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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095083/physiological-capacity-and-training-routines-of-elite-cross-country-skiers-approaching-the-upper-limits-of-human-endurance
#1
Øyvind Sandbakk, Hans-Christer Holmberg
Cross-country skiing is one of the most demanding of endurance sports, involving protracted competitions on varying terrain employing a variety of skiing techniques that require upper- and/or lower-body work to different extents. Through more effective training and extensive improvements in equipment and track preparation, the speed of cross-country ski races has increased more than that of any other winter Olympic sport and, in addition, new types of racing events have been introduced. To a certain extent this has altered the optimal physiological capacity required to win and the training routines of successful skiers have evolved accordingly...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095069/the-evolution-of-champion-cross-country-skier-training-from-lumberjacks-to-professional-athletes
#2
Øyvind Sandbakk
Competitive cross-country (XC) skiing has traditions extending back to the mid-19th century, and was included as a men's event in the first Winter Games in 1924. Since then, tremendous improvements in equipment, track preparation, and knowledge about training have prompted greater increases in XC skiing speeds than in any other Olympic sport. In response, this commentary focuses on how the training of successful XC skiers has evolved, with interviews and training data from surviving Norwegian world and Olympic XC champions as primary sources...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054124/-severe-blunt-thoracic-trauma-caused-by-ski-collision
#3
S J Lochner, M Scherr, M Perl, C Grove
An approximately 25-year-old skier collided in a ski-run intersection. At high speed, he first hit another skier and then smashed into a snow cannon. He died from his injuries a short time later in hospital. A whole-body CT scan was conducted under resuscitation conditions, which was followed by an autopsy. The investigation revealed a severe blunt thoracic trauma as cause of death. The detailed analysis was the result of the combination of the two methods of investigation, CT scan and autopsy. The methods complemented each other effectively and allowed for a detailed presentation of the injury pattern...
January 4, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030491/severe-injuries-associated-with-skiing-and-snowboarding-a-national-trauma-data-bank-study
#4
Amory de Roulet, Kenji Inaba, Aaron Strumwasser, Konstantinos Chouliaras, Demetrios Demetriades
BACKGROUND: Injuries following skiing and snowboarding accidents lead to an estimated 7,000 hospital admissions annually and present a significant burden to the health care system. The epidemiology, injury patterns, hospital resource utilization, and outcomes associated with these severe injuries need further characterization. METHODS: The National Trauma Data Bank was queried for the period 2007-2014 for admissions with injury severity score (ISS) >15 and ICD-9 codes 885...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918680/is-there-an-optimal-pole-length-for-double-poling-in-cross-country-skiing
#5
Franziska Onasch, Anthony Killick, Walter Herzog
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of pole length on energy cost and kinematics in cross country double poling. Seven sub-elite male athletes were tested using pole sets of different lengths (ranging between 77 and 98% of participants' body height). Tests were conducted on a treadmill, set to a 2% incline and an approximate racing speed. Poling forces, contact times, and oxygen uptake were measured throughout the testing. Pole length was positively correlated with ground contact time (r = .57, p < ...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915067/the-feasibility-and-effects-of-acupuncture-in-an-adolescent-nordic-ski-population
#6
Kristin L Garlanger, William H Fredericks, Alexander Do, Brent A Bauer, Edward R Laskowski
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the use and effectiveness of acupuncture in adults after exercise have been well documented. Fewer studies involving acupuncture have been completed in the adolescent athlete population. To our knowledge, there are no published studies that investigate the use of acupuncture in adolescent athletes within their field of play. OBJECTIVE: To primarily assess the feasibility of performing acupuncture in adolescent Nordic skiers within their athletic environment, and secondarily to measure the effect of acupuncture on muscle soreness and sense of well-being...
November 30, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900180/pursuit-of-performance-excellence-a-population-study-of-norwegian-adolescent-female-cross-country-skiers-and-biathletes-with-disordered-eating
#7
Ingvild Pettersen, Erik Hernæs, Finn Skårderud
AIM: To examine the prevalence of disordered eating (DE) among the total population of Norwegian female cross-country skiers and biathletes at the junior level, and to determine whether sociodemographic characteristics predict DE among athletes. METHODS: A cross-sectional population study of Norwegian female junior cross-country skiers and biathletes (n=262), with a response rate of 86%. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses explored the prevalence of DE and its relation to sports, competitive age groups, competitive status and education...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885394/sports-specific-differences-in-postsurgical-infections-after-arthroscopically-assisted-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#8
Werner Krutsch, Johannes Zellner, Florian Zeman, Michael Nerlich, Matthias Koch, Christian Pfeifer, Peter Angele
PURPOSE: Post-operative infection after arthroscopically assisted anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a rare but severe complication, particularly for young and active patients. It is unclear whether the prevalence of knee infection is correlated with the type of sports or the level of performance. METHODS: From 2008 to 2012, the internal single-centre ACL registry of the FIFA Medical Centre of Excellence Regensburg was retrospectively screened for sex, age, time between isolated primary ACL rupture and surgery, surgical technique, rate of infection after ACL reconstruction and the type of sports practised...
November 24, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878721/evaluation-in-vitro-of-immunoregulatory-cytokines-secretion-by-dendritic-cells-in-mountain-skiers
#9
V S Evstratova, D B Nikityuk, N A Riger, N V Fedyanina, R A Khanferyan
In vitro production of immunoregulatory cytokines (IFN-α, IL-31, TNF-β, IL-17A, IL-7, IL-1RA, IL-1α, IL-10, IL-15, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-27, and IL-9) by dendritic cell cultures was compared in ski athletes and healthy donors. Effect of prolonged intense physical exercise on secretory activity of immune cells was investigated. In both groups, secretion of IL-1RA, IL-10, IL-1α by dendritic cells was revealed, but there were significant differences in IL-1RA, IL-1α content (p<0.05) with lower level in the group of athletes...
November 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877070/aerobic-power-and-lean-mass-are-indicators-of-competitive-sprint-performance-among-elite-female-cross-country-skiers
#10
Tomas Carlsson, Michail Tonkonogi, Magnus Carlsson
The purpose of this study was to establish the optimal allometric models to predict International Ski Federation's ski-ranking points for sprint competitions (FISsprint) among elite female cross-country skiers based on maximal oxygen uptake ( [Formula: see text]) and lean mass (LM). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age: 24.5±2.8 years [mean ± SD]) completed a treadmill roller-skiing test to determine [Formula: see text] (ie, aerobic power) using the diagonal stride technique, whereas LM (ie, a surrogate indicator of anaerobic capacity) was determined by dual-emission X-ray anthropometry...
2016: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876383/helmet-use-and-injury-severity-among-pediatric-skiers-and-snowboarders-in-colorado
#11
Melissa Milan, Sandeep Jhajj, Camille Stewart, Laura Pyle, Steven Moulton
INTRODUCTION: Skiing and snowboarding are popular winter recreational activities that are commonly associated with orthopedic type injuries. Unbeknownst to most parents, however, are the significant but poorly described risks for head, cervical spine and solid organ injuries. Although helmet use is not mandated for skiers and snowboarders outside of resort sponsored activities, we hypothesized that helmet use is associated with a lower risk of severe head injury, shorter ICU stay and shorter hospital length of stay...
February 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876068/erratum-to-comparison-of-radiological-spino-pelvic-sagittal-parameters-in-skiers-and-non-athletes
#12
Carl Todd, Peter Kovac, Anna Swärd, Cecilia Agnvall, Leif Swärd, Jon Karlsson, Adad Baranto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857844/analysis-of-the-pushing-phase-in-paralympic-cross-country-sit-skiers-class-lw10
#13
Laura Gastaldi, Stefano Mauro, Stefano Pastorelli
Paralympic Cross-Country sit-skiers use adaptive equipment, with a resulting gesture similar to double poling techniques adopted by able-bodied skiers. Despite the similarity, a specific attention on the gesture performed by sit-skiers is needed. The paper focuses on the sledge kinematic and on inertia effect of upper body motion which is translated in a propulsive effect in the early stage of the pushing cycle. In particular a group of 7 elite sit skiers of class LW10 were recorded with a video-based markerless motion capture technique during 1 km sprint Paralympic race...
November 2016: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799165/reducing-the-risks-for-traumatic-and-overuse-injury-among-competitive-alpine-skiers
#14
EDITORIAL
Matej Supej, Veit Senner, Nicola Petrone, Hans-Christer Holmberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787350/epidemiology-of-snow-skiing-versus-snowboarding-related-concussions-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-in-the-united-states-from-2010-to-2014
#15
Joseph A Gil, Steven F DeFroda, Peter Kriz, Brett D Owens
OBJECTIVES: To examine the trend of concussions in skiers and snowboarders from 2010 to 2014; and to quantify and compare the incidence of concussions injuries in skiers and snowboarders who presented to emergency departments in the United States in 2014. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of concussions in skiers and snowboarders who were evaluated in emergency departments in the United States. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURE: Incidence of concussions. RESULTS: The trend of the annual incidence of concussions for skiers and snowboarders remained stable from 2010 to 2014...
October 25, 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776250/atrial-fibrillation-in-highly-trained-endurance-athletes-description-of-a-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Carme Perez-Quilis, Giuseppe Lippi, Gianfranco Cervellin, Roman Leischik, Herbert Löllgen, Enrique Serrano-Ostáriz, Alejandro Lucia
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common heart arrhythmia, the risk of which typically increases with age. This condition is commonly associated with major cardiovascular diseases and structural heart damage, while it is rarely observed in healthy young people. However, increasing evidence indicates that paroxysmal AF can also onset in young or middle-aged and otherwise healthy endurance athletes (e.g., cyclists, runners and cross-country skiers). Here we review the topic of AF associated with strenuous endurance exercise (SEE), for example cycling, running and cross-country skiing, especially at a competitive level, and we propose the definition of a new syndrome based on the accumulating data in the literature: SEE-related AF under the acronym of 'PAFIYAMA' ('paroxysmal AF in young and middle-aged athletes')...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773640/comparative-influence-of-sport-type-on-outcome-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-at-minimum-2-year-follow-up
#17
Benedict U Nwachukwu, Pramod B Voleti, Brenda Chang, Patricia Berkanish, Gregory T Mahony, Riley J Williams, David W Altchek, Answorth A Allen
PURPOSE: To investigate differences between sport types for patient-reported outcome after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). METHODS: Included patients were enrolled as part of a prospective institutional ACL registry. Inclusion criteria were preoperative self-identification as a competitive athlete, maximum score on the preoperative Marx Activity Scale, and minimum 2-year follow-up. Demographic, intraoperative, and outcome data were extracted from the registry...
October 20, 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768512/heart-rate-variability-during-deep-sleep-offers-a-time-efficient-alternative-to-morning-supine-measurements-a-study-in-world-class-alpine-skiers
#18
David Herzig, Moreno Testorelli, Daniela Schäfer Olstad, Daniel Erlacher, Peter Achermann, Prisca Eser, Matthias Wilhelm
BACKGROUND/AIM: There is increasing popularity for athletes to use heart rate variability (HRV) to tailor training. A time-efficient method is HRV assessment during deep sleep. The aim was to validate the selection of deep sleep segments identified by RR-intervals with simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) recordings and to compare HRV parameters of these segments with those of standard morning supine measurements. METHODS: In 11 world class alpine- skiers, RR-intervals were monitored during ten nights and simultaneous EEGs were recorded in 2-4 nights...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734085/does-zoning-winter-recreationists-reduce-recreation-conflict
#19
Aubrey D Miller, Jerry J Vaske, John R Squires, Lucretia E Olson, Elizabeth K Roberts
Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation-often by non-motorized and motorized activity-is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers)...
January 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726202/changes-in-upper-and-lower-body-muscle-involvement-at-increasing-double-poling-velocities-an-ecological-study
#20
C Zoppirolli, B Pellegrini, R Modena, A Savoldelli, L Bortolan, F Schena
This study evaluated muscle activity changes in different body compartments during on-snow double poling at increasing velocities. 21 well-trained, male cross-country skiers performed five 3-min double poling trials on a snowy track at 15, 16.5, 18, 19.5, and 21 km/h (set by an audio-pace system). A sixth trial was performed by maintaining a constant maximal speed. Actual skiing velocities were verified using a photocell system. Only 11 subjects met the pre-defined inclusion criteria during the trials and were included in the data analysis...
October 10, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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