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Alzheimers, young athlete

Ann C McKee, Meghan E Robinson
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) includes concussion, subconcussion, and most exposures to explosive blast from improvised explosive devices. mTBI is the most common traumatic brain injury affecting military personnel; however, it is the most difficult to diagnose and the least well understood. It is also recognized that some mTBIs have persistent, and sometimes progressive, long-term debilitating effects. Increasing evidence suggests that a single traumatic brain injury can produce long-term gray and white matter atrophy, precipitate or accelerate age-related neurodegeneration, and increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and motor neuron disease...
June 2014: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Burkhard Simma, Jürg Lütschg, James M Callahan
Mild head injury is of interest because of a history of under diagnosis and underestimated clinical importance. Half of the patients with mild head injuries or concussions have sport-related injuries. Knowledge of symptoms and appropriate management can be improved and is a matter of practical interest. Several algorithms exist for discharge, admission or for cranial computed tomography (CT).These employ different risk factors and calculate their sensitivity of correctly identifying children with traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
July 2013: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Louis De Beaumont, Sébastien Tremblay, Judes Poirier, Maryse Lassonde, Hugo Théoret
Persistent motor/cognitive alterations and increased prevalence of Alzheimer's disease are known consequences of recurrent sports concussions, the most prevalent cause of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) among youth. Animal models of TBI demonstrated that impaired learning was related to persistent synaptic plasticity suppression in the form of long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD). In humans, single and repeated concussive injuries lead to lifelong and cumulative enhancements of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibition, which is known to suppress LTP/LTD plasticity...
January 2012: Cerebral Cortex
Caroline C Rodgers
Despite the fact that Alzheimer's disease was identified more than 100 years ago, its cause remains elusive. Although the chance of developing Alzheimer's disease increases with age, it is not a natural consequence of aging. This article proposes that dental X-rays can damage microglia telomeres - the structures at the end of chromosomes that determine how many times cells divide before they die - causing them to age prematurely. Degenerated microglia lose their neuroprotective properties, resulting in the formation of neurofibrillary tau tangles and consequently, the neuronal death that causes Alzheimer's dementia...
July 2011: Medical Hypotheses
Bennet Omalu, Julian Bailes, Ronald L Hamilton, M Ilyas Kamboh, Jennifer Hammers, Mary Case, Robert Fitzsimmons
BACKGROUND: We define chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) as a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome caused by single, episodic, or repetitive blunt force impacts to the head and transfer of acceleration-deceleration forces to the brain. OBJECTIVE: We present emerging histomorphologic phenotypes of CTE that we identified in our cohort of CTE cases with apolipoprotein E genotyping and causes and manners of death. METHODS: Autopsy brain tissue of 14 professional athletes and 3 high school football players was examined after unexpected deaths...
July 2011: Neurosurgery
Hans Förstl, Christian Haass, Bernhard Hemmer, Bernhard Meyer, Martin Halle
BACKGROUND: Boxing has received increased public attention and acceptance in recent years. However, this development has not been accompanied by a critical discussion of the early and late health complications. METHODS: We selectively review recent studies on the acute, subacute, and chronic neuropsychiatric consequences of boxing. RESULTS: Cerebral concussions ("knock-outs") are the most relevant acute consequence of boxing. The number of reported cases of death in the ring seems to have mildly decreased...
November 2010: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
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