdiscus-implications-for-future-trends-of-ciguatera-in-the-area
#17
Francisco Rodríguez, Santiago Fraga, Isabel Ramilo, Pilar Rial, Rosa Isabel Figueroa, Pilar Riobó, Isabel Bravo
In the present study the geographical distribution, abundance and composition of Gambierdiscus was described over a 600km longitudinal scale in the Canary Islands. Samples for cell counts, isolation and identification of Gambierdiscus were obtained from five islands (El Hierro, Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote). Average densities of Gambierdiscus spp. between 0 and 2200cellsg(-1) blot dry weight of macrophyte were recorded. Morphological (light microscopy and SEM techniques) and molecular analyses (LSU and SSU rDNA sequencing of cultures and single cells from the field) of Gambierdiscus was performed...
July 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726749/ladder-shaped-ion-channel-ligands-current-state-of-knowledge
#18
REVIEW
Yuri B Shmukler, Denis A Nikishin
Ciguatoxins (CTX) and brevetoxins (BTX) are polycyclic ethereal compounds biosynthesized by the worldwide distributed planktonic and epibenthic dinoflagellates of Gambierdiscus and Karenia genera, correspondingly. Ciguatera, evoked by CTXs, is a type of ichthyosarcotoxism, which involves a variety of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms, while BTXs cause so-called neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. Both types of toxins are reviewed together because of similar mechanisms of their action. These are the only molecules known to activate voltage-sensitive Na⁺-channels in mammals through a specific interaction with site 5 of its α-subunit and may compete for it, which results in an increase in neuronal excitability, neurotransmitter release and impairment of synaptic vesicle recycling...
July 20, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696400/the-epiphytic-genus-gambierdiscus-dinophyceae-in-the-kermadec-islands-and-zealandia-regions-of-the-southwestern-pacific-and-the-associated-risk-of-ciguatera-fish-poisoning
#19
Lesley L Rhodes, Kirsty F Smith, Sam Murray, D Tim Harwood, Tom Trnski, Rex Munday
Species in the genus Gambierdiscus produce ciguatoxins (CTXs) and/or maitotoxins (MTXs), which may cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in humans if contaminated fish are consumed. Species of Gambierdiscus have previously been isolated from macroalgae at Rangitahua (Raoul Island and North Meyer Islands, northern Kermadec Islands), and the opportunity was taken to sample for Gambierdiscus at the more southerly Macauley Island during an expedition in 2016. Gambierdiscus cells were isolated, cultured, and DNA extracted and sequenced to determine the species present...
July 11, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682115/fish-associated-foodborne-disease-outbreaks-united-states-1998-2015
#20
Kelly A Barrett, Jolene H Nakao, Ethel V Taylor, Carrie Eggers, Lydia Hannah Gould
Each year in the United States, ∼260,000 people get sick from contaminated fish. Fish is also the most commonly implicated food category in outbreaks. We reviewed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System for outbreaks resulting from consumption of fish during the period 1998-2015. We found 857 outbreaks associated with fish, resulting in 4815 illnesses, 359 hospitalizations, and 4 deaths. The median number of illnesses per outbreak was three (range: 2-425)...
September 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
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