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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222249/are-non-invasive-fibrosis-markers-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-reliable-in-sub-saharan-africa
#1
Hailemichael Desalegn, Hanna Aberra, Nega Berhe, Svein Gunnar Gundersen, Asgeir Johannessen
BACKGROUND: In the absence of liver biopsy, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends non-invasive tests, such as APRI (aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index) and FIB-4, to assess liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, these tests are not well validated in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently, a new marker, GPR (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase to platelet ratio), was found to be more accurate in an African setting, but this needs confirmation in other cohorts...
February 21, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221405/nya-riktlinjer-f%C3%A3-r-fettlever-fokuserar-p%C3%A3-tidig-uppt%C3%A3-ckt-riskstratifiering-f%C3%A3-r-att-direkt-hitta-patienter-med-h%C3%A3-g-risk-f%C3%A3-r-skrumplever-kan-vara-en-v%C3%A3-g-fram%C3%A3-t
#2
Hannes Hagström, Johan Hoffstedt, Signy Reynisdottir
New guidelines for NAFLD - a Swedish perspective Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease globally, with an estimated prevalence of 25%. It is clinically challenging to identify which persons with known or suspected NAFLD that have the highest risk for development of severe liver disease. New guidelines from several European organizations were recently presented. The suggested changes to healthcare practice include screening of high-risk groups in order to identify cases with cirrhosis...
February 17, 2017: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220780/bacterial-infections-change-natural-history-of-cirrhosis-irrespective-of-liver-disease-severity
#3
Elena Dionigi, Matteo Garcovich, Mauro Borzio, Gioacchino Leandro, Avik Majumdar, Aikaterini Tsami, Vasiliki Arvaniti, Davide Roccarina, Massimo Pinzani, Andrew K Burroughs, James O'Beirne, Emmanuel A Tsochatzis
OBJECTIVES: We assessed the prognostic significance of infections in relation to current prognostic scores and explored if infection could be considered per se a distinct clinical stage in the natural history of cirrhosis. METHODS: We included consecutive patients with cirrhosis admitted to a tertiary referral liver unit for at least 48 h over a 2-year period. Diagnosis of infection was based on positive cultures or strict established criteria. We used competing risk analysis and propensity score matching for data analysis...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220587/the-relationship-between-different-dimensions-of-alcohol-use-and-the-burden-of-disease-an-update
#4
REVIEW
Jürgen Rehm, Gerhard E Gmel, Gerrit Gmel, Omer S M Hasan, Sameer Imtiaz, Svetlana Popova, Charlotte Probst, Michael Roerecke, Robin Room, Andriy V Samokhvalov, Kevin D Shield, Paul A Shuper
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcohol use is a major contributor to injuries, mortality and the burden of disease. This review updates knowledge on risk relations between dimensions of alcohol use and health outcomes to be used in global and national Comparative Risk Assessments (CRAs). METHODS: Systematic review of reviews and meta-analyses on alcohol consumption and health outcomes attributable to alcohol use. For dimensions of exposure: volume of alcohol use, blood alcohol concentration and patterns of drinking, in particular heavy drinking occasions were studied...
February 20, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220346/microwave-ablation-of-liver-malignancies-comparison-of-effects-and-early-outcomes-of-percutaneous-and-intraoperative-approaches-with-different-liver-conditions-new-advances-in-interventional-oncology-state-of-the-art
#5
Francesco De Cobelli, Paolo Marra, Francesca Ratti, Alessandro Ambrosi, Michele Colombo, Anna Damascelli, Claudio Sallemi, Simone Gusmini, Marco Salvioni, Pietro Diana, Federica Cipriani, Massimo Venturini, Luca Aldrighetti, Alessandro Del Maschio
Liver thermal ablation is an alternative treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and secondary liver malignancies. Microwave ablation (MWA) produces large ablation zones (AZ) in short time; however, AZ prediction is based on preclinical ex vivo models, rising concerns about reproducibility and safety in humans. We aimed to investigate the effects produced by a new-generation MWA system on human liver in vivo with different approaches (percutaneous or intraoperative) and liver conditions (cirrhosis or previous chemotherapy treatment), in comparison with manufacturer-provided predictions based on ex vivo animal models...
April 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219761/development-and-validation-of-a-real-time-reverse-transcription-pcr-assay-for-rapid-and-low-cost-genotyping-of-hepatitis-c-virus-genotypes-1a-1b-2-and-3a
#6
Andrea D Olmstead, Tracy D Lee, Ron Chow, Kingsley Gunadasa, Brian Auk, Mel Krajden, Agatha N Jassem
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects millions of people and leads to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment regimen selection requires HCV genotype (Gt) and Gt 1 subtype determination. Use of a laboratory developed, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay was explored as a low-cost, high-throughput screening approach for the major HCV genotypes and subtypes in North America. A commercial line probe assay (LiPA) was used for comparison. Sequencing and/or an alternative PCR assay were used for discordant analyses...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218263/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-an-emerging-driving-force-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#7
REVIEW
Giovanni Targher, Christopher D Byrne
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by an accumulation of fat in the liver; the condition can progress over time to increase the risk of developing cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing rapidly owing to the global epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and NAFLD has been predicted to become the most important indication for liver transplantation over the next decade. It is now increasingly clear that NAFLD not only affects the liver but can also increase the risk of developing extra-hepatic diseases, including T2DM, cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD), which have a considerable impact on health-care resources...
February 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217922/characterization-of-e-ntpdase-ec-3-6-1-5-activity-in-hepatic-lymphocytes-a-different-activity-profile-from-peripheral-lymphocytes
#8
Pedro H Doleski, Stephen A Adefegha, Fernanda L Cabral, Daniela B R Leal
: The activity of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase; EC 3.6.1.5) was characterized in hepatic lymphocytes (HL) of rats. For this purpose, a specific method for the isolation of lymphocytes from hepatic tissue was developed. Subsequently, E-NTPDase activity of rat HL was compared with that of rat peripheral lymphocytes. The HL showed high cell count and viability. Also, the characterization test revealed that the optimal E-NTPDase activities were attained at 37°C and pH 8...
February 19, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217916/effects-of-allogeneic-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-in-the-treatment-of-liver-cirrhosis-caused-by-autoimmune-diseases
#9
Jun Liang, Huayong Zhang, Cheng Zhao, Dandan Wang, Xiaolei Ma, Shengnan Zhao, Shiying Wang, Lingying Niu, Lingyun Sun
AIM: There has been great interest in recent years to take advantage of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to treat end-stage liver disease. This study is aimed to evaluate clinical therapeutic effects of allogeneic MSC transplantation in liver cirrhosis caused by autoimmune diseases. METHODS: The enrolled patients with liver cirrhosis were assigned to receive allogeneic MSC infusions through a peripheral vein. The primary objective of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of MSCT in patients with autoimmune diseases-induced cirrhosis...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217691/%C3%AE-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-a-misfolded-secretory-protein-variant-with-unique-effects-on-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#10
David H Perlmutter
In the classical form of α1-antitrypsin deficiency (ATD) a point mutation leads to accumulation of a misfolded secretory glycoprotein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of liver cells and so ATD has come to be considered a prototypical ER storage disease. It is associated with two major types of clinical disorders, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by loss-of-function mechanisms and hepatic cirrhosis and carcinogenesis by gain-of-function mechanisms. The lung disease predominantly results from proteolytic damage to the pulmonary connective tissue matrix because of reduced levels of protease inhibitor activity of α1-anitrypsin (AT) in the circulating blood and body fluids...
September 2016: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217586/occult-endocrine-dysfunction-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-of-liver
#11
K V S Hari Kumar, A K Pawah, Manish Manrai
BACKGROUND: Liver dysfunction leads to endocrine disturbance due to the alteration in protein metabolism or synthesis. We studied the presence of occult endocrine dysfunction in liver cirrhosis and compared the same with underlying etiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated thirty patients with liver cirrhosis in this cross-sectional, observational study. All subjects were assessed for pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, and gonadal function. The patients were divided into Group 1 (cirrhosis, n = 30) and Group 2 (controls, n = 15) and the data were analyzed with appropriate statistical tests...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217254/is-laparoscopic-hepatectomy-superior-to-open-hepatectomy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
EDITORIAL
Jian-Hong Zhong, Ning-Fu Peng, Jian-Hong Gu, Ming-Hua Zheng, Le-Qun Li
The low perioperative morbidity and shorter hospital stay associated with laparoscopic hepatectomy have made it an often-used option at many liver centers, despite the fact that many patients with hepatocellular carcinoma have cirrhosis, which makes the procedure more difficult and dangerous. Type of surgical procedure proves not to be a primary risk factor for poor outcomes after hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma, the available evidence clearly shows that laparoscopic hepatectomy is an effective alternative to the open procedure for patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma, even in the presence of cirrhosis...
February 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217250/advanced-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-cirrhosis-a-high-risk-population-for-pre-liver-transplant-portal-vein-thrombosis
#13
Jonathan G Stine, Curtis K Argo, Shawn J Pelletier, Daniel G Maluf, Stephen H Caldwell, Patrick G Northup
AIM: To examine if liver transplant recipients with high-risk non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are at increased risk for pre-transplant portal venous thrombosis. METHODS: Data on all liver transplants in the United States from February 2002 through September 2014 were analyzed. Recipients were sorted into three distinct groups: High-risk (age > 60, body mass index > 30 kg/m(2), hypertension and diabetes), low-risk and non-NASH cirrhosis. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed...
January 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217249/cockcroft-gault-revisited-new-de-liver-ance-on-recommendations-for-use-in-cirrhosis
#14
REVIEW
Gianni B Scappaticci, Randolph E Regal
The Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equation has become perhaps the most popular practical approach for estimating renal function among health care professionals. Despite its widespread use, clinicians often overlook not only the limitations of the original serum creatinine (SCr) based equation, but also may not appreciate the validity of the many variations used to compensate for these limitations. For cirrhotic patients in particular, the underlying pathophysiology of the disease contributes to a falsely low SCr, thereby overestimating renal function with use of the CG equation in this population...
January 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216976/correlation-of-transient-elastography-with-hepatic-venous-pressure-gradient-in-patients-with-cirrhotic-portal-hypertension-a-study-of-326-patients-from-india
#15
Ashish Kumar, Noor Muhammad Khan, Shrihari Anil Anikhindi, Praveen Sharma, Naresh Bansal, Vikas Singla, Anil Arora
AIM: To study the diagnostic accuracy of transient elastography (TE) for detecting clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) in Indian patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at the Institute of Liver, Gastroenterology, and Pancreatico-Biliary Sciences, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, on consecutive patients with cirrhosis greater than 15 years of age who underwent hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) and TE from July 2011 to May 2016...
January 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216972/laparoscopic-resection-vs-laparoscopic-radiofrequency-ablation-for-the-treatment-of-small-hepatocellular-carcinomas-a-single-center-analysis
#16
Marco Casaccia, Gregorio Santori, Giuliano Bottino, Pietro Diviacco, Enzo Andorno
AIM: To compare survival and recurrence after laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) and laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation (LRFA) for the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Between June 1, 2005 and November 30, 2010, 46 patients (62.26 ± 8.55 years old; female/male: 12/34) treated for small HCC were enrolled following strict criteria. Patients with better liver function and larger tumors were referred for LLR (n = 24), while those with poorer liver function and multiple tumors were referred for LRFA (n = 22), and they were then followed for similar durations (44...
January 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216578/tumor-microenvironment-a-paradigm-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progression-and-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Maryam Tahmasebi Birgani, Vinicio Carloni
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most lethal and prevalent cancers in the human population. Different etiological factors such as hepatitis B and C virus, alcohol and diabetes cause liver injury followed by inflammation, necrosis and hepatocytes proliferation. Continuous cycles of this destructive-regenerative process culminates in liver cirrhosis which is characterized by regenerating nodules that progress to dysplastic nodules and ultimately HCC. Despite its significance, there is only an elemental understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms, and there are only limited therapeutic options...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215516/aisf-position-paper-on-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-updates-and-future-directions
#18
Amedeo Lonardo, Fabio Nascimbeni, Giovanni Targher, Mauro Bernardi, Ferruccio Bonino, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Alessandro Casini, Amalia Gastaldelli, Giulio Marchesini, Fabio Marra, Luca Miele, Filomena Morisco, Salvatore Petta, Fabio Piscaglia, Gianluca Svegliati-Baroni, Luca Valenti, Stefano Bellentani
This review summarizes our current understanding of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a multi-factorial systemic disease resulting from a complex interaction between a specific genetic background and multiple environmental/metabolic "hits". The role of gut microbiota, lipotoxicity, inflammation and their molecular pathways is reviewed in-depth. We also discuss the epidemiology and natural history of NAFLD by pinpointing the remarkably high prevalence of NAFLD worldwide and its inherent systemic complications: hepatic (steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis), cardio-metabolic (cardiovascular disease, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias and type 2 diabetes) and neoplastic (primary liver cancers and extra-hepatic cancers)...
January 23, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214411/non-transplant-therapies-for-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-child-pugh-turcotte-class-b-cirrhosis
#19
REVIEW
Alessandro Granito, Luigi Bolondi
Underlying liver cirrhosis is present in most patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver transplantation is the only treatment strategy to cure both diseases. All other hepatocellular carcinoma treatment strategies have to take into account residual liver function that concurs with the patient's prognosis and might limit their feasibility. In patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and Child-Pugh-Turcotte class B (CPT-B), owing to borderline liver function, any intervention might be offset by liver function deterioration...
February 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213942/pge2-ep4-attenuated-mucosal-injury-via-%C3%AE-arr1-src-egfr-mediated-proliferation-in-portal-hypertensive-gastropathy
#20
Siwei Tan, Xiaoliang Chen, Minyi Xu, Xiaoli Huang, Huiling Liu, Jie Jiang, Yu Lu, Xiaojie Peng, Bin Wu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) is a serious complication of liver cirrhosis and a potential cause of bleeding in patients associated with cirrhosis. Suppressed mucosal epithelial proliferation is a crucial pathological characteristic of PHG. Our studies demonstrated an important role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) and its E-type prostanoid 4 (EP4 ) receptor in the promotion of mucosal proliferation. However, whether β-arrestin1 (β-arr1), a well-established mediator of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), is involved in the PGE2 /EP4 -mediated mucosal proliferation complex in PHG remains unclear...
February 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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