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Heat related emergencies

Siyi He, Tom Kosatsky, Audrey Smargiassi, Marianne Bilodeau-Bertrand, Nathalie Auger
INTRODUCTION: Outdoor heat increases the risk of preterm birth and stillbirth, but the association with placental abruption has not been studied. Placental abruption is a medical emergency associated with major morbidity and mortality in pregnancy. We determined the relationship between ambient temperature and risk of placental abruption in warm seasons. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a case-crossover analysis of 17,172 women whose pregnancies were complicated by placental abruption in Quebec, Canada from May to October 1989-2012...
November 13, 2017: Environment International
Alessandro Tessitore, Antonio Russo, Rosa De Micco, Michele Fratello, Giuseppina Caiazzo, Alfonso Giordano, Mario Cirillo, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Fabrizio Esposito
BACKGROUND: Despite its clinical relevance, the pathophysiology of pain in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still largely unknown, and both central and peripheral mechanisms have been invoked. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether central pain processing is altered in "drug-naive" pain-free PD (dnPD) patients. METHODS: Using event-related functional MRI (fMRI), functional response to forearm heat stimulation (FHS) at two different intensities (41°C and 53°C) was investigated in 20 pain-free dnPD patients, compared with 18 healthy controls (HCs)...
November 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
Oren Shaul, Michal Fanrazi-Kahana, Omri Meitav, Gad A Pinhasi, David Abookasis
Heat stress (HS) is a medical emergency defined by abnormally elevated body temperature that causes biochemical, physiological, and hematological changes. The goal of the present research was to detect variations in optical properties (absorption, reduced scattering, and refractive index coefficients) of mouse brain tissue during HS by using near-infrared (NIR) spatial light modulation. NIR spatial patterns with different spatial phases were used to differentiate the effects of tissue scattering from those of absorption...
November 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Yan Zhang, Mengying Xie, Vana Adamaki, Hamideh Khanbareh, Chris R Bowen
Energy harvesting is a topic of intense interest that aims to convert ambient forms of energy such as mechanical motion, light and heat, which are otherwise wasted, into useful energy. In many cases the energy harvester or nanogenerator converts motion, heat or light into electrical energy, which is subsequently rectified and stored within capacitors for applications such as wireless and self-powered sensors or low-power electronics. This review covers the new and emerging area that aims to directly couple energy harvesting materials and devices with electro-chemical systems...
November 10, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Wei Wang, Yu Li, Xiangyuan Wang, Yang Liu, Yanping Lv, Shufeng Wang, Kai Wang, Yantao Shi, Lixin Xiao, Zhijian Chen, Qihuang Gong
For highly interested organolead perovskite based solar cells, the exciton and free carriers are the photoproducts in the working layers. In this study, we revealed their two forms of relations depending on heat-annealing condition. In non-annealed films and single crystal, they are in density-dependent dynamical balance (co-existing). For the sufficiently heat-annealed films, they present a significant emissive exciton-carrier collision (ECC). The two relations indicate the emergence of a subgrain morphology within the tetragonal phase of crystal grain, induced by heat annealing process...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Harvey B Sarnat, Morris H Scantlebury
Though the term "inflammation" is traditionally defined as proliferation or infiltration of lymphatic cells of the lymphatic immune system and macrophages or as immunoreactive proteins including cytokines, interleukins and major histocompatibility complexes, recently recognized reactions to tissue injury also are inflammation, often occurring in the central nervous system in conditions where they previously were not anticipated and where they may play a role in both pathogenesis and repair. We highlight 4 such novel inflammatory conditions revealed by neuropathologic studies: (1) inflammatory markers and cells in the brain of human fetuses with tuberous sclerosis complex and perhaps other disorders of the mechanistic target of rapamycin genetic or metabolic pathway, (2) inflammatory markers in the brain related to febrile seizures of infancy and early childhood, (3) heat-shock protein upregulation in glial cells and neurons at sites of chronic epileptic foci, and (4) the emerging role of astrocytes in the presence of and participation in inflammation...
August 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
Mihaela M Martis, Behdad Tarbiat, Eva Tydén, Désirée S Jansson, Johan Höglund
The nematode Ascaridia galli (order Ascaridida) is an economically important intestinal parasite responsible for increased food consumption, reduced performance and elevated mortality in commercial poultry production. This roundworm is an emerging problem in several European countries on farms with laying hens, as a consequence of the recent European Union (EU) ban on conventional battery cages. As infection is associated with slow development of low levels of acquired protective immunity, parasite control relies on repeated use of dewormers (anthelmintics)...
2017: PloS One
Samuel Tobias Zimmermann, Diederik W R Balkenende, Anna Lavrenova, Christoph Weder, Jürgen Brugger
The miniaturization of nanometer-sized multicolor fluorescent features is of continuous significance for counterfeit security features, data storage, and sensors. Recent advances in engineering of stimuli-responsive supramolecular polymeric materials that respond upon exposure to heat or mechanical force by changing their fluorescence characteristics open new opportunities as functional lithographic resists. Here, we demonstrate the patterning of a thermochromic supramolecular material by thermal scanning probe lithography (t-SPL), an emerging nanofabrication technique, which allows for ultrafast indentation with a heated probe, resulting in both fluorescent and topographic nanofeatures...
November 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Rebecca K McTavish, Lucie Richard, Eric McArthur, Salimah Z Shariff, Rey Acedillo, Chirag R Parikh, Ron Wald, Piotr Wilk, Amit X Garg
BACKGROUND: An association between high heat and acute kidney injury (AKI) has been reported in warm climates. However, whether this association generalizes to a northern climate, with more variable temperatures, is unknown. STUDY DESIGN: Matched case-control study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Our study focused on older adults (mean age, 80 years) in the northern climate of Ontario, Canada. 52,913 case patients who had a hospital encounter with AKI in April through September 2005 to 2012 were matched with 174,222 controls for exact date, age, sex, rural residence, income, and history of chronic kidney disease...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Giuliano Bonanomi, Guido Incerti, Ahmed M Abd El-Gawad, Gaspare Cesarano, Tushar C Sarker, Luigi Saulino, Virginia Lanzotti, Antonio Saracino, Francisco C Rego, Stefano Mazzoleni
Litter burning and biological decomposition are oxidative processes co-occurring in many terrestrial ecosystems, producing organic matter with different chemical properties and differently affecting plant growth and soil microbial activity. We tested the chemical convergence hypothesis i.e. materials with different initial chemistry converge towards a common profile, with similar biological effects, as the oxidative process advances, for burning and decomposition. We compared the molecular composition, assessed by (13) C NMR, of 7 plant litter types either fresh, decomposed for 30, 90, 180 days in a microcosms incubation experiment, or heated at 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 °C for thirty minutes...
October 24, 2017: Ecology
Mini Singh, Isabelle Ruhnke, Carolyn de Koning, Kelly Drake, Alan G Skerman, Geoff N Hinch, Philip C Glatz
Baseline information on demographics and practices on semi-intensive free-range egg farms with an outdoor stocking density of ≤1500 hens/hectare in Australia is presented. Free-range egg production is changing the structure of the egg industry in Australia and a broad variety and tiers of free-range systems have emerged due to lack of concrete legislative standards on outdoor stocking densities in the past. Information was extracted from a pre-existing online free-range poultry survey dataset, consisting of a total of 79 questions related to nutrition, pasture management, welfare and health, animal housing, environmental impact and economics...
2017: PloS One
Evgeny Tretyakov, Ashok Keerthi, Martin Baumgarten, Sergey Veber, Matvey Fedin, Dmitry Gorbunov, Inna Shundrina, Nina Gritsan
The first alkyl chain-anchored heteropentacene, dithieno[2,3-d;2',3'-d']benzo-[1,2-b;3,4-b']dithiophene (DTmBDT), mono- or disubstituted with a nitronyl nitroxide group has been prepared through a cross-coupling synthetic procedure of the corresponding dibromo-derivative (Br2-DTmBDT) with a nitronyl nitroxide-2-ide gold(I) complex. The synthesized nitroxides possess high kinetic stability, which allowed us to investigate their structure and thermal, optical, electrochemical, and magnetic properties. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction of both mono- and diradicals revealed that the nitronyl nitroxide group lies almost in the same plane as the nearest side thiophene ring...
October 2017: ChemistryOpen
Oleg A Vasilyev, Olivier Bénichou, Carlos Mejía-Monasterio, Eric R Weeks, Gleb Oshanin
We study, via extensive numerical simulations, dynamics of a crowded mixture of mutually interacting (with a short-range repulsive potential) colloidal particles immersed in a suspending solvent, acting as a heat bath. The mixture consists of a majority component - neutrally buoyant colloids subject to internal stimuli only, and a minority component - biased probes (BPs) also subject to a constant force. In such a system each of the BPs alters the distribution of the colloidal particles in its vicinity, driving their spatial distribution out of equilibrium...
October 25, 2017: Soft Matter
Kiyun Park, Ihn-Sil Kwak
Antibiotics in the environment are a concern due to their potential to harm humans and interrupt ecosystems. Sulfathiazole (STZ), a sulfonamide antibiotic, is commonly used in aquaculture and is typically found in aquatic ecosystems. We evaluated the ecological risk of STZ by examining biological, molecular and biochemical response in Chironomus riparius. Samples were exposed to STZ for 12, 24 and 96 h, and effects of STZ were evaluated at the molecular level by analyzing changes in gene expression related to the endocrine system, cellular stress response and enzyme activity of genes on antioxidant and detoxification pathways...
September 26, 2017: Chemosphere
Eun Kwang Lee, Moo Yeol Lee, Cheol Hee Park, Hae Rang Lee, Joon Hak Oh
Recent interest in flexible electronics has led to a paradigm shift in consumer electronics, and the emergent development of stretchable and wearable electronics is opening a new spectrum of ubiquitous applications for electronics. Organic electronic materials, such as π-conjugated small molecules and polymers, are highly suitable for use in low-cost wearable electronic devices, and their charge-carrier mobilities have now exceeded that of amorphous silicon. However, their commercialization is minimal, mainly because of weaknesses in terms of operational stability, long-term stability under ambient conditions, and chemical stability related to fabrication processes...
September 27, 2017: Advanced Materials
Adam T Cross, Maria Paniw, Fernando Ojeda, Shane R Turner, Kingsley W Dixon, David J Merritt
Fire is a topical issue in the management of many ecosystems globally that face a drying climate. Understanding the role of fire in such ecosystems is critical to inform appropriate management practices, particularly in the case of rare and ecologically specialized species. The Mediterranean heathlands are highly fire-prone and occur in a biodiversity hotspot increasingly threatened by human activities, and determining the reproductive thresholds of at-risk heathland species is critical to ensuring the success of future conservation initiatives...
September 2017: AoB Plants
Abdikarim Abdullahi, Marc G Jeschke
In this era of increased obesity and diabetes prevalence, the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target to induce weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity in this population. The browning process entails a shift in the WAT from primarily storing excess energy to the dissipation of energy as heat. However, this idealistic view of WAT browning being the saviour of the metabolic syndrome has been criticized by studies in burns and cancer patients that have shown browning to be detrimental rather than being beneficial...
August 30, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
Mary C Sheehan, Mary A Fox, Charlotte Kaye, Beth Resnick
Public health has potential to serve as a frame to convey the urgency of behavior change needed to adapt to a changing climate and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Local governments form the backbone of climate-related public health preparedness. Yet local health agencies are often inadequately prepared and poorly integrated into climate change assessments and plans. We reviewed the climate health profiles of 16 states and two cities participating in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Climate-Ready States and Cities Initiative (CRSCI) that aims to build local capacity to assess and respond to the health impacts of climate change...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Xuping Song, Shigong Wang, Tanshi Li, Jinhui Tian, Guowu Ding, Jiaxin Wang, Jiexin Wang, Kezheng Shang
The objectives of this article were (i) to find the association between extreme temperatures and respiratory emergency department (ED) visits and (ii) to explore the added effects of heat waves and cold spells on respiratory ED visits in Beijing from 2009 to 2012. A quasi-Poisson generalised linear model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model was performed to quantify this association. The results indicated that (i) ambient temperature related to respiratory ED visits exhibited a U-shaped association...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zhenlong Zhao, Mruthunjaya Uddi, Nikolai Tsvetkov, Bilge Yildiz, Ahmed F Ghoniem
CO2 splitting via thermo-chemical or reactive redox has emerged as a novel and promising carbon-neutral energy solution. Its performance depends critically on the properties of the oxygen carriers (OC). Ceria is recognized as one of the most promising OC candidates, because of its fast chemistry, high ionic diffusivity, and large oxygen storage capacity. The fundamental surface ion-incorporation pathways, along with the role of surface defects and the adsorbates remain largely unknown. This study presents a detailed kinetics study of CO2 splitting using CeO2 and Ce0...
September 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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