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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829928/green-tree-frog-hyla-cinerea-and-ground-squirrel-xerospermophilus-spilosoma-mortality-attributed-to-inland-brevetoxin-transportation-at-padre-island-national-seashore-texas-2015
#1
Danielle E Buttke, Alicia Walker, I-Shuo Huang, Leanne Flewelling, Julia Lankton, Anne E Ballmann, Travis Clapp, James Lindsay, Paul V Zimba
On 16 September 2015, a red tide (Karenia brevis) bloom impacted coastal areas of Padre Island National Seashore Park. Two days later and about 0.9 km inland, 30-40 adult green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) were found dead after displaying tremors, weakness, labored breathing, and other signs of neurologic impairment. A rainstorm, accompanied by high winds, rough surf, and high tides, which could have aerosolized brevetoxin, occurred on the morning of the mortality event. Frog carcasses were healthy but contained significant brevetoxin in tissues...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726749/ladder-shaped-ion-channel-ligands-current-state-of-knowledge
#2
REVIEW
Yuri B Shmukler, Denis A Nikishin
Ciguatoxins (CTX) and brevetoxins (BTX) are polycyclic ethereal compounds biosynthesized by the worldwide distributed planktonic and epibenthic dinoflagellates of Gambierdiscus and Karenia genera, correspondingly. Ciguatera, evoked by CTXs, is a type of ichthyosarcotoxism, which involves a variety of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms, while BTXs cause so-called neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. Both types of toxins are reviewed together because of similar mechanisms of their action. These are the only molecules known to activate voltage-sensitive Na⁺-channels in mammals through a specific interaction with site 5 of its α-subunit and may compete for it, which results in an increase in neuronal excitability, neurotransmitter release and impairment of synaptic vesicle recycling...
July 20, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693110/potential-effects-of-brevetoxins-and-toxic-elements-on-various-health-variables-in-kemp-s-ridley-lepidochelys-kempii-and-green-chelonia-mydas-sea-turtles-after-a-red-tide-bloom-event
#3
Justin R Perrault, Nicole I Stacy, Andreas F Lehner, Cody R Mott, Sarah Hirsch, Jonathan C Gorham, John P Buchweitz, Michael J Bresette, Catherine J Walsh
Natural biotoxins and anthropogenic toxicants pose a significant risk to sea turtle health. Documented effects of contaminants include potential disease progression and adverse impacts on development, immune function, and survival in these imperiled species. The shallow seagrass habitats of Florida's northwest coast (Big Bend) serve as an important developmental habitat for Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) and green (Chelonia mydas) sea turtles; however, few studies have been conducted in this area. Our objectives were (1) to evaluate plasma analytes (mass, minimum straight carapace length, body condition index [BCI], fibropapilloma tumor score, lysozyme, superoxide dismutase, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, plasma protein electrophoresis, cholesterol, and total solids) in Kemp's ridleys and green turtles and their correlation to brevetoxins that were released from a red tide bloom event from July-October 2014 in the Gulf of Mexico near Florida's Big Bend, and (2) to analyze red blood cells in Kemp's ridleys and green turtles for toxic elements (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium, thallium) with correlation to the measured plasma analytes...
December 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551108/brevetoxin-2-is-a-unique-inhibitor-of-the-c-terminal-redox-center-of-mammalian-thioredoxin-reductase-1
#4
Wei Chen, Anupama Tuladhar, Shantelle Rolle, Yanhao Lai, Freddy Rodriguez Del Rey, Cristian E Zavala, Yuan Liu, Kathleen S Rein
Karenia brevis, the Florida red tide dinoflagellate produces a suite of neurotoxins known as the brevetoxins. The most abundant of the brevetoxins PbTx-2, was found to inhibit the thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system, whereas the PbTx-3 has no effect on this system. On the other hand, PbTx-2 activates the reduction of small disulfides such as 5,5'-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) by thioredoxin reductase. PbTx-2 has an α, β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety which functions as an efficient electrophile and selenocysteine conjugates are readily formed...
August 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363127/tissue-uptake-distribution-and-excretion-of-brevetoxin-3-after-oral-and-intratracheal-exposure-in-the-freshwater-turtle-trachemys-scripta-and-the-diamondback-terrapin-malaclemys-terrapin
#5
Courtney C Cocilova, Leanne J Flewelling, Gregory D Bossart, April A Granholm, Sarah L Milton
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) occur nearly annually off the west coast of Florida and can impact both humans and wildlife, resulting in morbidity and increased mortality of marine animals including sea turtles. The key organism in Florida red tides is the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis that produces a suite of potent neurotoxins referred to as the brevetoxins (PbTx). Despite recent mortality events and rehabilitation efforts, still little is known about how the toxin directly impacts sea turtles, as they are not amenable to experimentation and what is known about toxin levels and distribution comes primarily from post-mortem data...
June 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315825/effects-of-florida-red-tides-on-histone-variant-expression-and-dna-methylation-in-the-eastern-oyster-crassostrea-virginica
#6
Rodrigo Gonzalez-Romero, Victoria Suarez-Ulloa, Javier Rodriguez-Casariego, Daniel Garcia-Souto, Gabriel Diaz, Abraham Smith, Juan Jose Pasantes, Gary Rand, Jose M Eirin-Lopez
Massive algal proliferations known as Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) represent one of the most important threats to coastal areas. Among them, the so-called Florida Red Tides (FRTs, caused by blooms of the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and associated brevetoxins) are particularly detrimental in the southeastern U.S., causing high mortality rates and annual losses in excess of $40 million. The ability of marine organisms to cope with environmental stressors (including those produced during HABs) is influenced by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, the latter resulting in phenotypic changes caused by heritable modifications in gene expression, without involving changes in the genetic (DNA) sequence...
May 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111002/more-surprises-in-the-global-greenhouse-human-health-impacts-from-recent-toxic-marine-aerosol-formations-due-to-centennial-alterations-of-world-wide-coastal-food-webs
#7
REVIEW
J J Walsh, J M Lenes, R H Weisberg, L Zheng, C Hu, K A Fanning, R Snyder, J Smith
Reductions of zooplankton biomasses and grazing pressures were observed during overfishing-induced trophic cascades and concurrent oil spills at global scales. Recent phytoplankton increments followed, once Fe-, P-, and N-nutrient limitations of commensal diazotrophs and dinoflagellates were also eliminated by respective human desertification, deforestation, and eutrophication during climate changes. Si-limitation of diatoms instead ensued during these last anthropogenic perturbations of agricultural effluents and sewage loadings...
March 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716578/maternal-transfer-and-sublethal-immune-system-effects-of-brevetoxin-exposure-in-nesting-loggerhead-sea-turtles-caretta-caretta-from-western-florida
#8
Justin R Perrault, Katherine D Bauman, Taylor M Greenan, Patricia C Blum, Michael S Henry, Catherine J Walsh
Blooms of Karenia brevis (also called red tides) occur almost annually in the Gulf of Mexico. The health effects of the neurotoxins (i.e., brevetoxins) produced by this toxic dinoflagellate on marine turtles are poorly understood. Florida's Gulf Coast represents an important foraging and nesting area for a number of marine turtle species. Most studies investigating brevetoxin exposure in marine turtles thus far focus on dead and/or stranded individuals and rarely examine the effects in apparently "healthy" free-ranging individuals...
November 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697698/characterization-of-brevetoxin-pbtx-3-exposure-in-neurons-of-the-anoxia-tolerant-freshwater-turtle-trachemys-scripta
#9
Courtney C Cocilova, Sarah L Milton
Harmful algal blooms are increasing in frequency and extent worldwide and occur nearly annually off the west coast of Florida where they affect both humans and wildlife. The dinoflagellate Karenia brevis is a key organism in Florida red tides that produces a suite of potent neurotoxins collectively referred to as the brevetoxins (PbTx). Brevetoxins bind to and open voltage gated sodium channels (VGSC), increasing cell permeability in excitable cells and depolarizing nerve and muscle tissue. Exposed animals may thus show muscular and neurological symptoms including head bobbing, muscle twitching, paralysis, and coma; large HABs can result in significant morbidity and mortality of marine life, including fish, birds, marine mammals, and sea turtles...
November 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27073998/fluorescent-receptor-binding-assay-for-detecting-ciguatoxins-in-fish
#10
D Ransom Hardison, William C Holland, Jennifer R McCall, Andrea J Bourdelais, Daniel G Baden, H Taiana Darius, Mireille Chinain, Patricia A Tester, Damian Shea, Harold A Flores Quintana, James A Morris, R Wayne Litaker
Ciguatera fish poisoning is an illness suffered by > 50,000 people yearly after consumption of fish containing ciguatoxins (CTXs). One of the current methodologies to detect ciguatoxins in fish is a radiolabeled receptor binding assay (RBA(R)). However, the license requirements and regulations pertaining to radioisotope utilization can limit the applicability of the RBA(R) in certain labs. A fluorescence based receptor binding assay (RBA(F)) was developed to provide an alternative method of screening fish samples for CTXs in facilities not certified to use radioisotopes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26901085/chemical-diversity-origin-and-analysis-of-phycotoxins
#11
REVIEW
Silas Anselm Rasmussen, Aaron John Christian Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted Andersen, Kristian Fog Nielsen, Per Juel Hansen, Thomas Ostenfeld Larsen
Microalgae, particularly those from the lineage Dinoflagellata, are very well-known for their ability to produce phycotoxins that may accumulate in the marine food chain and eventually cause poisoning in humans. This includes toxins accumulating in shellfish, such as saxitoxin, okadaic acid, yessotoxins, azaspiracids, brevetoxins, and pinnatoxins. Other toxins, such as ciguatoxins and maitotoxins, accumulate in fish, where, as is the case for the latter compounds, they can be metabolized to even more toxic metabolites...
March 25, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26891306/development-of-a-rapid-throughput-assay-for-identification-of-hnav1-7-antagonist-using-unique-efficacious-sodium-channel-agonist-antillatoxin
#12
Fang Zhao, Xichun Li, Liang Jin, Fan Zhang, Masayuki Inoue, Boyang Yu, Zhengyu Cao
Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are responsible for the generation of the action potential. Among nine classified VGSC subtypes (Nav1.1-Nav1.9), Nav1.7 is primarily expressed in the sensory neurons, contributing to the nociception transmission. Therefore Nav1.7 becomes a promising target for analgesic drug development. In this study, we compared the influence of an array of VGSC agonists including veratridine, BmK NT1, brevetoxin-2, deltamethrin and antillatoxin (ATX) on membrane depolarization which was detected by Fluorescence Imaging Plate Reader (FLIPR) membrane potential (FMP) blue dye...
February 16, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26851583/fenton-reaction-based-colorimetric-immunoassay-for-sensitive-detection-of-brevetoxin-b
#13
Wenqiang Lai, Qiaohua Wei, Junyang Zhuang, Minghua Lu, Dianping Tang
We designed a new colorimetric immunoassay for sensitive monitoring of brevetoxin B (BTB) using enzyme-controlled Fenton reaction with a high-resolution 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB)-based visual colored system. Upon addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the equivalent iron(II) could be first converted into iron(III) and free hydroxyl radical (•OH) via the classical Fenton reaction. Then the as-produced iron(III) and •OH could cause a perceptible change from colorless to blue with the increasing H2O2 concentration in the presence of TMB...
June 15, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26626160/characterization-of-an-epoxide-hydrolase-from-the-florida-red-tide-dinoflagellate-karenia-brevis
#14
Pengfei Sun, Cristian Leeson, Xiaoduo Zhi, Fenfei Leng, Richard H Pierce, Michael S Henry, Kathleen S Rein
Epoxide hydrolases (EH, EC 3.3.2.3) have been proposed to be key enzymes in the biosynthesis of polyether (PE) ladder compounds such as the brevetoxins which are produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. These enzymes have the potential to catalyze kinetically disfavored endo-tet cyclization reactions. Data mining of K. brevis transcriptome libraries revealed two classes of epoxide hydrolases: microsomal and leukotriene A4 (LTA4) hydrolases. A microsomal EH was cloned and expressed for characterization...
February 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26449572/-toxins-as-a-biological-weapon
#15
EDITORIAL
Tadeusz Płusa
The criteria for recognizing a chemical compound for the toxin are vague and gave it the possibility of inclusion in this group a number of biological agents. Toxins list is extensive, but the interest is focused on bacterial toxins, poisons derived from snake venoms, algae and plant proteins, and small molecules. Particular attention is focused on the so-called "sea" toxins, which include tetrodotoxin, brevetoxin and saxitoxin. This indicates the search for a new hitherto unknown potential bioterrorist threats...
September 2015: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26320787/mesoporous-carbon-enriched-palladium-nanostructures-with-redox-activity-for-enzyme-free-electrochemical-immunoassay-of-brevetoxin-b
#16
Youxiu Lin, Qian Zhou, Yuping Lin, Minghua Lu, Dianping Tang
A new signal amplification strategy based on mesoporous carbon-enriched palladium nanostructure (MSC-PdNS) was designed for enzyme-free electrochemical immunoassay of brevetoxin B (BTB) in marine toxins. The assay was carried out on a BTB-bovine serum albumin-functionalized electrode by using monoclonal mouse anti-BTB-labeling MSC-PdNS as the signal-transduction tag. A competitive-type assay protocol was successfully introduced to develop a high-efficiency enzyme-free immunoassay accompanying the doped palladium nanostructure into MSC-PdNS toward reduction of H2O2...
August 5, 2015: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26290192/genomewide-investigation-of-adaptation-to-harmful-algal-blooms-in-common-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops%C3%A2-truncatus
#17
Kristina M Cammen, Thomas F Schultz, Patricia E Rosel, Randall S Wells, Andrew J Read
Harmful algal blooms (HABs), which can be lethal in marine species and cause illness in humans, are increasing worldwide. In the Gulf of Mexico, HABs of Karenia brevis produce neurotoxic brevetoxins that cause large-scale marine mortality events. The long history of such blooms, combined with the potentially severe effects of exposure, may have produced a strong selective pressure for evolved resistance. Advances in next-generation sequencing, in particular genotyping-by-sequencing, greatly enable the genomic study of such adaptation in natural populations...
September 2015: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26197230/progress-in-understanding-algal-bloom-mediated-fish-kills-the-role-of-superoxide-radicals-phycotoxins-and-fatty-acids
#18
Juan José Dorantes-Aranda, Andreas Seger, Jorge I Mardones, Peter D Nichols, Gustaaf M Hallegraeff
Quantification of the role of reactive oxygen species, phycotoxins and fatty acids in fish toxicity by harmful marine microalgae remains inconclusive. An in vitro fish gill (from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) assay was used to simultaneously assess the effect in superoxide dismutase, catalase and lactate dehydrogenase enzymatic activities caused by seven species of ichthyotoxic microalgae (Chattonella marina, Fibrocapsa japonica, Heterosigma akashiwo, Karenia mikimotoi, Alexandrium catenella, Karlodinium veneficum, Prymnesium parvum)...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25981346/chemical-analysis-of-karenia-papilionacea
#19
Nicholas Fowler, Carmelo Tomas, Daniel Baden, Lisa Campbell, Andrea Bourdelais
One of the most widely studied organisms responsible for Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) is the marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. This organism produces neurotoxic compounds known as brevetoxins. A related dinoflagellate, Karenia papilionacea, has been reported to occasionally co-bloom with K. brevis but has received little attention as a possible toxin producing species. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the toxin profile for K. papilionacea. A toxic fraction was identified using a cell based cytotoxicity assay and the toxin was isolated and identified as the ladder frame polyether brevetoxin-2 (PbTx-2) using mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)...
July 2015: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25951085/an-improved-functional-assay-for-rapid-detection-of-marine-toxins-saxitoxin-and-brevetoxin-using-a-portable-cardiomyocyte-based-potential-biosensor
#20
Qin Wang, Jiaru Fang, Duanxi Cao, Hongbo Li, Kaiqi Su, Ning Hu, Ping Wang
Saxitoxin (STX) and brevetoxin (PbTX-2), which are produced by marine dinoflagellates, are highly-toxic marine toxins targeting separate sites of the α subunit of voltage-dependent sodium channels (VDSCs). In this work, a portable cardiomyocyte-based potential biosensor is designed for rapid detection of STX and PbTX-2. This potential biosensor is constructed by cardiomyocyte and microelectrode array (MEA) with a label-free and real-time wireless 8-channel recording system which can dynamically monitor the multisite electrical activity of cardiomyocyte network...
October 15, 2015: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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