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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035972/hyperammonemia-and-proteostasis-in-cirrhosis
#1
Srinivasan Dasarathy, Maria Hatzoglou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skeletal muscle loss or sarcopenia is a frequent complication of cirrhosis that adversely affects clinical outcomes. As skeletal muscle is the largest store of proteins in the body, proteostasis or protein homeostasis is required for maintenance of muscle mass. This review will focus on disordered skeletal muscle proteostasis in liver disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Increased skeletal muscle uptake of ammonia initiates responses that result in disordered proteostasis including impaired protein synthesis and increased autophagy...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035910/new-predictive-factors-of-poor-response-to-therapy-in-autoimmune-hepatitis-role-of-mean-platelet-volume
#2
Ahmed Abdel-Razik, Nasser Mousa, Sahar Zakaria, Rania Elhelaly, Rasha Elzehery, Khaled Zalata, Mahmoud Awad, Ahmed A Eldeeb, Mostafa Abdelsalam
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The response to immunosuppressive therapy in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a matter of debate. The aim of this work is to identify the histological, biochemical, and clinical predictive factors of incomplete response/treatment failure to the standard treatment (prednisone with or without azathioprine) in a well-characterized series of AIH Egyptian patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of 49 AIH patients, only 36 patients completed this retrospective cohort study...
October 13, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035381/high-expression-of-hoxa13-correlates-with-poorly-differentiated-hepatocellular-carcinomas-and-modulates-sorafenib-response-in-in-vitro-models
#3
Luca Quagliata, Cristina Quintavalle, Manuela Lanzafame, Matthias S Matter, Chiara Novello, Luca di Tommaso, Tiziana Pressiani, Lorenza Rimassa, Luigi Tornillo, Massimo Roncalli, Clemente Cillo, Pierlorenzo Pallante, Salvatore Piscuoglio, Charlotte Ky Ng, Luigi M Terracciano
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the fifth and ninth cause of mortality among male and female cancer patients, respectively and typically arises on a background of a cirrhotic liver. HCC develops in a multi-step process, often encompassing chronic liver injury, steatosis and cirrhosis eventually leading to the malignant transformation of hepatocytes. Aberrant expression of the class I homeobox gene family (HOX), a group of genes crucial in embryogenesis, has been reported in a variety of malignancies including solid tumors...
October 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035002/short-term-risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-hepatitis-c-virus-eradication-following-direct-acting-anti-viral-treatment
#4
E Ogawa, N Furusyo, H Nomura, K Dohmen, N Higashi, K Takahashi, A Kawano, K Azuma, T Satoh, M Nakamuta, T Koyanagi, M Kato, S Shimoda, E Kajiwara, J Hayashi
BACKGROUND: With the development of direct-acting anti-virals (DAAs), almost all patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can achieve sustained viral response (SVR). AIM: To evaluate the short-term risk of HCC among patients with SVR by DAAs, including those with cirrhosis or previous HCC. METHODS: This large-scale, multicentre cohort study included 1,675 consecutive patients who achieved SVR by treatment with interferon-free sofosbuvir-based regimens, divided into groups with (n = 152) or without previous HCC (n = 1,523)...
October 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034810/adult-idiopathic-cholestasis-a-condition-more-common-in-the-canadian-inuit
#5
Gerald Y Minuk, Galia Pollock, Julia Uhanova
Despite extensive investigations, some patients have no identifiable cause for their cholestatic liver enzyme abnormalities. The aim of this study was to document the clinical, laboratory, radiologic and histologic features of adult patients with idiopathic cholestasis (AIC). A computerised database of referred patients to a tertiary care hospital outpatient department for assessment of hepatobiliary disorders between 2005 and 2015 was employed to identify and describe features associated with AIC. Of 6,560 patient referrals, sufficient documentation to warrant a diagnosis of AIC was present in 17 (0...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034351/bridging-patients-with-hepatocellular-cancer-waiting-for-liver-transplant-all-the-patients-are-the-same
#6
REVIEW
Martina Coletta, Daniele Nicolini, Andrea Benedetti Cacciaguerra, Susanna Mazzocato, Roberta Rossi, Marco Vivarelli
Liver transplant (LT) is considered the best curative treatment for patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within Milan criteria. The possibility to perform LT in HCC patients is limited by the liver grafts supply; indeed, the shortage of donors often leads to a long time on waiting list and then to dropout because of tumor progression. Bridging therapies are neo-adjuvant treatments given to patients on LT waitlist, with the aim to prevent tumor progression and to reduce dropout rate. Many bridging modalities have been proposed...
2017: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034239/hepatoid-adenocarcinoma-of-the-stomach-a-challenging-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-disease-through-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Najla Fakhruddin, Hisham F Bahmad, Tarek Aridi, Yara Yammine, Rami Mahfouz, Fouad Boulos, Ahmad Awada, Fadi Farhat
Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach (HAS) is a rare aggressive tumor with hepatocellular differentiation. HAS often produces alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and metastasizes to the lymph nodes and the liver. Molecular studies revealed Her2 amplification and overexpression, association with p53 mutations, but no association with KRAS mutations. EGFR and BRAF mutations have not yet been evaluated in hepatoid carcinoma of the stomach so far. Hereby, we present a case of a 41-year-old female patient with HAS with high AFP level and liver metastases...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033929/immunity-and-fibrogenesis-the-role-of-th17-il-17-axis-in-hbv-and-hcv-induced-chronic-hepatitis-and-progression-to-cirrhosis
#8
REVIEW
Feliciano Chanana Paquissi
Cirrhosis is a common final pathway for most chronic liver diseases; representing an increasing burden worldwide and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Current evidence has shown that, after an initial injury, the immune response has a significant participation in the ongoing damage, and progression from chronic viral hepatitis (CVH) to cirrhosis, driving the activation and maintenance of main fibrogenic pathways. Among immune deregulations, those related to the subtype 17 of T helper lymphocytes (Th17)/interleukin-17 (IL-17) axis have been recognized as key immunopathological and prognostic elements in patients with CVH...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033906/long-non-coding-rnas-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-cells
#9
REVIEW
Marina Barriocanal, Puri Fortes
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) often leads to a chronic infection in the liver that may progress to steatosis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several viral and cellular factors are required for a productive infection and for the development of liver disease. Some of these are long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) deregulated in infected cells. After HCV infection, the sequence and the structure of the viral RNA genome are sensed to activate interferon (IFN) synthesis and signaling pathways. These antiviral pathways regulate transcription of several cellular lncRNAs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033774/hemothorax-following-uncomplicated-endoscopic-variceal-sclerotherapy-and-ligation-for-esophageal-varices
#10
Tomoko Ochiai, Yukiomi Nakade, Rena Kitano, Shunsuke Kato, Kazumasa Sakamoto, Tadahisa Inoue, Yuji Kobayashi, Norimitsu Ishii, Tomohiko Ohashi, Yoshio Sumida, Kiyoaki Ito, Haruhisa Nakao, Chihiro Furuta, Motoki Yano, Masashi Yoneda
Endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy and ligation are standard treatment modalities used for the management of esophageal varices. Reportedly, sclerotherapy and ligation are associated with complications such as hematuria, pulmonary thrombus formation, pleural effusion, renal dysfunction, and esophageal stenosis. However, hemothorax following sclerotherapy and ligation has not yet been reported. We treated a patient who presented with liver cirrhosis and polycythemia vera and later developed hemothorax following the above-mentioned procedures...
September 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033772/intraparenchymal-hemorrhage-due-to-brain-metastasis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Rafael Sartori Balbinot, Ana Laura Facco Muscope, Mateus Dal Castel, Silvana Sartori Balbinot, Raul Angelo Balbinot, Jonathan Soldera
Although extrahepatic metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are present in only 5-15% of cases, they are certainly factors associated with poor prognosis. The main sites include lung, lymph nodes, bones, and adrenal glands, in descending order. Metastasis in the central nervous system is extremely rare, and the incidences vary from 0.6 to 1.7%. We report a case of a 54-year-old man previously diagnosed with alcohol-induced cirrhosis of the liver and HCC. The patient was admitted presenting progressive left hemiparesis and headache which started 2 days earlier, with no history of cranioencephalic trauma...
September 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032460/the-impact-of-kir-hla-genotype-on-hepatitis-b-virus-clearance-in-iranian-infected-individuals
#12
Alireza Shah-Hosseini, Mohammad Jafari, Asadollah Mohammadi, Roozbeh Sanaei, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Amin Doosti-Irani, Mehrnoush Nooradeh Keykavousi, Nader Tajik
Killer cell immunoglobulin like receptors (KIRs) have a principal role in regulating the effector functions of NK cells, particularly in viral infections. The major ligands for KIRs are human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible association of KIR genes, their known HLA ligands and compound KIR-HLA genotypes with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Our study group consisted of 202 Iranian HBV-infected patients (52 spontaneously recovered, 50 asymptomatic carriers, 50 chronic sufferers and 50with liver cirrhosis) and 100 ethnic-matched healthy control subjects...
October 14, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032169/survival-advantage-of-both-human-hepatocyte-xenografts-and-genome-edited-hepatocytes-for-treatment-of-%C3%AE-1-antitrypsin-deficiency
#13
Florie Borel, Qiushi Tang, Gwladys Gernoux, Cynthia Greer, Ziqiong Wang, Adi Barzel, Mark A Kay, Leonard D Shultz, Dale L Greiner, Terence R Flotte, Michael A Brehm, Christian Mueller
Hepatocytes represent an important target for gene therapy and editing of single-gene disorders. In α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, one missense mutation results in impaired secretion of AAT. In most patients, lung damage occurs due to a lack of AAT-mediated protection of lung elastin from neutrophil elastase. In some patients, accumulation of misfolded PiZ mutant AAT protein triggers hepatocyte injury, leading to inflammation and cirrhosis. We hypothesized that correcting the Z mutant defect in hepatocytes would confer a selective advantage for repopulation of hepatocytes within an intact liver...
September 25, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031875/soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-inhibition-with-t-tucb-alleviates-liver-fibrosis-and-portal-pressure-in-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-cirrhosis-in-rats
#14
Chi-Hao Zhang, Lei Zheng, Liang Gui, Jia-Yun Lin, Yi-Ming Zhu, Wen-Sheng Deng, Meng Luo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Fibrosis and increased intrahepatic vascular resistance are the hallmarks of chronic inflammatory disorders of the liver and cirrhosis. Inhibitors of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase reduce fibrosis in several disease models. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of soluble epoxyhydrolase inhibition with t-TUCB in tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis in rats. METHODS: The models were established by CCl4 (2ml/kg) given subcutaneously for 14 weeks...
October 11, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031662/percutaneous-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-state-of-the-art-and-innovations
#15
REVIEW
Jean-Charles Nault, Olivier Sutter, Pierre Nahon, Nathalie Ganne-Carrié, Olivier Séror
Percutaneous treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) encompasses a vast range of techniques, including monopolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA), multibipolar RFA, microwave ablation, cryoablation and irreversible electroporation. RFA is considered to be one of the main curative treatments for HCC of less than 5 cm developing on cirrhosis, together with surgical resection and liver transplantation. However, controversies exist concerning the respective roles of ablation and liver resection for HCC of less than 3 to 5 cm on cirrhosis...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030683/preoperative-alkaline-phosphatase-elevation-was-associated-with-poor-survival-in-colorectal-cancer-patients
#16
Hsin-Yuan Hung, Jinn-Shiun Chen, Chien-YuhYeh, Reiping Tang, Pao-Shiu Hsieh, Wen-SyTasi, Yau-Tong You, Jeng-Fu You, Jy-Ming Chiang
PURPOSE: Purpose To assess preoperative serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in colon adenocarcinomapatients with various clinical features and determine its prognostic value. METHODS: Between 2000 and 2013, 10,800 stage I-IV colon cancer patients who underwent surgery wereretrospectively enrolled. The relationship between ALP level and variables, including age, gender,carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) levels, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level, bilirubin level, tumor size,liver cirrhosis, hepatitis, albumin level, histological type, and TNM-stage, were evaluated...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030367/patients-with-common-variable-immunodeficiency-paradoxically-have-increased-rates-of-autoimmune-disorders
#17
Ammu Thampi Susheela, Andrew Hale
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), characterised by disordered B cell function, is one of the most common primary immunodeficiency disorders. Patients with CVID are at lifelong risk of recurrent infections, particularly of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Paradoxically, given their immunocompromised state, patients with CVID are also at significantly increased risk of autoimmune disorders, which are seen in almost 25% of cases. The authors report a 24-year-old female patient with CVID, manifested as severe hypogammaglobulinaemia with recurrent sinopulmonary infections and enterocolitis, who presented with transaminitis, chronic diarrhoea and haematemesis...
October 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029395/rasal1-is-a-potent-regulator-of-hepatic-stellate-cell-activity-and-liver-fibrosis
#18
Akemi Takata, Motoyuki Otsuka, Takahiro Kishikawa, Mari Yamagami, Rei Ishibashi, Kazuma Sekiba, Tatsunori Suzuki, Motoko Ohno, Yui Yamashita, Takaya Abe, Ryota Masuzaki, Tsuneo Ikenoue, Kazuhiko Koike
Liver fibrosis, leading to cirrhosis and liver failure, can occur after chronic liver injury. The transition of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) from quiescent cells into proliferative and fibrogenic cells is a central event in liver fibrosis. Here, we show that RAS protein activator like-1 (RASAL1), a RAS-GTPase-activating protein, which switches off RAS activity, is significantly decreased during HSC activation, and that HSC activation can be antagonized by forced expression of the RASAL1 protein. We demonstrate that RASAL1 suppresses HSC proliferation by regulating the Ras-MAPK pathway, and that RASAL1 suppresses HSC fibrogenic activity by regulating the PKA-LKB1-AMPK-SRF pathway by interacting with angiotensin II receptor, type 1...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029102/nucleos-t-ide-analogue-treatment-for-adult-patients-with-hbeag-positive-chronic-infection-with-genotype-c-hepatitis-b-virus-a-nationwide-real-life-study
#19
Young Chang, Won Hyeok Choe, Dong Hyun Sinn, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Sang Hoon Ahn, Hyewon Lee, Jae-Jun Shim, Dae Won Jun, Soo Young Park, Joon Yeul Nam, Eun Ju Cho, Su Jong Yu, Dong Ho Lee, Jeong Min Lee, Yoon Jun Kim, So Young Kwon, Seung Woon Paik, Jung-Hwan Yoon
Background/Aim: Antiviral treatment for patients in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still controversial. We assessed whether antiviral treatment reduces liver disease progression in those patients. Methods: This study included consecutive patients that tested positive for HBeAg with an HBV DNA >20,000 IU/mL, ALT <40 IU/L and without evidence of cirrhosis in eight large-volume hospitals in Korea. The primary endpoint was the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the secondary endpoint was the development of cirrhosis...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027963/optimizing-the-nutritional-support-of-adult-patients-in-the-setting-of-cirrhosis
#20
REVIEW
Brandon J Perumpail, Andrew A Li, George Cholankeril, Radhika Kumari, Aijaz Ahmed
AIM: The aim of this work is to develop a pragmatic approach in the assessment and management strategies of patients with cirrhosis in order to optimize the outcomes in this patient population. METHOD: A systematic review of literature was conducted through 8 July 2017 on the PubMed Database looking for key terms, such as malnutrition, nutrition, assessment, treatment, and cirrhosis. Articles and studies looking at associations between nutrition and cirrhosis were reviewed...
October 13, 2017: Nutrients
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