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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885668/characterization-of-gambierdiscus-lapillus-sp-nov-gonyaulacales-dinophyceae-a-new-toxic-dinoflagellate-from-the-great-barrier-reef-australia
#1
Anna Liza Kretzschmar, Arjun Verma, D Tim Harwood, Mona Hoppenrath, Shauna Murray
Gambierdiscus is a genus of benthic dinoflagellates found worldwide. Some species produce neurotoxins (maitotoxins and ciguatoxins) which bioaccumulate and cause ciguatera fish poisoning, a potentially fatal food-borne illness that is common worldwide in tropical regions. The investigation of toxigenic species of Gambierdiscus in ciguatera fish poisoning endemic regions in Australia is necessary as a first step in order to determine which species of Gambierdiscus are related to ciguatera fish poisoning cases occurring in this region...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796937/cytotoxic-effects-of-environmental-toxins-on-human-glial-cells
#2
Fiona D'Mello, Nady Braidy, Helder Marçal, Gilles Guillemin, Fanny Rossi, Mirielle Chinian, Dominique Laurent, Charles Teo, Brett A Neilan
Toxins produced by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates have increasingly become a public health concern due to their degenerative effects on mammalian tissue and cells. In particular, emerging evidence has called attention to the neurodegenerative effects of the cyanobacterial toxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). Other toxins such as the neurotoxins saxitoxin and ciguatoxin, as well as the hepatotoxic microcystin, have been previously shown to have a range of effects upon the nervous system. However, the capacity of these toxins to cause neurodegeneration in human cells has not, to our knowledge, been previously investigated...
October 29, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778083/-first-ciguatera-outbreak-in-germany-in-2012
#3
Miriam Friedemann
In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year...
October 24, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725470/total-synthesis-and-related-studies-of-large-strained-and-bioactive-natural-products
#4
Masahiro Hirama
Our chemical syntheses and related scientific investigations of natural products with complex architectures and powerful biological activities are described, focusing on the very large 3 nm-long polycyclic ethers called the ciguatoxins, highly strained and labile chromoprotein antitumor antibiotics featuring nine-membered enediyne cores, and extremely potent anthelmintic macrolides called the avermectins.
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720471/physiological-and-behavioural-impacts-of-pacific-ciguatoxin-1-p-ctx-1-on-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma
#5
Yim Ling Mak, Jing Li, Chih-Ning Liu, Shuk Han Cheng, Paul K S Lam, Jinping Cheng, Leo L Chan
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are natural biotoxins produced by benthic dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus, which are bioaccumulated and biotransformed along food chains in coral ecosystems. They are neurotoxins that activate voltage-gated sodium channels and disrupt ion conductance in the excitable tissues. Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1) is the most prevalent and potent CTX congener present in fishes from the Pacific Ocean. In this study, P-CTX-1 was administrated to larval marine medaka (2h post-hatch) via microinjection...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613284/acute-exposure-to-pacific-ciguatoxin-reduces-electroencephalogram-activity-and-disrupts-neurotransmitter-metabolic-pathways-in-motor-cortex
#6
Gajendra Kumar, Ngan Pan Bennett Au, Elva Ngai Yu Lei, Yim Ling Mak, Leanne Lai Hang Chan, Michael Hon Wah Lam, Leo Lai Chan, Paul Kwan Sing Lam, Chi Him Eddie Ma
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a common human food poisoning caused by consumption of ciguatoxin (CTX)-contaminated fish affecting over 50,000 people worldwide each year. CTXs are classified depending on their origin from the Pacific (P-CTXs), Indian Ocean (I-CTXs), and Caribbean (C-CTXs). P-CTX-1 is the most toxic CTX known and the major source of CFP causing an array of neurological symptoms. Neurological symptoms in some CFP patients last for several months or years; however, the underlying electrophysiological properties of acute exposure to CTXs remain unknown...
September 10, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485969/analysis-of-gambierdiscus-transcriptome-data-supports-ancient-origins-of-mixotrophic-pathways-in-dinoflagellates
#7
Dana C Price, Natalie Farinholt, Colin Gates, Alexander Shumaker, Nicole E Wagner, Paul Bienfang, Debashish Bhattacharya
Toxic dinoflagellates pose serious threats to human health and to fisheries. The genus Gambierdiscus is significant in this respect because its members produce ciguatoxin that accumulates in predominantly tropical marine food webs and leads to ciguatera fish poisoning. Understanding the biology of toxic dinoflagellates is crucial to developing control strategies. To this end, we generated a de novo transcriptome library from G. caribaeus and studied its growth under different culture conditions to elucidate pathways of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) utilization...
August 3, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27467390/rapid-extraction-and-identification-of-maitotoxin-and-ciguatoxin-like-toxins-from-caribbean-and-pacific-gambierdiscus-using-a-new-functional-bioassay
#8
Richard J Lewis, Marco Inserra, Irina Vetter, William C Holland, D Ransom Hardison, Patricia A Tester, R Wayne Litaker
BACKGROUND: Ciguatera is a circumtropical disease produced by polyether sodium channel toxins (ciguatoxins) that enter the marine food chain and accumulate in otherwise edible fish. Ciguatoxins, as well as potent water-soluble polyethers known as maitotoxins, are produced by certain dinoflagellate species in the genus Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa spp. in the Pacific but little is known of the potential of related Caribbean species to produce these toxins. METHODS: We established a simplified procedure for extracting polyether toxins from Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa spp...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27229176/ciguatoxin-reduces-regenerative-capacity-of-axotomized-peripheral-neurons-and-delays-functional-recovery-in-pre-exposed-mice-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#9
Ngan Pan Bennett Au, Gajendra Kumar, Pallavi Asthana, Chung Tin, Yim Ling Mak, Leo Lai Chan, Paul Kwan Sing Lam, Chi Him Eddie Ma
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) results from consumption of tropical reef fish containing ciguatoxins (CTXs). Pacific (P)-CTX-1 is among the most potent known CTXs and the predominant source of CFP in the endemic region responsible for the majority of neurological symptoms in patients. Chronic and persistent neurological symptoms occur in some CFP patients, which often result in incomplete functional recovery for years. However, the direct effects of exposure to CTXs remain largely unknown. In present study, we exposed mice to CTX purified from ciguatera fish sourced from the Pacific region...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159509/invasive-lionfish-pterosis-volitans-pose-public-health-threats
#10
James H Diaz
The lionfish, Pterosis volitans, a native of Indo-Pacific oceans, is a popular saltwater aquarium fish despite venomous spines on its fins. Lionfish were inadvertently introduced into the western Atlantic from Florida in the early 1990s and have overpopulated and dispersed widely into the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Initiatives to control lionfish populations were launched, including the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-sponsored "Lionfish as Food Campaign".2 Recently, scientists from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported that lionfish caught off the US Virgin Islands contained ciguatoxins and could cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP); a seafood-borne poisoning without an antidote or any specific treatment, and a potential for prolonged neurotoxicity...
July 2015: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27138536/invasive-lionfish-pterosis-volitans-pose-public-health-threats
#11
James H Diaz
The lionfish, Pterosis volitans, a native of Indo-Pacific oceans, is a popular saltwater aquarium fish despite venomous spines on its fins. Lionfish were inadvertently introduced into the western Atlantic from Florida in the early 1990s and have overpopulated and dispersed widely into the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Initiatives to control lionfish populations were launched, including the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-sponsored "Lionfish as Food Campaign".2 Recently, scientists from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported that lionfish caught off the US Virgin Islands contained ciguatoxins and could cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP); a seafood-borne poisoning without an antidote or any specific treatment, and a potential for prolonged neurotoxicity...
July 2015: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27080020/clinical-diagnosis-and-chemical-confirmation-of-ciguatera-fish-poisoning-in-new-south-wales-australia
#12
Hazel Farrell, Anthony Zammit, Jennifer Manning, Craig Shadbolt, Lisa Szabo, D Tim Harwood, Paul McNabb, John A Turahui, Debra J van den Berg
Ciguatera fish poisoning is common in tropical and sub-tropical areas and larger fish (> 10 kg) are more susceptible to toxin accumulation with age. Although the coastal climate of northern New South Wales is considered sub-tropical, prior to 2014 there has only been 1 documented outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning from fish caught in the region. During February and March 2014, 2 outbreaks of ciguatera fish poisoning involved 4 and 9 individuals, respectively, both following consumption of Spanish mackerel from northern New South Wales coastal waters (Evans Head and Scotts Head)...
March 2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27074134/influence-of-environmental-variables-on-gambierdiscus-spp-dinophyceae-growth-and-distribution
#13
Yixiao Xu, Mindy L Richlen, Justin D Liefer, Alison Robertson, David Kulis, Tyler B Smith, Michael L Parsons, Donald M Anderson
Benthic dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus produce the ciguatoxin precursors responsible for the occurrence of ciguatera toxicity. The prevalence of ciguatera toxins in fish has been linked to the presence and distribution of toxin-producing species in coral reef ecosystems, which is largely determined by the presence of suitable benthic habitat and environmental conditions favorable for growth. Here using single factor experiments, we examined the effects of salinity, irradiance, and temperature on growth of 17 strains of Gambierdiscus representing eight species/phylotypes (G...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27073998/fluorescent-receptor-binding-assay-for-detecting-ciguatoxins-in-fish
#14
D Ransom Hardison, William C Holland, Jennifer R McCall, Andrea J Bourdelais, Daniel G Baden, H Taiana Darius, Mireille Chinain, Patricia A Tester, Damian Shea, Harold A Flores Quintana, James A Morris, R Wayne Litaker
Ciguatera fish poisoning is an illness suffered by > 50,000 people yearly after consumption of fish containing ciguatoxins (CTXs). One of the current methodologies to detect ciguatoxins in fish is a radiolabeled receptor binding assay (RBA(R)). However, the license requirements and regulations pertaining to radioisotope utilization can limit the applicability of the RBA(R) in certain labs. A fluorescence based receptor binding assay (RBA(F)) was developed to provide an alternative method of screening fish samples for CTXs in facilities not certified to use radioisotopes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26958981/toxicological-perspective-on-climate-change-aquatic-toxins
#15
Luis M Botana
In recent years, our group and several others have been describing the presence of new, not previously reported, toxins of high toxicity in vectors that may reach the human food chain. These include tetrodotoxin in gastropods in the South of Europe, ciguatoxin in fish in the South of Spain, palytoxin in mussels in the Mediterranean Sea, pinnatoxin all over Europe, and okadaic acid in the south of the U.S. There seem to be new marine toxins appearing in areas that are heavy producers of seafood, and this is a cause of concern as most of these new toxins are not included in current legislation and monitoring programs...
April 18, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26901085/chemical-diversity-origin-and-analysis-of-phycotoxins
#16
REVIEW
Silas Anselm Rasmussen, Aaron John Christian Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted Andersen, Kristian Fog Nielsen, Per Juel Hansen, Thomas Ostenfeld Larsen
Microalgae, particularly those from the lineage Dinoflagellata, are very well-known for their ability to produce phycotoxins that may accumulate in the marine food chain and eventually cause poisoning in humans. This includes toxins accumulating in shellfish, such as saxitoxin, okadaic acid, yessotoxins, azaspiracids, brevetoxins, and pinnatoxins. Other toxins, such as ciguatoxins and maitotoxins, accumulate in fish, where, as is the case for the latter compounds, they can be metabolized to even more toxic metabolites...
March 25, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26787145/characteristic-features-and-contributory-factors-in-fatal-ciguatera-fish-poisoning-implications-for-prevention-and-public-education
#17
REVIEW
Thomas Y K Chan
In this review, the main objective was to describe the characteristic features of fatal ciguatera fish poisoning and identify contributory factors, with a view to promote prevention and public education. Ciguatera-related deaths, although rare, have been reported from the Pacific, Caribbean, and Indian Ocean regions. The clinical features were generally dominated by convulsions and coma, with various focal neurological signs. Several contributory factors could be identified, including consumption of ciguatoxin (CTX)-rich fish parts (viscera and head) in larger amounts, the most ciguatoxic fish species (e...
April 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26562445/release-of-neuropeptides-from-a-neuro-cutaneous-co-culture-model-a-novel-in%C3%A2-vitro-model-for-studying-sensory-effects-of-ciguatoxins
#18
Raphaele Le Garrec, Killian L'herondelle, Christelle Le Gall-Ianotto, Nicolas Lebonvallet, Raphael Leschiera, Virginie Buhe, Matthieu Talagas, Irina Vetter, Richard J Lewis, Laurent Misery
Ciguatoxins are the major toxins responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning, a disease dominated by muco-cutaneous sensory disorders including paresthesiae, cold dysesthesia and pruritus. While the ciguatoxins are well known to target voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), the ensuing molecular mechanisms underlying these sensory disorders remain poorly understood. In this study, we propose a primary sensory neuron-keratinocyte co-culture as an appropriate model to study the neuro-cutaneous effects of ciguatoxins...
June 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26541571/an-updated-ciguatoxin-extraction-method-and-silica-cleanup-for-use-with-hplc-ms-ms-for-the-analysis-of-p-ctx-1-pctx-2-and-p-ctx-3
#19
Lauren Meyer, Steve Carter, Angela Capper
Ciguatera fish poisoning is a debilitating human neuro-intoxication caused by consumption of tropical marine organisms, contaminated with bioaccumulated ciguatoxins (CTXs). The growing number of cases coupled with the high toxicity of CTXs makes their reliable detection and quantification of paramount importance. Three commonly occurring ciguatoxins, P-CTX-1, 2 and 3 from five different ciguatoxic Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), were used to assess the effectiveness of different extraction techniques: homogenization (high powered blending vs...
December 15, 2015: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26454262/ionic-mechanisms-of-spinal-neuronal-cold-hypersensitivity-in-ciguatera
#20
Ryan Patel, Nicola L Brice, Richard J Lewis, Anthony H Dickenson
Cold hypersensitivity is evident in a range of neuropathies and can evoke sensations of paradoxical burning cold pain. Ciguatoxin poisoning is known to induce a pain syndrome caused by consumption of contaminated tropical fish that can persist for months and include pruritus and cold allodynia; at present no suitable treatment is available. This study examined, for the first time, the neural substrates and molecular components of Pacific ciguatoxin-2-induced cold hypersensitivity. Electrophysiological recordings of dorsal horn lamina V/VI wide dynamic range neurones were made in non-sentient rats...
December 2015: European Journal of Neuroscience
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