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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210860/a-heat-vulnerability-index-to-improve-urban-public-health-management-in-san-juan-puerto-rico
#1
Pablo Méndez-Lázaro, Frank E Muller-Karger, Daniel Otis, Matthew J McCarthy, Ernesto Rodríguez
Increased frequency and length of high heat episodes are leading to more cardiovascular issues and asthmatic responses among the population of San Juan, the capital of the island of Puerto Rico, USA. An urban heat island effect, which leads to foci of higher temperatures in some urban areas, can raise heat-related mortality. The objective of this research is to map the risk of high temperature in particular locations by creating heat maps of the city of San Juan. The heat vulnerability index (HVI) maps were developed using images collected by satellite-based remote sensing combined with census data...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176835/microscopic-description-for-the-emergence-of-collective-dissipation-in-extended-quantum-systems
#2
Fernando Galve, Antonio Mandarino, Matteo G A Paris, Claudia Benedetti, Roberta Zambrini
Practical implementations of quantum technology are limited by unavoidable effects of decoherence and dissipation. With achieved experimental control for individual atoms and photons, more complex platforms composed by several units can be assembled enabling distinctive forms of dissipation and decoherence, in independent heat baths or collectively into a common bath, with dramatic consequences for the preservation of quantum coherence. The cross-over between these two regimes has been widely attributed in the literature to the system units being farther apart than the bath's correlation length...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141809/self-organised-criticality-in-the-evolution-of-a-thermodynamic-model-of-rodent-thermoregulatory-huddling
#3
Stuart P Wilson
A thermodynamic model of thermoregulatory huddling interactions between endotherms is developed. The model is presented as a Monte Carlo algorithm in which animals are iteratively exchanged between groups, with a probability of exchanging groups defined in terms of the temperature of the environment and the body temperatures of the animals. The temperature-dependent exchange of animals between groups is shown to reproduce a second-order critical phase transition, i.e., a smooth switch to huddling when the environment gets colder, as measured in recent experiments...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133853/molecular-response-of-sargassum-vulgare-to-acidification-at-volcanic-co2-vents-insights-from-de-novo-transcriptomic-analysis
#4
Amit Kumar, Immacolata Castellano, Francesco Paolo Patti, Massimo Delledonne, Hamada Abdelgawad, Gerrit T S Beemster, Han Asard, Anna Palumbo, Maria Cristina Buia
Ocean acidification is an emerging problem that is expected to impact ocean species to varying degrees. Currently, little is known about its effect on molecular mechanisms induced in fleshy macroalgae. To elucidate genome wide responses to acidification, a comparative transcriptome analysis was carried out between Sargassum vulgare populations growing under acidified conditions at volcanic CO2 vents and a control site. Several transcripts involved in a wide range of cellular and metabolic processes were differentially expressed...
January 30, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127181/non-surgical-ablative-therapy-for-management-of-small-renal-masses-current-status-and-future-trends
#5
REVIEW
K Farrag, S Sriprasad
A large number of small renal masses (SRMs) with size less than 4 cm are being identified due to advances in diagnostic imaging. As the natural history of these tumours remains unknown, there is no reliable way to predict their behaviour or future growth. Although, partial nephrectomy is the gold standard for treatment of these tumours, ablative non-surgical therapies such as cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation provide a less invasive option of treatment with comparable oncological outcomes. In this systematic review, the principle, indications, methods of treatment, oncological control, complication and renal function of ablative therapies are critically reviewed...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123861/thermal-injury-patterns-associated-with-electronic-cigarettes
#6
Alisha Z Jiwani, James F Williams, Julie A Rizzo, Kevin K Chung, Booker T King, Leopoldo C Cancio
E-cigarettes are typically lithium-ion battery-operated devices that simulate smoking by heating a nicotine-solution into a vapor that the user inhales. E-cigarette use is becoming rapidly popular as an alternative to traditional cigarette smoking. This report describes an emerging problem associated with e-cigarettes, consisting of 10 thermally injured patients seen at a single burn center over a 2-year period from 2014 to 2016. Our cohort was comprised mainly of young adults who sustained mixed partial and full thickness burns as a result of e-cigarette-related explosions...
2017: International Journal of Burns and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119443/measuring-physical-stigmata-of-niacin-associated-skin-toxicity-by-colorimetry-white-light-spectroscopy-laser-doppler-flowmetry-and-thermometry-in-combination-with-symptom-perception-scoring-methods-to-aid-development-of-niacin-mimetics
#7
Richard L Dunbar, Harsh Goel, Sony Tuteja, Wen-Liang Song, Grace Nathanson, Zeeshan Babar, Dusanka Lalic, Joel M Gelfand, Daniel J Rader, Gary L Grove
Though cardioprotective, niacin monotherapy is limited by unpleasant cutaneous symptoms mimicking dermatitis: Niacin-Associated Skin Toxicity (NASTy). Niacin is prototypical of several emerging drugs suffering off-target rubefacient properties, whereby agonizing the GPR109A receptor on cutaneous immune cells provokes vasodilation, prompting skin plethora and rubor, as well as dolor, tumor, and calor, and systemically, heat loss, frigor, chills, and rigors. Typically, NASTy effects are described by subjective, patient-reported perception, at best semi-quantitative and bias-prone...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112940/adaptive-landscape-flattening-accelerates-sampling-of-alchemical-space-in-multisite-%C3%AE-dynamics
#8
Ryan L Hayes, Kira A Armacost, Jonah Z Vilseck, Charles L Brooks
Multisite λ dynamics (MSλD) is a powerful emerging method in free energy calculation that allows prediction of relative free energies for a large set of compounds from very few simulations. Calculating free energy differences between substituents that constitute large volume or flexibility jumps in chemical space is difficult for free energy methods in general, and for MSλD in particular, due to large free energy barriers in alchemical space. This study demonstrates that a simple biasing potential can flatten these barriers and introduces an algorithm that determines system specific biasing potential coefficients...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074336/small-heat-shock-proteins-in-ageing-and-age-related-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Nikolaos Charmpilas, Emmanouil Kyriakakis, Nektarios Tavernarakis
Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are gatekeepers of cellular homeostasis across species, preserving proteome integrity under stressful conditions. Nonetheless, recent evidence suggests that sHSPs are more than molecular chaperones with merely auxiliary role. In contrast, sHSPs have emerged as central lifespan determinants, and their malfunction has been associated with the manifestation of neurological disorders, cardiovascular disease and cancer malignancies. In this review, we focus on the role of sHSPs in ageing and age-associated diseases and highlight the most prominent paradigms, where impairment of sHSP function has been implicated in human pathology...
January 10, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063186/the-combined-and-separate-impacts-of-climate-extremes-on-the-current-and-future-us-rainfed-maize-and-soybean-production-under-elevated-co2
#10
Zhenong Jin, Qianlai Zhuang, Jiali Wang, Sotirios V Archontoulis, Zachary Zobel, Veerabhadra R Kotamarthi
Heat and drought are two emerging climatic threats to the US maize and soybean production, yet their impacts on yields are collectively determined by the magnitude of climate change and rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This study quantifies the combined and separate impacts of high temperature, heat and drought stresses on the current and future US rainfed maize and soybean production, and for the first time characterizes spatial shifts in the relative importance of individual stress. Crop yields are simulated using the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM), driven by high-resolution (12 km) dynamically downscaled climate projections for 1995-2004 and 2085-2094...
January 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045065/high-diversity-of-airborne-fungi-in-the-hospital-environment-as-revealed-by-meta-sequencing-based-microbiome-analysis
#11
Xunliang Tong, Hongtao Xu, Lihui Zou, Meng Cai, Xuefeng Xu, Zuotao Zhao, Fei Xiao, Yanming Li
Invasive fungal infections acquired in the hospital have progressively emerged as an important cause of life-threatening infection. In particular, airborne fungi in hospitals are considered critical pathogens of hospital-associated infections. To identify the causative airborne microorganisms, high-volume air samplers were utilized for collection, and species identification was performed using a culture-based method and DNA sequencing analysis with the Illumina MiSeq and HiSeq 2000 sequencing systems. Few bacteria were grown after cultivation in blood agar...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006823/effects-of-antifouling-biocides-on-molecular-and-biochemical-defense-system-in-the-gill-of-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#12
Mi Seon Park, Young Dae Kim, Bo-Mi Kim, Youn-Jung Kim, Jang Kyun Kim, Jae-Sung Rhee
Antifouling biocides such as organotin compounds and their alternatives are potent toxicants in marine ecosystems. In this study, we employed several molecular and biochemical response systems of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas to understand a potential mode of action of antifouling biocides (i.e. tributyltin (TBT), diuron and irgarol) after exposure to different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, and 1 μg L-1) for 96 h. As a result, all the three antifouling biocides strongly induced the antioxidant defense system...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993993/can-the-young-larvae-of-cnaphalocrocis-medinalis-lepidoptera-pyralidae-tolerate-the-heat-stress-in-summer
#13
Qiu Qian, Ling-Ling Gu, Xiang-Dong Liu
The rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Güenée), will frequently be under heat stress because of global warming. The young larvae would be liable to heat exposure owing to inability to make leaf fold for hiding themselves. Consequently, their heat tolerance might be closely related to population outbreak in summer. Therefore, the heat tolerance of the first-instar larvae was examined in this study. The results showed that the heat tolerance of young larvae was lower than that of the older ones. Survival rates of the first-instar larvae were more than 60% on exposure to 39(°)C for 5 h per day for 3 successive days, but it dropped to below 20% on exposure to 41(°)C for 5 h per day for 2 successive days...
December 19, 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960314/chain-length-and-solvent-control-over-the-electronic-properties-of-alkanethiolate-protected-gold-nanoparticles-at-the-molecule-to-metal-transition
#14
Anthony Cirri, Alexey Silakov, Lasse Jensen, Benjamin J Lear
Alkanethiolate protected gold nanoparticles are one of the most widely used systems in modern science and technology, where the emergent electronic properties of the gold core are valued for use in applications such as plasmonic solar cells, photocatalysis, and photothermal heating. Though choice in alkane chain length is not often discussed as a way in which to control the electronic properties of these nanoparticles, we show that the chain length of the alkyl tail exerts clear control over the electronic properties of the gold core, as determined by conduction electron spin resonance spectroscopy...
December 14, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943424/silver-nanoparticles-and-dissolved-silver-activate-contrasting-immune-responses-and-stress-induced-hsp-expression-in-sea-urchin
#15
Adriano Magesky, Ciro A de Oliveira Ribeiro, Lucie Beaulieu, Émilien Pelletier
Using immune cells of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis in early development as a model, the cellular protective mechanisms against ionic and poly(allylamine)-coated silver nanoparticules (17 ± 6 nm, PAAm-AgNPs) treatments at 100 µg · L were investigated. Oxidative stress, heat shock proteins expression and pigment production by spherulocytes were determined as well as AgNPs translocation pathways and their multiple effects on circulating coelomocytes. Sea urchins showed an increasing resilience to silver over time as ionic silver is accumulated in a steady way while nanoAg levels dropped between 48 and 96 h...
December 12, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930487/influence-of-chronic-heat-acclimatization-on-occupational-thermal-strain-in-tropical-field-conditions
#16
Matt B Brearley, Ian Norton, Daryl Rush, Michael Hutton, Steve Smith, Linda Ward, Hector Fuentes
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether non-heat acclimatized (NHA) emergency responders endure greater physiological and perceptual strain than heat acclimatized (HA) counterparts in tropical field settings. METHODS: Eight HA and eight NHA men urban search and rescue personnel had physiological and perceptual responses compared during the initial 4 hours shift of a simulated disaster in tropical conditions (ambient temperature 34.0 °C, 48% relative humidity, wet bulb globe temperature [WBGT] 31...
December 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921174/spatiotemporal-variations-of-extreme-low-temperature-for-emergency-transport-a-nationwide-observational-study
#17
Daisuke Onozuka, Akihito Hagihara
Although recent studies have investigated the effect of extreme heat on emergency transport, few have investigated the spatiotemporal variations of extreme low temperature for emergency transport on a national scale. Data pertaining to emergency ambulance transport and weather variation in the 47 prefectures of Japan between 2007 and 2010 were obtained. Nonlinear and delayed relationships between temperature and morbidity were assessed using a two-stage analysis. First, a Poisson regression analysis allowing for overdispersion in a distributed lag nonlinear model was used to estimate the prefecture-specific effects of temperature on morbidity...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919173/carbon-monoxide-poisoning-during-camping-in-korea
#18
Youn-Jung Kim, Chang Hwan Sohn, Bum Jin Oh, Kyoung Soo Lim, Won Young Kim
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology and characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during camping in Korea. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study on patients with unintentional camping-related CO poisoning who were admitted to the emergency department (ED) from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014. News reports about incidents of camping-related CO poisoning were collected using news search engines...
December 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899808/autoimmunity-to-hsp60-during-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#19
M E Şelli, G Wick, D C Wraith, A C Newby
Adaptive immunity has been implicated in adipose tissue inflammation, obesity and its adverse metabolic consequences. No obesity-related autoantigen has yet been identified, although heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) has been implicated in other autoimmune diseases. We investigated whether feeding a high-fat diet to C57BL/6J mice would cause autoimmunity to HSP60 and whether immunomodulation with peptides from HSP60 would reverse the resulting obesity or metabolic dysfunction. Obese mice had higher circulating levels of HSP60 associated with increased T-lymphocyte proliferation responses and the emergence of circulating IgG1 and IgG2c antibody levels against HSP60...
February 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899318/new-wrinkling-substrate-assay-reveals-traction-force-fields-of-leader-and-follower-cells-undergoing-collective-migration
#20
Sho Yokoyama, Tsubasa S Matsui, Shinji Deguchi
Physical forces play crucial roles in coordinating collective migration of epithelial cells, but details of such force-related phenomena remain unclear partly due to the lack of robust methodologies to probe the underlying force fields. Here we develop a method for fabricating silicone substrates that detect cellular traction forces with a high sensitivity. Specifically, a silicone elastomer is exposed to oxygen plasma under heating. Removal of the heat shrinks the substrate so as to reduce its critical buckling strain in a spatially uniform manner...
January 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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