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Acute respiratory syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684352/nrf2-activation-protects-against-intratracheal-lps-induced-mouse-murine-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-by-regulating-macrophage-polarization
#1
Juan Wei, Guannan Chen, Xuan Shi, Huanping Zhou, Meiyun Liu, Yuanli Chen, Di Feng, Pengcheng Zhang, Lingmin Wu, Xin Lv
The transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is known to control the expression of antioxidant response elements and cytoprotective genes and modulate inflammatory response, helping to ameliorate damage in many diseases. Exactly how Nrf2 regulates innate inflammatory homeostasis remains unclear. In this study, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that Nrf2 plays a crucial role in macrophage polarization and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We conducted in vitro experiments using a mouse alveolar macrophage cell line as well as primary cultures of macrophages in which cells were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interferon-γ in order to mimic ARDS, in the presence or absence of the Nrf2 activator tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ)...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684057/serum-galactomannan-antigen-as-a-prognostic-and-diagnostic-marker-for-invasive-aspergillosis-in-heterogeneous-medicine-icu-patient-population
#2
Yubhisha Dabas, Anant Mohan, Immaculata Xess
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to get a complete clinical and mycological picture of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in respiratory medicine ICU of a tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS: From the cohort of 235 patients only one had proven IA. Based on AspICU algorithm, 21 had putative IA (8.9%), 12 were colonised (5.1%). RESULTS: Adjusting the confounding factors, significant risk factors for IA were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), temperature of ≥38°C, pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681395/chugging-in-patients-on-veno-venous-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-an-under-recognized-driver-of-intravenous-fluid-administration-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#3
James M Walter, Chitaru Kurihara, Thomas C Corbridge, Ankit Bharat
BACKGROUND: Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is increasingly utilized in the management of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Providers who care for patients on VV-ECMO should be familiar with common circuit complications. OBJECTIVES: To provide an example of a common complication, circuit "chugging," and suggest a management algorithm which aims to avoid excessive fluid administration to patients with ARDS. METHODS: We use a clinical case to illustrate chugging and discuss potential management strategies...
April 19, 2018: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681203/the-immunotherapy-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#4
Paula Restrepo-Jiménez, Yhojan Rodríguez, Paulina González, Christopher Chang, M Eric Gershwin, Juan-Manuel Anaya
Guillain-Barré syndrome is the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis worldwide. Microorganisms such as Campylobacter jejuni, Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza and Zika virus have been linked to the disease. The most common clinical variants are acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and acute motor axonal neuropathy. Plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulins are the standard therapy for the disease. Areas covered: research to elucidate the pathophysiology of Guillain-Barré syndrome has led to the development of drugs directed towards new potential therapeutic targets...
April 23, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680410/influence-of-entrapment-on-prehospital-management-and-the-hospital-course-in-polytrauma-patients-a-retrospective-analysis-in-air-rescue
#5
Christian Macke, Marika Sarakintsis, Marcel Winkelmann, Philipp Mommsen, Mohamed Omar, Christian Schröter, Christian Krettek, Christian Zeckey
BACKGROUND: Entrapment is a challenging and crucial factor in the prehospital setting. Few studies have addressed whether entrapment has an influence on on-scene treatment or on the following hospital course. OBJECTIVES: Here we aimed to investigate the influence of entrapment on prehospital management and on the hospital course of polytrauma patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with an Injury Severity Score ≥16 and aged 16-65 years that were admitted between 2005 and 2013 to a Level I trauma center...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679701/the-role-of-%C3%AE-2-integrin-associated-heparin-binding-protein-release-in-ards
#6
Yang Liu, Shaolin Ma, Xuebin Wang, Yajing Feng, Shouqin Zhang, Sheng Wang, Xiangyu Zhang
AIMS: PMNs (polymorphonuclear neutrophil) play important roles in early stage of inflammation induced ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome). Both HBP (Heparin-Binding Protein) released from active PMNs and β2 integrins on the surface of PMNs are involved in vascular leakage. The role and relationship of HBP and β2 integrins on ARDS still requires study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established ARDS model using C57BL/6 mice with cecal ligation and puncture and eliminating HBP and β2 integrin with respective antibodies...
April 18, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676537/recovery-of-pulmonary-functions-exercise-capacity-and-quality-of-life-after-pulmonary-rehabilitation-in-survivors-of-ards-due-to-severe-influenza-a-h1n1-pneumonitis
#7
Meng-Jer Hsieh, Wei-Juen Lee, Hsiu-Ying Cho, Meng-Fang Wu, Han-Chung Hu, Kuo-Chin Kao, Ning-Hung Chen, Ying-Huang Tsai, Chung-Chi Huang
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to severe influenza A H1N1 pneumonitis would result in impaired pulmonary functions and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after hospital discharge. OBJECTIVES: The recovery of pulmonary functions, exercise capacity and HRQoL in the survivors of ARDS due to 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 pneumonitis (H1N1-ARDS) were evaluated in a tertiary teaching hospital in the northern Taiwan between May 2010 and June 2011...
April 20, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675258/livedo-reticularis-a-cutaneous-clue-to-an-underlying-endocrine-crisis
#8
Natasha Shrikrishnapalasuriyar, Mirena Noyvirt, Philip Evans, Bethan Gibson, Elin Foden, Atul Kalhan
A 54-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with a presumed allergic reaction to a single dose of amoxicillin given for a suspected upper respiratory tract infection. She complained of chest tightness although there was no wheeze or stridor. On examination, she was pyrexial, tachycardic, hypertensive and had a diffuse mottled rash on her lower limbs. Her initial investigations showed raised inflammatory markers. She was treated in the intensive care for a presumed anaphylactic reaction with an underlying sepsis...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670906/desflurane-attenuates-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-in-rats-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#9
Xue Lin, Ying-Nan Ju, Wei Gao, Dong-Mei Li, Chang-Chun Guo
Ventilator-induced lung injury aggravates the existing lung injury. This study investigated the effect of desflurane on VILI in a rat model of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Forty-eight rats were randomized into a sham (S) group, control (C) group, lipopolysaccharide/ventilation (LV) group, lipopolysaccharide/ventilation/desflurane (LVD) group, or lipopolysaccharide/low ventilation with and without desflurane (LLV and LLVD) groups. Rats in the S group received anesthesia only. Rats in the LV and LVD groups received lipopolysaccharide and were ventilated with a high tidal volume...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670790/use-of-the-pelvic-c-clamp-to-mitigate-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-an-unstable-sacral-fracture
#10
Michael J DeRogatis, Paul S Issack
Case: We present the case of a 21-year-old man who fell from a roof, sustaining a displaced sacral fracture with pelvic instability. He developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) within 24 hours of injury. Placement of the pelvic C-clamp resulted in rapid resolution of pulmonary dysfunction, allowing for definitive internal fixation. Conclusion: The C-clamp is most commonly used to control hemorrhage in unstable posterior pelvic ring injuries. Our case demonstrates a rare use of the C-clamp to stabilize the posterior pelvis in a patient with an unstable sacral fracture and ARDS, to rapidly improve pulmonary function prior to definitive surgery...
2018: Case Reports in Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670676/cost-analysis-of-noninvasive-helmet-ventilation-compared-with-use-of-noninvasive-face-mask-in-ards
#11
Kwadwo Kyeremanteng, Louis-Philippe Gagnon, Raphaëlle Robidoux, Kednapa Thavorn, Dipayan Chaudhuri, Daniel Kobewka, John P Kress
Intensive care unit (ICU) costs have doubled since 2000, totalling 108 billion dollars per year. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has a prevalence of 10.4% and a 28-day mortality of 34.8%. Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is used in up to 30% of cases. A recent randomized controlled trial by Patel et al. (2016) showed lower intubation rates and 90-day mortality when comparing helmet to face mask NIV in ARDS. The population in the Patel et al. trial was used for cost analysis in this study. Projections of cost savings showed a decrease in ICU costs by $2527 and hospital costs by $3103 per patient, along with a 43...
2018: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670537/impact-of-different-tidal-volume-levels-at-low-mechanical-power-on-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-in-rats
#12
Lillian Moraes, Pedro L Silva, Alessandra Thompson, Cintia L Santos, Raquel S Santos, Marcos V S Fernandes, Marcelo M Morales, Vanessa Martins, Vera L Capelozzi, Marcelo G de Abreu, Paolo Pelosi, Patricia R M Rocco
Tidal volume (VT ) has been considered the main determinant of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Recently, experimental studies have suggested that mechanical power transferred from the ventilator to the lungs is the promoter of VILI. We hypothesized that, as long as mechanical power is kept below a safe threshold, high VT should not be injurious. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of different VT levels and respiratory rates (RR) on lung function, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), alveolar ultrastructure, and expression of genes related to inflammation [interleukin (IL)-6], alveolar stretch (amphiregulin), epithelial [club cell secretory protein (CC)16] and endothelial [intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1] cell injury, and extracellular matrix damage [syndecan-1, decorin, and metalloproteinase (MMP)-9] in experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) under low-power mechanical ventilation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669880/transmembrane-domains-of-highly-pathogenic-viral-fusion-proteins-exhibit-trimeric-association-in-vitro
#13
Stacy R Webb, Stacy E Smith, Michael G Fried, Rebecca Ellis Dutch
Enveloped viruses require viral fusion proteins to promote fusion of the viral envelope with a target cell membrane. To drive fusion, these proteins undergo large conformational changes that must occur at the right place and at the right time. Understanding the elements which control the stability of the prefusion state and the initiation of conformational changes is key to understanding the function of these important proteins. The construction of mutations in the fusion protein transmembrane domains (TMDs) or the replacement of these domains with lipid anchors has implicated the TMD in the fusion process...
April 25, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669772/a-case-of-h3n2-complicated-by-acute-kidney-injury-secondary-to-rhabdomyolysis
#14
Sriram Gonakoti, Janak Bahirwani, Raja Naga Mahesh Maddala, Sudha Vidyasagar
H3N2 was first detected in July 2011 in the USA. It is responsible for sporadic cases of influenza and localised outbreaks and has not yet taken over on an epidemic or pandemic scale. An 84-year-old man presented with a dry cough, fever and myalgia for 3 days. On examination, he had a pulse of 98 bpm and blood pressure of 124/88 mm Hg. The patient was tachypnoeic, SpO2 was 90%. Auscultation revealed bilateral diffuse wheeze and crackles. He had generalised muscle tenderness on examination. On admission, creatinine was 1...
April 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666710/acute-chest-syndrome-progressing-to-ards-in-a-patient-of-25-week-gestation
#15
Jefferson Chambers, Nichole Smith, Matthew Sehring, Subramanyam Chittivelu
Acute chest syndrome is a complication of sickle cell disease and represents the highest cause of mortality in those afflicted with the disorder. Pregnancy represents an increased risk for complications of sickle cell disease in both the mother and fetus. We present a case of a 20-year-old patient with known sickle cell disease who was at 25-week gestation and developed acute chest syndrome refractory to conventional therapies and requiring emergency cesarean section. Following delivery, the patient developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)...
2018: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664060/specialized-pro-resolving-mediators-regulate-alveolar-fluid-clearance-during-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Qian Wang, Song-Fan Yan, Yu Hao, Sheng-Wei Jin
Objective: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute and lethal clinical syndrome that is characterized by the injury of alveolar epithelium, which impairs active fluid transport in the lung, and impedes the reabsorption of edema fluid from the alveolar space. This review aimed to discuss the role of pro-resolving mediators on the regulation of alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) in ARDS. Data Sources: Articles published up to September 2017 were selected from the PubMed, with the keywords of "alveolar fluid clearance" or "lung edema" or "acute lung injury" or "acute respiratory distress syndrome", and "specialized pro-resolving mediators" or "lipoxin" or "resolvin" or "protectin" or "maresin" or "alveolar epithelial cells" or "aspirin-triggered lipid mediators" or "carbon monoxide and heme oxygenase" or "annexin A1"...
April 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664034/incidence-prognosis-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-individuals-of-snakebite-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-india
#17
Ramulu Pulimaddi, Amruth Rao Parveda, Balkishan Brahmanpally, Paul Marx Kalakanda, K Ramakrishna, Venkata Ramana Devi Chinnapaka
Background & objectives: The snakebites are considered to be an occupational hazard in agriculture workers and the snake handlers, resulting in a considerable morbidity, mortality and economical implications. This study was conducted to determine the incidence, clinical presentation, renal injury and clinical outcome in snakebite victims who developed acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: This hospital-based prospective, observational study was done on 100 cases who were admitted for the management of snakebite and found to develop AKI in a tertiary care hospital at Hyderabad, India...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663987/-effects-of-hippo-signaling-on-anti-oxidative-stress-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vitro
#18
Lang Li, Liang Dong, Jiaojie Hui, Fei Gao, Qiuhui Wang, Lan Yang, Jiangqian Zhang, Jie Yan
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of Hippo signaling on anti-oxidative stress of mouse marrow mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs) in vitro. METHODS: mMSCs derived from C57BL/6 mice were identified using fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and the capabilities of osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation were evaluated. 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) or XMU-MP-1 was used to modulate Hippo signaling. Oxidative stress was induced by H2 O2 treatment and the effect of oxidative stress induced by H2 O2 on survival of mMSCs was evaluated using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay...
April 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663439/sero-prevalence-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-specific-antibodies-in-dromedary-camels-in-tabuk-saudi-arabia
#19
Rafik Harrath, Faisel M Abu Duhier
The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel Coronavirus which was responsible of the first case of human acute respiratory syndrome in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), 2012. Dromedary camels are considered as potential reservoirs for the virus and seem to be the only animal host which may transmit the infection to human. Further studies are required to better understand the animal sources of zoonotic transmission route and the risks of this infection. A primary sero-prevalence study of MERS-CoV preexisting neutralizing antibodies in Dromedary camel serum was conducted in Tabuk, western north region of KSA, in order to assess the seopositivity of these animals and to explain their possible role in the transmission of the infection to Human...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661625/unusual-presentation-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-leading-to-a-large-outbreak-in-riyadh-during-2017
#20
Hala Amer, Abdulrahman S Alqahtani, Hind Alzoman, Nawfal Aljerian, Ziad A Memish
BACKGROUND: The hallmark of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) disease is the ability to cause major health care-associated nosocomial outbreaks with superspreading events leading to massive numbers of cases and excessive morbidity and mortality. In this report, we describe a patient who presented with acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis and became a MERS-CoV superspreader, igniting a recent multihospital outbreak in Riyadh. MATERIAL AND RESULTS: Between May 31 and June 15, 2017, 44 cases of MERS-CoV infection were reported from 3 simultaneous clusters from 3 health care facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, including 11 fatal cases...
April 13, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
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