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Aubrey D Miller, Jerry J Vaske, John R Squires, Lucretia E Olson, Elizabeth K Roberts
Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation-often by non-motorized and motorized activity-is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers)...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Management
C Zoppirolli, B Pellegrini, R Modena, A Savoldelli, L Bortolan, F Schena
This study evaluated muscle activity changes in different body compartments during on-snow double poling at increasing velocities. 21 well-trained, male cross-country skiers performed five 3-min double poling trials on a snowy track at 15, 16.5, 18, 19.5, and 21 km/h (set by an audio-pace system). A sixth trial was performed by maintaining a constant maximal speed. Actual skiing velocities were verified using a photocell system. Only 11 subjects met the pre-defined inclusion criteria during the trials and were included in the data analysis...
October 10, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
K D Gejl, N Ørtenblad, E Andersson, P Plomgaard, H C Holmberg, J Nielsen
Skeletal muscle glycogen is heterogeneous distributed in three separated compartments (intramyofibrillar, intermyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal). Although only constituting 4-15% of the total glycogen volume, the availability of intramyofibrillar glycogen has been shown to be of particular importance to muscle function. The present study was designed to investigate the depletion of these three sub-cellular glycogen compartments during repeated supra-maximal exercise in elite athletes. Ten elite cross-country skiers (age: 25 ± 4 yrs...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Thomas Losnegard, Håvard Myklebust, Angela Ehrhardt, Jostein Hallén
To characterise timing of movements and evaluate performance effects of technique alterations in V2 ski skating, 13 elite male cross-country skiers (age, 23 ± 2 years; stature, 182 ± 6 cm; body mass, 76 ± 8 kg; V2 V̇O2max, 79.3 ± 4.4 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) were tested four times during the preparation and competition phase on a roller ski treadmill. Each test consisted of submaximal intensities of exercise for determination of oxygen cost followed by one 1000-m performance test. Hip movement (from accelerometer data) and joint angles (2D video) were determined for high-intensity exercise (6° and 3...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Ankit B Shah, Neil Coplan
Altitude plays an important role in cardiovascular performance and training for athletes. Whether it is mountaineers, skiers, or sea-level athletes trying to gain an edge by training or living at increased altitude, there are many potential benefits and harms of such endeavors. Echocardiographic studies done on athletes at increased altitude have shown evidence for right ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension, but no change in left ventricular ejection fraction. In addition, 10% of athletes are susceptible to pulmonary hypertension and high-altitude pulmonary edema...
2016: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine
Mandhkani Mahajan, Christine Tolman, B Würth, Steven J Rhemrev
INTRODUCTION: A skiers thumb, or a partial or complete rupture of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is a clinical diagnosis. Swelling, pain, natural left-right difference and inexperience of a young physician can cause difficulty to correctly diagnose this injury. However, our theory is that any physician, given the correct instructions, should be able to diagnose this injury solely on clinical findings, without the necessity of additional imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a large Dutch teaching hospital, physicians (residents with working experience of 6months-3years) working at the ER received instructions for physical examination...
October 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Marta Stępień-Słodkowska, Krzysztof Ficek, Pawea Ziętek, Mariusz Kaczmarczyk, Wioletta Łubkowska, Mirosawa Szark-Eckardt, Pawea Cięszczyk
CONTEXT: The most commonly injured body part for skiing was found to be the knee. The rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was the most frequent diagnosis. ACL ruptures are determined by several extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors, including those which are hormonal, neuromuscular, anatomical or genetic. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of both COL1A1 rs1800012 (+1245G/T) and COL1A1 rs1107946 (-1997G/T) polymorphisms, individually and as haplotypes, with anterior cruciate ligament ruptures in recreational Polish skiers...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Emily A Larson, Summer B Cook, Timothy J Quinn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Nicolas Bailly, Sanae Afquir, Jean-Dominique Laporte, Anthony Melot, Dominique Savary, Eric Seigneuret, Jean-Baptiste Delay, Thierry Donnadieu, Catherine Masson, Pierre-Jean Arnoux
PURPOSE: Mechanisms of injury and description of head impacts leading to traumatic brain injury (TBI) in skiers and snowboarders have not been extensively documented. We investigate snow-sport crashes leading to TBI in order to (1) Identify typical mechanisms leading to TBI to better target prevention measures and (2) Identify the injury mechanisms and the head impact conditions. METHODS: The subjects were skiers and snowboarders diagnosed of TBI and admitted between 2013 and 2015 to one of the 15 medical offices and 3 hospital centers involved in the study...
August 30, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jörg Spörri, Christian Schiefermüller, Erich Müller
In the laboratory, optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry is one of the most commonly used motion capture systems; particularly, when position- or orientation-related analyses of human movements are intended. However, for many applied research questions, field experiments are indispensable, and it is not a priori clear whether optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric systems can be expected to perform similarly to in-lab experiments. This study aimed to assess the instrumental errors of kinematic data collected on a ski track using optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry, and to investigate the magnitudes of additional skiing-specific errors and soft tissue/suit artifacts...
2016: PloS One
Mikolaj Walensi, Christian Berg, Michael Piotrowski, Franz-Eduard Brock, Johannes N Hoffmann
The adductor canal compression syndrome is one of the several rare nontraumatic causes of arterial occlusions, which may lead to critical ischemia of the lower limb. We report the case of a 46-year-old athletic woman, who suffered from activity-related paresthesia and sharp pain in the left upper and lower leg for 2 years. Imaging and neurological investigations of the spine remained without pathological findings that would explain the patient's complaints. Actually, the patient presented with symptoms of critical lower limb ischemia...
August 20, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Cristina Gonzalez-Millan, Dario Perez-Brunicardi, Juan Jose Salinero, Beatriz Lara, Javier Abián-Vicen, Francisco Areces, Diana Ruiz-Vicente, Lidon Soriano, Juan Del Coso
The aim of this study was to assess different physiological variables before and after a 5 km (women) and 10 km (men) cross-country skiing competition to determine potential mechanisms of fatigue. Fourteen elite-level skiers competed in an official cross-country skiing competition using the classical style (9 men and 5 women). Instantaneous skiing velocity was measured during the race by means of 15-Hz GPS devices. Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained to assess changes in blood lactate and serum electrolyte and myoglobin concentrations...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Øyvind Sandbakk, Thomas Losnegard, Øyvind Skattebo, Ann M Hegge, Espen Tønnessen, Jan Kocbach
The present study investigated the contribution of performance on uphill, flat, and downhill sections to overall performance in an international 10-km classical time-trial in elite female cross-country skiers, as well as the relationships between performance on snow and laboratory-measured physiological variables in the double poling (DP) and diagonal (DIA) techniques. Ten elite female cross-country skiers were continuously measured by a global positioning system device during an international 10-km cross-country skiing time-trial in the classical technique...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Matthew J Jordan, Per Aagaard, Walter Herzog
PURPOSE: The acute effects of fatigue on functional inter-limb asymmetry and quadriceps/hamstring muscle activity levels including preparatory co-activation during squat jump takeoff and landing was evaluated in elite alpine ski racers with/without anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR). METHODS: Twenty-two elite ski racers (ACLR: n=11; Control: n=11) performed an 80-second repeated squat jump test (jump-test) on a dual force plate system with simultaneous electromyography (EMG) recordings in vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), semitendinosus (ST) and biceps femoris (BF)...
August 17, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Steinar Sulheim, Arne Ekeland, Ingar Holme, Roald Bahr
BACKGROUND: In a previous study, we concluded that a safety helmet can reduce the risk for head injury by 60%. Other studies reported similar effects, resulting in a general recommendation to wear a helmet while skiing or snowboarding. AIM: To determine the effect of the expected increased helmet wear on the risk of head injury one decade after the recommendation. METHODS: Ski patrols reported injury cases in major Norwegian alpine ski resorts...
August 16, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Hussam Ali, Francesco Furlanello, Pierpaolo Lupo, Sara Foresti, Guido De Ambroggi, Gianluca Epicoco, Angelica Fundaliotis, Riccardo Cappato
Ventricular fibrillation is typically the initial arrhythmia in commotio cordis following precordium impacts that occur within an electrically vulnerable period of the cardiac cycle. Conversely, complete heart block is very rare in this context, and its mechanism and temporal course are poorly understood. The presented case concerns a 12-year-old boy, athletic skier, who developed a transient complete heart block following commotio cordis. The electrocardiographic features, the proposed block level and mechanisms of complete heart block following commotio cordis are discussed...
July 5, 2016: Journal of Electrocardiology
Steven F DeFroda, Joseph A Gil, Brett D Owens
PURPOSE: To quantify and compare the incidence of lower extremity injuries in skiers and snowboarders who present to emergency rooms in the United States. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of lower extremity injuries in skiers and snowboarders that were evaluated in emergency rooms in the United States. The National Electric Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database was queried from January 1st, 2014 and December 31st, 2014 and the reported cases of lower extremity injuries in skiers and snowboarders were examined...
July 7, 2016: Injury
Luis Carús, María Escorihuela
Previous research suggests that snow park (SP) injuries are proportionally more frequent and more likely to be more severe than those sustained on traditional slopes. The aim of this study was to calculate skiers' overall and feature-specific injury rates and determine potential risk factors for severe injury in an SP. This is a retrospective study conducted during the 2013/2014 winter season in the SP of a major winter resort located in the Spanish Pyrenees. Cases were skiers who suffered feature-related injuries in the SP...
October 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Erik Andersson, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Niels Ørtenblad, Glenn Björklund
PURPOSE: To examine the metabolic responses and pacing strategies during the performance of successive sprint time trials (STTs) in cross-country skiing. METHODS: Ten well-trained male cross-country skiers performed four self-paced 1300-m STTs on a treadmill, each separated by 45 min of recovery. The simulated STT course was divided into three flat (1°) sections (S1, S3 and S5) involving the double poling sub-technique interspersed with two uphill (7°) sections (S2 and S4) involving the diagonal stride sub-technique...
July 12, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Luis Carús, María Escorihuela
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present case series study was to analyze injury types and injured anatomic locations resulting from skiing in snow park (SP) features and to determine potential risk factors for ski injuries in an SP. METHODS: The study was conducted during the 2013-2014 winter season in the SP of a major winter resort located in the Spanish Pyrenees. Cases involved skiers who experienced feature-related injuries in the SP. A total of 113 cases met the inclusion criteria...
September 2016: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
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