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Peter Blanckaert, Stijn Vanquekelberghe, Vera Coopman, Martijn D P Risseeuw, Serge Van Calenbergh, Jan Cordonnier
This paper reports the structure elucidation and full characterization of 4-chloromethamphetamine (4-CMA), a compound which was never reported previously outside of laboratory settings in seized drug samples, or samples actively being used at large dance festivals. Identification of 4-CMA was obtained by liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Further structure elucidation was performed by fragment pattern analysis of the trimethylsilyl and trifluoroacetyl derivatives with GC-MS...
May 3, 2018: Forensic Science International
Tasha R Serna-Gallegos, Christopher J LaFargue, Krishnansu S Tewari
BACKGROUND: Fully humanized monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the treatment of many solid tumors, including breast, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer. Among the most widely used monoclonal antibodies in clinical oncology are cetuximab, trastuzumab, rituximab, and bevacizumab. OBJECTIVE: This article will review these four notable monoclonal antibodies, their role in clinical oncology, and the drug patents that are nearing expiration. RESULTS: They are used in both first and second line treatment regimens for multiple common malignancies...
November 22, 2017: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
M C J Knippels, I M M Essers, F J H Magdelijns, D J L van Twist
BACKGROUND: The use of 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) has shown a marked increase, especially because users perceive its effects to be relatively mild. 4-FA is also known as ecstacy-light, but is probably not as light as its name suggests. From April 2017 its use has therefore been forbidden in the Netherlands. CASE DESCRIPTION: In a short time, we saw three patients at our emergency department who had signs of a severe intoxication with 4-FA. A 21-year-old male developed a tonic-clonic seizure, bruxism, mydriasis, and rhabdomyolysis...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Amir Jalali, Amir Hatamie, Tahere Saferpour, Alireza Khajeamiri, Tahere Safa, Foad Buazar
In this study, a simple and reliable method by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the fast and regular identification of 3, 4-MDMA impurities in ecstasy tablets. In so doing, 8 samples of impurities were extracted by diethyl ether under alkaline condition and then analyzed by GC-MS. The results revealed high MDMA levels ranging from 37.6% to 57.7%. The GC-MS method showed that unambiguous identification can be achieved for MDMA from 3, 4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), Amphetamine (AM), methamphetamine (MA) and ketamine (Keta) compounds, respectively...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Stephanie J Marin, Kelly Doyle, Annie Chang, Marta Concheiro-Guisan, Marilyn A Huestis, Kamisha L Johnson-Davis
Some amphetamine (AMP) and ecstacy (MDMA) urine immunoassay (IA) kits are prone to false-positive results due to poor specificity of the antibody. We employed two techniques, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and an in silico structure search, to identify compounds likely to cause false-positive results. Hundred false-positive IA specimens for AMP and/or MDMA were analyzed by an Agilent 6230 time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. Separately, SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts) was used as an in silico structure search to generate a library of compounds that are known to cross-react with AMP/MDMA IAs...
January 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
William P Tormey
Newspapers devote regular space to inquests in the public interest. Accuracy in determining the causes of death is important for public health. Expert opinion features prominently in press reports and is an important channel of public education. How expert are the experts and how complex are apparently simple cases? Toxicology cases involving cannabis and stroke, 'junk food' diet, unexplained sudden death, potential drug interactions, allergy during caesarean section, and ecstacy-type drugs are used to illustrate the complexities...
May 2015: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Rohini R Vanga, Bikram Bal, Kevin W Olden
Adderall (dextroamphetamine/amphetamine) is a widely prescribed medicine for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is considered safe with due precautions. Use of prescribed Adderall without intention to overdose as a cause of acute liver injury is extremely rare, and to our knowledge no cases have been reported in the English literature. Amphetamine is an ingredient of recreational drugs such as Ecstacy and is known to cause hepatotoxicity. We describe here the case of a 55-year-old woman who developed acute liver failure during the treatment of ADHD with Adderall...
2013: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
Michael L Moritz, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Juan Carlos Ayus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2013: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Brian E McGeeney
Hallucinogens and most cannabinoids are classified under schedule 1 of the Federal Controlled Substances Act 1970, along with heroin and ecstacy. Hence they cannot be prescribed by physicians, and by implication, have no accepted medical use with a high abuse potential. Despite their legal status, hallucinogens and cannabinoids are used by patients for relief of headache, helped by the growing number of American states that have legalized medical marijuana. Cannabinoids in particular have a long history of use in the abortive and prophylactic treatment of migraine before prohibition and are still used by patients as a migraine abortive in particular...
March 2013: Headache
T Russell, S Riazi, N Kraeva, A C Steel, L A Hawryluck
We present the case of a 20-year-old woman who developed rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and multi-organ failure induced by ecstasy. Following initial improvement, she developed delayed rhabdomyolysis then haloperidol-induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome, which was treated with a total of 50 dantrolene. Subsequent genetic testing revealed a novel potentially pathogenic variant in the ryanodine receptor type 1 gene. However, caffeine-halothane contracture testing of the patient's mother who carried the same gene variant was negative for malignant hyperthermia...
September 2012: Anaesthesia
Amadeo Pesce, Cameron West, Murray Rosenthal, Charles Mikel, Robert West, Bridgit Crews, Perla Almazan, Sergey Latyshev, Paul S Horn
BACKGROUND: A major concern of physicians treating pain patients with chronic opioid therapy and similar drugs is determining whether the patients are also using illicit drugs. This is commonly determined by urine drug testing (UDT). However, there are few studies on whether or not monitoring patients by this technique decreases illicit drug use. OBJECTIVE: To determine if the presence of illicit drugs decreases over a number of physician visits where UDT was performed...
March 2011: Pain Physician
Cecilia Peñacoba Puente, José Luis González Gutiérrez, Isabel Carretero Abellán, Almudena López López
The use of ecstasy (MDMA), one of the most popular substances among young people in the context of many leisure and fun activities, is moving from party and recreation circuits to high schools and college dorms, in many cases in combination with alcohol consumption. Bearing in mind the concurrent use of the two drugs and the "gateway" thesis of a progression from legal drugs to illegal ones, a causal(1) model of linkages among sensation seeking, attitudes toward alcohol and ecstasy consumption, and frequency of use was tested using structural equation modeling (SEM)...
2008: Substance Use & Misuse
Michael Fendrich, Mary Ellen Mackesy-Amiti, Timothy P Johnson
PURPOSE: To understand the validity of self-reported recent drug use in men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: We obtained a probability sample of Chicago men who have sex with men (MSM; n=216) and administered urine and saliva drug testing after a self-administered interview. Analyses examined participation in drug testing, the agreement between self-reported past month drug use and drug test results, correlates of underreporting, and the relative utility of drug testing versus self-reports in identifying recent marijuana and cocaine use...
October 2008: Annals of Epidemiology
H S Brand, S N Dun, A van Nieuw Amerongen
Ecstacy is a frequently used drug, especially by young adults in the big cities.Therefore, it is likely that dentists might be confronted with individuals that use XTC. This review of the literature describes the systemic and oral effects of XTC. Life-threatening complications include hyperthermia, hyponatreaemia and liver failure. In addition, psychotic episodes, depression, panic disorders and impulsive behaviour have been reported. Oral effects include mucosal changes, xerostomia and an increased risk of developing dental erosion and bruxism...
February 2007: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
Tamer Awad, C Randall Clark, Jack DeRuiter
The methoxymethcathinones are uniquely regioisomeric with the controlled drug substance 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (3,4-MDMA) or Ecstacy. The various isomeric forms of the methoxymethcathinones have mass spectra essentially equivalent to 3,4-MDMA. They all have a molecular weight of 193 and major fragment ions in their electron ionization mass spectra at m/z 58 and 135/136. Differentiation by mass spectrometry was only possible after formation of the perfluoroacyl derivatives, pentafluoropropionylamides (PFPA), and heptafluorobutrylamides (HFBA)...
March 2006: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Karl-Ernst Bühler
A conceptual analysis of basic notions of addictiology, i.e., Euphoria, Ecstasy, Inebriation, Abuse, Dependence, and Addiction was presented. Three different forms of dependence were distinguished: purely psychic, psycho-physiological, and purely somatic dependence. Two kinds of addiction were differentiated, i.e. appetitive and deprivative addiction. The conceptual requirements of addiction were discussed. Keeping these in mind some ethical problems of drug therapy and psychotherapy were explained. Criteria for the assessment of therapeutic approaches are suggested: effectiveness, side effects, economic, ethic, and esthetic valuation...
2005: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Katja Pihlainen, Laura Aalberg, Marianne Tepponen, C Randall Clark, Risto Kostiainen
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (3,4-MDMA, "Ecstacy") and its 17 isomers and isobaric substances are studied using liquid chromatography (LC)-positive electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (MS). 3,4-MDMA is a controlled substance, whereas in many countries the other studied isobaric compounds are not. A method for confirmation of the presence of 3,4-MDMA in drug seizures is developed and validated. Using single MS, the compounds produce an intense protonated molecule and some characteristic fragments; but tandem MS (MS-MS) is applied to enhance specificity...
February 2005: Journal of Chromatographic Science
D Ledingham
A comprehensive review of 75 samples of both blood and urine from 72 different drivers suspected of being impaired by drugs in the Lothian and Borders Police Force, Scotland area of jurisdiction, between 1st January 1995 and 2nd May 1997, was undertaken. The police reports, analytical results and criminal conviction records relating to each of the drivers were examined. This provided useful information concerning differences in laboratory procedures and produced a profile of the average drugged driver. The average age of the drivers was 23 years...
September 1999: Journal of Clinical Forensic Medicine
Sandy Kanemura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2002: Hawaii Dental Journal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1955: Rassegna di Studi Psichiatrici
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