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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639688/pronounced-limb-and-fibre-type-differences-in-subcellular-lipid-droplet-content-and-distribution-in-elite-skiers-before-and-after-exhaustive-exercise
#1
Han-Chow E Koh, Joachim Nielsen, Bengt Saltin, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Niels Ørtenblad
Although the intramyocellular lipid pool is an important energy store during prolonged exercise, our knowledge concerning its metabolism is still incomplete. Here, quantitative electron microscopy was used to examine subcellular distribution of lipid droplets in type 1 and 2 fibres of the arm and leg muscles before and after one hour of exhaustive exercise. Intermyofibrillar lipid droplets accounted for 85-97% of the total volume fraction, while the subsarcolemmal pool made up 3-15%. Before exercise, the volume fractions of intermyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal lipid droplets were 4- to 6-fold higher in leg than in arm muscles (P < 0...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603377/effect-of-prolonged-racing-on-muscle-activity-and-spatiotemporal-variables-double-poling-technique
#2
Kitae Kim, Siddhartha Bikram Panday, In-Sik Shin, Jin-Hae Kim, Hye-Young Kim, Gwang-Jae Yu
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 40-minute race on muscle activity and spatiotemporal cycle variables at four-time points during a 12-km roller skiing test using the double-poling technique. [Subjects and Methods] Five elite cross-country (XC) skiers on the Korean National reserve team participated in the study. Part of a biathlon course that consisted of both flat land and slopes was selected, and three measurements were recorded after every 4-km lap. Spatiotemporal variables, mean frequency and mean amplitude of 6 muscles were the chosen computational parameters...
May 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597103/the-effects-of-strength-training-versus-ski-ergometer-training-on-double-poling-capacity-of-elite-junior-cross-country-skiers
#3
Tomas Carlsson, Lars Wedholm, Johnny Nilsson, Magnus Carlsson
PURPOSE: To compare the effects of strength training versus ski-ergometer training on double-poling gross efficiency (GE), maximal speed (V max), peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) for elite male and female junior cross-country skiers. METHODS: Thirty-three elite junior cross-country skiers completed a 6-week training-intervention period with two additional 40-min training sessions per week. The participants were matched in pairs and within each pair randomly assigned to either a strength-training group (STR) or a ski-ergometer-training group (ERG)...
June 8, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559075/impact-of-pre-hospital-transportation-on-survival-in-skiers-and-snowboarders-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Hai Sun, Navdeep S Samra, Piyush Kalakoti, Kanika Sharma, Devi Prasad Patra, Rimal H Dossani, Jai Deep Thakur, Elizabeth A Disbrow, Kevin Phan, Sreenivas P Veeranki, Aqueel Pabaney, Christina Notarianni, John T Owings, Anil Nanda
INTRODUCTION: Prehospital helicopter utilization and its impact on outcomes in snowboarders and skiers incurring traumatic brain injury (TBI) is unknown. The present study investigates the association of helicopter transport with survival of snowboarders and skiers with TBI, in comparison with ground emergency medical services (EMS) using data derived from the National Trauma Data Bank (2007-2014). METHODS: Primary and secondary endpoints were defined as in-hospital survival, and absolute risk reduction based upon number needed to transport (treat) respectively...
May 27, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558914/numerical-investigation-of-the-early-flight-phase-in-ski-jumping
#5
N Gardan, A Schneider, G Polidori, H Trenchard, J M Seigneur, F Beaumont, F Fourchet, R Taiar
The purpose of this study is to develop a numerical methodology based on real data from wind tunnel experiments to investigate the effect of the ski jumper's posture and speed on aerodynamic forces in a wide range of angles of attack. To improve our knowledge of the aerodynamic behavior of the ski jumper and his equipment during the early flight phase of the ski jump, we applied CFD methodology to evaluate the influence of angle of attack (α=14°, 21.5°, 29°, 36.5° and 44°) and speed (u=23, 26 and 29m/s) on aerodynamic forces in the situation of stable attitude of the ski jumper's body and skis...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552919/methods-for-acquiring-data-on-terrain-geomorphology-course-geometry-and-kinematics-of-competitors-runs-in-alpine-skiing-a-historical-review
#6
Włodzimierz S Erdmann, Vassilis Giovanis, Piotr Aschenbrenner, Vaios Kiriakis, Andrzej Suchanowski
PURPOSE: This paper aims at the description and comparison of methods of topographic analysis of racing courses at all disciplines of alpine skiing sports for the purposes of obtaining: terrain geomorphology (snowless and with snow), course geometry, and competitors' runs. METHODS: The review presents specific methods and instruments according to the order of their historical appearance as follows: (1) azimuth method with the use of a compass, tape and goniometer instruments; (2) optical method with geodetic theodolite, laser and photocells; (3) triangulation method with the aid of a tape and goniometer; (4) image method with the use of video cameras; (5) differential global positioning system and carrier phase global positioning system methods...
2017: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538302/physiological-demands-of-elite-cross-country-skiing-during-a-real-competition
#7
Cristina Gonzalez-Millan, Dario Perez-Brunicardi, Juan J Salinero, Beatriz Lara, Javier Abián-Vicen, Francisco Areces, Diana Ruiz-Vicente, Lidon Soriano, Juan Del Coso
The aim of this study was to assess different physiological variables before and after a 5-km (women) and 10-km (men) cross-country skiing competition to determine potential mechanisms of fatigue. Fourteen elite-level skiers competed in an official cross-country skiing competition using the classical style (9 men and 5 women). Instantaneous skiing velocity was measured during the race by means of 15-Hz global positioning system devices. Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained to assess changes in blood lactate and serum electrolyte and myoglobin concentrations...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513243/performance-of-alpine-touring-boots-when-used-in-alpine-ski-bindings
#8
Jeffrey R Campbell, Irving S Scher, David Carpenter, Bruce L Jahnke, Randal P Ching
Alpine Touring (AT) equipment is designed for ascending mountains and snow skiing down backcountry terrain. Skiers have been observed using AT boots in alpine (not made for Alpine Touring) ski bindings. We tested the effect on the retention-release characteristics of AT boots used in alpine bindings. Ten AT ski boots and five alpine ski boots were tested in eight models of alpine ski bindings using an ASTM F504-05 (2012) apparatus. 31% of the AT boots released appropriately when used in alpine ski bindings...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486336/seasonal-variations-of-bone-metabolism-and-bone-mineral-density-in-collegiate-alpine-skiers
#9
Teruyuki Sato, Keishoku Sakuraba, Yosuke Tsuchiya, Shinya Maruyama, Eisuke Ochi
This study investigated the seasonal variations in bone metabolism, mineral density, and physical characteristics in collegiate alpine skiers. Twelve male subjects (20.6 ± 1.5 years) were evaluated for body composition, body mineral density (BMD), serum levels of osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b), parathormone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). We also measured the knee extensor and flexor strength, maximal power, and vertical jump. Measurements were conducted in the pre-season period (T1), competitive period (T2), end-of-season period (T3), and resting period (T4)...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472092/influence-of-slope-steepness-foot-position-and-turn-phase-on-plantar-pressure-distribution-during-giant-slalom-alpine-ski-racing
#10
Thomas Falda-Buscaiot, Frédérique Hintzy, Patrice Rougier, Patrick Lacouture, Nicolas Coulmy
The purpose of this study was to investigate the evolution of ground reaction force during alpine skiing turns. Specifically, this study investigated how turn phases and slope steepness affected the whole foot normal GRF pattern while performing giant slalom turns in a race-like setting. Moreover, the outside foot was divided into different plantar regions to see whether those parameters affected the plantar pressure distribution. Eleven skiers performed one giant slalom course at race intensity. Runs were recorded synchronously using a video camera in the frontal plane and pressure insoles under both feet's plantar surface...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445904/-are-there-sex-differences-regarding-ski-length-to-height-ratio-ski-length-to-weight-ratio-sidecut-radius-and-ski-boot-sole-abrasion-among-acl-injured-male-and-female-skiers
#11
Markus Posch, Gerhard Ruedl, Katja Tecklenburg, Kenneth Helle, Alois Schranz, Martin Burtscher
Introduction Female skiers suffer from knee injuries twice as much as male skiers, and the risk of an injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is three times greater among females compared to males. The sex-specific ACL injury risk depends on internal (e. g. age, skiing skills, fitness level) and external (e. g. slope and weather conditions, ski equipment) factors. However, it is not clear whether male and female recreational skiers with an ACL injury differ regarding the sidecut radius and ski boot sole abrasion...
June 2017: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435336/anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury-reinjury-in-alpine-ski-racing-a-narrative-review
#12
REVIEW
Matthew J Jordan, Per Aagaard, Walter Herzog
The purpose of the present review was to: 1) provide an overview of the current understanding on the epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and prevention methods for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in alpine ski racing; and 2) provide an overview of what is known pertaining to ACL reinjury and return to sport after ACL injury in alpine ski racing. Given that most of the scientific studies on ACL injuries in alpine ski racing have been descriptive, and that very few studies contributed higher level scientific evidence, a nonsystematic narrative review was employed...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415868/-epidemiological-data-of-hungarian-skiers-and-snowboarders-medical-problems
#13
Péter Felkai, Ingrid Lengyel, Miklós Szokoly, Gábor Forgó
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: There are no high mountains or any advantageous circumstances for winter sports in Hungary, yet within the 10 million population there are about half a million people (the exact number is 550,000) who tend to go for skiing or snowboarding abroad. Authors compared the injury statistical data with results described in the international literature in order to develop conclusions about the differences in the injury patterns and frequency between the Hungarian ones' and those found in countries with plenty of winter sport possibilities...
April 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409199/disc-degeneration-on-mri-is-more-prevalent-in-young-elite-skiers-compared-to-controls
#14
Wisam A Witwit, Peter Kovac, Anna Sward, Cecilia Agnvall, Carl Todd, Olof Thoreson, Hanna Hebelka, Adad Baranto
PURPOSE: Evidence-based facts regarding spine abnormalities and back pain are needed in order to develop rehabilitation programs and prevent spine injuries in young skiers. The aim therefore is to identify MRI changes in the thoraco-lumbar spine and the lifetime prevalence of back pain, as well as the association between them, in young skiers compared to non-athletes. METHODS: Seventy-five young elite alpine and mogul skiers, age range 16-20 years, were compared with 27 non-athletic controls...
April 13, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382550/sitting-position-affects-performance-in-cross-country-sit-skiing
#15
M Lund Ohlsson, M S Laaksonen
PURPOSE: In cross-country sit-skiing (XCSS), athletes with reduced trunk control predominantly sit with the knees higher than the hips (KH); a position often associated with large spinal flexion. Therefore, to improve spinal curvature a new sledge with frontal trunk support, where knees are lower than hips (KL) was created. It was hypothesized that the KL position would improve respiratory function and enhance performance in seated double-poling compared to KH. METHODS: Ten female able-bodied cross-country skiers (age 25...
June 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314090/prevalence-age-at-onset-and-risk-factors-of-self-reported-asthma-among-swedish-adolescent-elite-cross-country-skiers
#16
L M Eriksson, T Irewall, Anne Lindberg, Nikolai Stenfors
The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and age at asthma onset between Swedish adolescent elite skiers and a reference group and to assess risk factors associated with asthma. Postal questionnaires were sent to 253 pupils at the Swedish National Elite Sport Schools for cross-country skiing, biathlon, and ski-orienteering ("skiers") and a random sample of 500 adolescents aged 16-20, matched for sport school municipalities ("reference"). The response rate was 96% among the skiers and 48% in the reference group...
March 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291666/risk-and-protective-factors-for-sudden-cardiac-death-during-leisure-activities-in-the-mountains-an-update
#17
REVIEW
Martin Burtscher
INTRODUCTION: Annually, more than 100 million tourists with widely varying health and fitness status are attracted by the mountainous areas around the world. Whereas mountaineering activities may contribute to the well established beneficial effects of regular exercise, for certain individuals these activities are also associated with a relatively high risk of death. METHODS: This manuscript presents an updated overview of risk and protective factors for sudden cardiac death during leisure activities in the mountains...
February 28, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287028/technique-analysis-in-elite-athletes-using-principal-component-analysis
#18
Øyvind Gløersen, Håvard Myklebust, Jostein Hallén, Peter Federolf
The aim of this study was to advance current movement analysis methodology to enable a technique analysis in sports facilitating (1) concurrent comparison of the techniques between several athletes; (2) identification of potentially beneficial technique modifications and (3) a visual representation of the findings for feedback to the athletes. Six elite cross-country skiers, three world cup winners and three national elite, roller ski skated using the V2 technique on a treadmill while their movement patterns were recorded using 41 reflective markers...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270769/the-role-of-power-fluctuations-in-the-preference-of-diagonal-vs-double-poling-sub-technique-at-different-incline-speed-combinations-in-elite-cross-country-skiers
#19
Christine Dahl, Øyvind Sandbakk, Jørgen Danielsen, Gertjan Ettema
In classical cross-country skiing, diagonal stride (DIA) is the major uphill sub-technique, while double poling (DP) is used on relatively flat terrain. Although, the dependence of incline and speed on the preference of either sub-technique seems clearly established, the mechanisms behind these preferences are not clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare kinetics and energy consumption in DP and DIA at the same submaximal workload in cross-country skiing under two different incline-speed combinations...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241030/effects-of-upper-body-sprint-interval-training-on-strength-and-endurance-capacities-in-female-cross-country-skiers
#20
Kristine Vandbakk, Boye Welde, Andrea Hovstein Kruken, Julia Baumgart, Gertjan Ettema, Trine Karlsen, Øyvind Sandbakk
This study compared the effects of adding upper-body sprint-intervals or continuous double poling endurance training to the normal training on maximal upper-body strength and endurance capacity in female cross-country skiers. In total, 17 female skiers (age: 18.1±0.8yr, body mass: 60±7 kg, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max): 3.30±0.37 L.min-1) performed an 8-week training intervention. Here, either two weekly sessions of six to eight 30-s maximal upper-body double poling sprint-intervals (SIG, n = 8) or 45-75 min of continuous low-to-moderate intensity double poling on roller skis (CG, n = 9) were added to their training...
2017: PloS One
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