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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231753/rates-of-insufficiency-and-deficiency-of-vitamin-d-levels-in-elite-professional-male-and-female-skiers-a-chronobiologic-approach
#1
Jacopo Antonino Vitale, Giovanni Lombardi, Luca Cavaleri, Rosa Graziani, Herbert Schoenhuber, Antonio La Torre, Giuseppe Banfi
Vitamin D is essential for the maintenance and promotion of musculoskeletal health, for the functioning of the immune, cardiovascular and reproductive systems, and its main action is to keep calcium and phosphate plasmatic physiological concentrations at intestinal, renal and bony level. Vitamin D affects several parameters related to physical performance too and a particularly high percentage of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in professional athletes has been observed. Several variables are able to impair the synthesis of 25(OH)D in athletes, specifically both genetic and environmental factors, but the most probable explanation for the deficient/insufficient vitamin D levels is the insufficient ultraviolet B light (UVB) exposure during winter...
December 12, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204863/no-difference-in-prevalence-of-spine-and-hip-pain-in-young-elite-skiers
#2
Carl Todd, Anna Swärd Aminoff, Cecilia Agnvall, Olof Thoreson, Leif Swärd, Jon Karlsson, Adad Baranto
PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence between back and hip pain in young Elite skiers. METHODS: Sample group (n = 102), consisted of young Elite skiers (n = 75) and age-matched non-athletes (n = 27), all completed a three-part back and hip pain questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index and EuroQoL to evaluate general health, activity level, back and hip pain prevalence. RESULTS: No significant differences were shown for lifetime prevalence of back pain in the skiers (50%) compared with controls (44%) (n...
December 4, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199781/velocity-distribution-of-women-s-30-km-cross-country-skiing-during-olympic-games-from-2002-2014
#3
Wlodzimierz S Erdmann, Dorota Dancewicz-Nosko, Vasilios Giovanis
BACKGROUND: Within several investigated endurance sport disciplines the distribution of load of the best competitors has a manner of evenly or slightly rising velocity values. Unfortunately many other competitors have usually diminishing values or when they are very poor they have evenly values. The aim of this study was to investigate distribution of velocity within 30-km cross-country female skiers. METHODS: Cross-country skiing runs were investigated of Olympic Games 2002-2014 (Salt Lake City, Turin, Vancouver, Sochi)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196845/pole-lengths-influence-o2-cost-during-double-poling-in-highly-trained-cross-country-skiers
#4
Camilla Høivik Carlsen, Bjarne Rud, Håvard Myklebust, Thomas Losnegard
PURPOSE: In elite cross-country skiing, double poling is used in different terrain. This study compared O2-cost and kinematics during double poling with four different pole lengths [self-selected (SS), SS - 5 cm, SS + 5 cm, SS + 10 cm] at Low versus Moderate incline. METHODS: Thirteen highly trained male cross-country skiers (mean ± SD 23 ± 3 years; 182 ± 4 cm; 77 ± 6 kg) completed eight submaximal trials with roller skis on a treadmill at two conditions: "Low incline" (1...
December 1, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189668/the-role-of-airway-inflammation-and-bronchial-hyperresponsiveness-in-athlete-s-asthma
#5
Julie Stang, Liv Ingunn Bjoner Sikkeland, Ellen Tufvesson, Are Martin Holm, Trine Stensrud, Kai-Håkon Carlsen
PURPOSE: Asthma is frequently reported in endurance athletes. The aim of the present study was to assess the long-term airway inflammatory response to endurance exercise in high-level athletes with and without asthma. METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, 20 asthmatic athletes (10 swimmers, 10 cross-country skiers), 19 athletes without asthma (10 swimmers, 9 cross-country skiers) and 24 healthy non-athletes completed methacholine bronchial challenge, lung function tests and sputum induction on two separate days...
November 7, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184524/a-qualitative-approach-on-motives-and-aspects-of-risks-in-freeriding
#6
Anika Frühauf, Will A S Hardy, Daniel Pfoestl, Franz-Georg Hoellen, Martin Kopp
Recent research has shown that there are multiple motives for participation in high-risk sport; however these results have come from studies that consider a number of different sports. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to better understand the motives and risk-related aspects of freeriding, using a qualitative approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 professional and semi-professional freeride skiers and snowboarders. All freeriders were highly experienced, of different age (19-44 years; 27...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179043/the-effect-of-exercise-intensity-on-joint-power-and-dynamics-in-ergometer-double-poling-performed-by-cross-country-skiers
#7
Jørgen Danielsen, Øyvind Sandbakk, David McGhie, Gertjan Ettema
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of increasing exercise intensity on the role of joint powers in ergometer double poling (DP), while taking specific dynamic constraints into account. One main question was whether lower-body power contribution increased or decreased with increasing intensity. Nine male Norwegian national-level cross-country skiers performed ergometer DP at low, moderate, high and maximal intensity. Kinematics, and ground (GRF) and poling (Fpoling) reaction forces were recorded and used in link segment modeling to obtain joint and whole-body dynamics...
November 23, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175825/reconstruction-of-head-impacts-in-fis-world-cup-alpine-skiing
#8
Sophie Elspeth Steenstrup, Kam-Ming Mok, Andrew S McIntosh, Roald Bahr, Tron Krosshaug
INTRODUCTION: Prior to the 2013/2014 season, the International Ski Federation (FIS) increased the helmet testing speed from 5.4 to 6.8 m/s for alpine downhill, super-G and giant slalom. Whether this increased testing speed reflects head impact velocities in real head injury situations on snow is unclear. We therefore investigated the injury mechanisms and gross head impact biomechanics in seven real head injury situations among World Cup (WC) alpine skiers. METHODS: We analysed nine head impacts from seven head injury videos from the FIS Injury Surveillance System, throughout nine WC seasons (2006-2015) in detail...
November 25, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163196/an-inertial-sensor-based-method-for-estimating-the-athlete-s-relative-joint-center-positions-and-center-of-mass-kinematics-in-alpine-ski-racing
#9
Benedikt Fasel, Jörg Spörri, Pascal Schütz, Silvio Lorenzetti, Kamiar Aminian
For the purpose of gaining a deeper understanding of the relationship between external training load and health in competitive alpine skiing, an accurate and precise estimation of the athlete's kinematics is an essential methodological prerequisite. This study proposes an inertial sensor-based method to estimate the athlete's relative joint center positions and center of mass (CoM) kinematics in alpine skiing. Eleven inertial sensors were fixed to the lower and upper limbs, trunk, and head. The relative positions of the ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, elbow, and wrist joint centers, as well as the athlete's CoM kinematics were validated against a marker-based optoelectronic motion capture system during indoor carpet skiing...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141496/power-and-pacing-calculations-based-on-real-time-locating-data-from-a-cross-country-skiing-sprint-race
#10
Mikael Swarén, Anders Eriksson
Pacing strategies in cross-country skiing have been investigated in several studies. However, none of the previous studies have been verified by collected skiing data giving the skiing velocities along a measured track. These can be used to calculate the propulsive power output. Collected real-time positioning data from a cross-country sprint skiing race were used to estimate the propulsive power by applying a power balance model. Analyses were made for the time-trial and the final for one female and one male skier...
November 15, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133295/head-injury-mechanisms-in-fis-world-cup-alpine-and-freestyle-skiers-and-snowboarders
#11
Sophie Elspeth Steenstrup, Arnhild Bakken, Tone Bere, Declan Alexander Patton, Roald Bahr
INTRODUCTION: Head injuries represent a concern in skiing and snowboarding, with traumatic brain injuries being the most common cause of death. AIM: To describe the mechanisms of head and face injuries among World Cup alpine and freestyle skiers and snowboarders. METHODS: We performed a qualitative analysis of videos obtained of head and face injuries reported through the International Ski Federation Injury Surveillance System during 10 World Cup seasons (2006-2016)...
November 13, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117228/the-pacing-strategy-and-technique-of-male-cross-country-skiers-with-different-levels-of-performance-during-a-15-km-classical-race
#12
Boye Welde, Thomas L Stöggl, Gunnar E Mathisen, Matej Supej, Chiara Zoppirolli, Andreas K Winther, Barbara Pellegrini, Hans-Christer Holmberg
In this study the pacing strategy, cycle characteristics and choice of technique of elite male cross-country (XC) skiers during a three-lap, 15-km classical race with interval start were measured. During the Norwegian Championships in 2016, fast (n = 18, age: 26±4 yr; height: 182±4 cm; body mass: 78±3 kg (means±SD)) and slow skiers (n = 18, age: 22±2 yr; height: 183±5 cm; body mass: 78±6 kg) were video recorded on flat (0°), intermediate (3.5°) and uphill sections (7.1°) of the first and final laps...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035988/helmet-use-and-risk-taking-behavior-among-skiers-and-snowboarders
#13
Stuart E Willick, Graham Wagner, Don Ericson, George Josten, Masaru Teramoto, Jeremy Davis
OBJECTIVE: To characterize factors associated with helmet use and risk-taking behavior among recreational skiers and snowboarders. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Large, western United States mountain resort. PARTICIPANTS: 1285 male and female recreational skiers and snowboarders were interviewed during a single winter ski season. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: Helmet use, demographic, and sport-related characteristics...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024041/strength-training-improves-double-poling-performance-after-prolonged-submaximal-exercise-in-cross-country-skiers
#14
S Øfsteng, Ø Sandbakk, M van Beekvelt, D Hammarström, R Kristoffersen, J Hansen, G Paulsen, B R Rønnestad
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training with or without vibration to cross-country (XC) skiers' endurance training on double poling (DP) performance, physiological and kinematic adaptations. Twenty-one well-trained male XC skiers combined endurance- and upper-body strength-training three times per week, either with (n=11) or without (n=10) superimposed vibrations for 8 weeks, whereas eight skiers performed endurance training only (CON). Testing included 1RM in upper-body exercises, work economy, neural activation, oxygen saturation in muscle and DP kinematics during a prolonged submaximal DP roller ski test which was directly followed by a time to exhaustion (TTE) test...
October 10, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018351/upper-body-muscular-endurance-training-improves-performance-following-50-min-of-double-poling-in-well-trained-cross-country-skiers
#15
Jørgen Børve, Steffen N Jevne, Bjarne Rud, Thomas Losnegard
This study investigated the effect of muscular endurance training on O2-cost and performance in double poling (DP) on a rollerski treadmill. Twenty-two well-trained cross-country skiers (31 ± 4 years, 77 ± 9 kg, 181 ± 8 cm, VO2max running: 64 ± 5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were counter-balanced to either a combined muscular endurance and running interval training group [MET; n = 11 (♂ = 9, ♀ = 2)], or an endurance running interval training group [ET; n = 11 (♂ = 9, ♀ = 2)]. Both groups continued their normal low-and moderate intensity training, but replaced 2 weekly high intensity-training sessions with two project-specific sessions for 6 weeks...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958714/the-spectrum-of-pediatric-injuries-sustained-in-snow-sports
#16
Zara Summers, Warwick J Teague, John M Hutson, Cameron S Palmer, Helen E Jowett, Sebastian K King
BACKGROUND: Snow sports are popular among children but carry the potential for significant injury. Head injuries are less common than fractures and sprains but may be fatal. Helmets are recommended for all snow sports, and yet their effectiveness remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the spectrum of injuries sustained at three large alpine resorts and to assess the effect of helmet usage on injury severity. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected pediatric trauma data (2005-2015) from the three largest alpine resorts in our state...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950695/pacing-profiles-in-age-group-cross-country-skiers-in-the-vasaloppet-2012-2016
#17
Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Beat Knechtle
Little is known for pacing profiles in age groups cross-country skiers. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of sex, age and calendar year on pacing strategies in the largest ski marathon in the world. All finishers (n = 66,435) in ‘Vasaloppet’ from 2012 to 2016 were examined for 12 different age groups (G). There was an association between age group and sex (χ² = 1091.1, P < 0.001; Cramer’s V = 0.13, P < 0.001), where the men-to-women ratio in each age group ranged from 3.29 (in G₂₀) to 64...
October 31, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912656/do-maximal-roller-skiing-speed-and-double-poling-performance-predict-youth-cross-country-skiing-performance
#18
Roland Stöggl, Erich Müller, Thomas Stöggl
The aims of the current study were to analyze whether specific roller skiing tests and cycle length are determinants of youth cross-country (XC) skiing performance, and to evaluate sex specific differences by applying non-invasive diagnostics. Forty-nine young XC skiers (33 boys; 13.8 ± 0.6 yrs and 16 girls; 13.4 ± 0.9 yrs) performed roller skiing tests consisting of both shorter (50 m) and longer durations (575 m). Test results were correlated with on snow XC skiing performance (PXC) based on 3 skating and 3 classical distance competitions (3 to 6 km)...
September 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904979/the-russians-are-the-fastest-in-marathon-cross-country-skiing-the-engadin-ski-marathon
#19
Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Jan Heller, Beat Knechtle
It is well known that athletes from a specific region or country are dominating certain sports disciplines such as marathon running or Ironman triathlon; however, little relevant information exists on cross-country skiing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the aspect of region and nationality in one of the largest cross-country skiing marathons in Europe, the "Engadin Ski Marathon." All athletes (n = 197,125) who finished the "Engadin Ski Marathon" between 1998 and 2016 were considered...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901201/sex-differences-in-balance-among-alpine-ski-racers-cross-sectional-age-comparisons
#20
Christian Raschner, Carolin Hildebrandt, Johanna Mohr, Lisa Müller
Although balance is a key ability in the strength demands of alpine ski racing, affecting both performance and injury prevention, few studies have examined balance or related sex differences among still-maturing athletes. In this 10-year study, we investigated cross-sectional balance performances at different age periods of a representative sample of over 500 11-18-year-old elite skiers of both genders. Participants performed balance tests using the MFT S3-Check. Left-right and forward-backward movements were used to calculate sensory and symmetry balance scores, which were both incorporated into a stability score...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
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