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cytochrome reductase

C G Hart, B E Voelz, K E Brockus, C O Lemley
Production from the corpus luteum (CL) and/or hepatic steroid inactivation impacts peripheral concentrations of P4, which can alter reproductive performance. Our primary objective was to examine hepatic steroid inactivating enzymes, portal blood flow, and luteal blood perfusion at 10 days post-insemination in pregnant versus non-pregnant beef and dairy cows. Twenty early lactation Holstein cows and 20 lactating commercial beef cows were utilized for this study. At day 10 post-insemination, hepatic portal blood flow and CL blood perfusion were measured via Doppler ultrasonography...
March 14, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Marjolein Drent, Petal Wijnen, Aalt Bast
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fibrosing interstitial pneumonias are associated with various stages of fibrosis. The cause of this group of syndromes remains largely unknown. For most of these diseases, a genetic basis, environmental factors and certain triggers have been suggested as possible risk factors. Various studies have found an association between genetic polymorphisms, or the presence of certain variant alleles, and the occurrence and/or progression of interstitial pneumonias of unknown origin...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Mohamed M Ahmed, Samir A El-Shazly, Mohamed E Alkafafy, Alaa A Mohamed, Ahmed A Mousa
This study aimed to investigate the protective potential of Royal jelly (RJ) against cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular dysfunction in rats. Thirty-five adult male Wistar rats were assigned into five groups. G I; (control) injected intraperitoneally with saline, G II injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of CdCl2 (1 mg/kg BW), G III received RJ (100 mg/kg BW/day) orally, G IV was pre-treated with RJ for 1 week then, treated with CdCl2 , and G V was co-treated with RJ and CdCl2 . After day 56, serum and tissue samples were collected and analysed...
March 12, 2018: Andrologia
Yujia Zhao, Jingjing Fan, Chen Wang, Xudong Feng, Chun Li
Oleanolic acid is a plant-derived pentacyclic triterpenoid compound with various biological activities. Recently, biosynthesis of oleanolic acid in microbes has been demonstrated as a promising and green way, but the production is too low for industrialization. To improve oleanolic acid production, this study constructed a novel pathway for biosynthesis of oleanolic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by improving the pairing efficiency between cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and reductase. Furthermore, to improve the transcriptional efficiency of heterologous genes, the cellular galactose regulatory network was reconstructed by knocking out galactose metabolic genes GAL80 and GAL1...
February 23, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Amelia Nathania Dong, Yan Pan, Uma Devi Palanisamy, Beow Chin Yiap, Nafees Ahemad, Chin Eng Ong
Genetic polymorphism of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes particularly affects CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 to a functionally relevant extent, and it is therefore crucial to elucidate the enzyme kinetic and molecular basis for altered catalytic activity of these allelic variants. This study explored the expression and function of the reported alleles CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*10, CYP2D6*17, CYP2C19*23, CYP2C19*24, and CYP2C19*25 with respect to gene polymorphisms. Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) was carried out to generate these six alleles...
March 10, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Małgorzata Jamka, Anita Arslanow, Annika Bohner, Marcin Krawczyk, Susanne N Weber, Frank Grünhage, Frank Lammert, Caroline S Stokes
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Common genetic variations in vitamin D metabolism are associated with liver stiffness. Whether these genes are implicated in hepatic steatosis remains unclear. Here we aimed to analyse the association of common vitamin D pathway gene variants with liver steatosis. METHODS: Liver steatosis was assessed non-invasively in 241 patients with chronic liver conditions by controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). The following polymorphisms were genotyped using TaqMan assays: group-specific component (GC) rs7041, 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7) rs12785878, cytochrome P450 2R1 (CYP2R1) rs10741657, -vitamin D receptor (VDR) rs7974353...
March 7, 2018: Digestion
Debjit Das, Mahammed Moniruzzaman, Soumalya Mukhopadhyay, Samya Karan, Adity Sarbajna, Suman Bhusan Chakraborty
Present study investigates the effect of metal accumulation on antioxidant level and mitochondrial enzymes function in muscle of Oreochromis mossambicus. Metal accumulation in muscle upregulated stress marker malondialdehyde and the activity of different antioxidant enzymes with no significant alteration in glutathione system. Metal exposure to fish muscle decreased the activity of mitochondrial enzymes. AMP deaminase, aldolase, cytochrome C oxidase and lipoamide reductase showed positive correlation with acetylcholinesterase, glutathione reductase, reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase, but negative correlation with superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance...
March 2, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Raika Yamagiwa, Takuya Kurahashi, Mariko Takeda, Mayuho Adachi, Hiro Nakamura, Hiroyuki Arai, Yoshitsugu Shiro, Hitomi Sawai, Takehiko Tosha
Membrane-integrated nitric oxide reductase (NOR) reduces nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N2 O) with protons and electrons. This process is essential for the elimination of the cytotoxic NO that is produced from nitrite (NO2 - ) during microbial denitrification. A structure-guided mutagenesis of NOR is required to elucidate the mechanism for NOR-catalyzed NO reduction. We have already solved the crystal structure of cytochrome c-dependent NOR (cNOR) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, we then constructed its expression system using cNOR-gene deficient and wild-type strains for further functional study...
February 27, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Nathalie Gonska, David Young, Riki Yuki, Takuya Okamoto, Tamao Hisano, Svetlana Antonyuk, S Samar Hasnain, Kazumasa Muramoto, Yoshitsugu Shiro, Takehiko Tosha, Pia Ädelroth
Bacterial nitric oxide reductases (NORs) catalyse the reduction of NO to N2 O and H2 O. NORs are found either in denitrification chains, or in pathogens where their primary role is detoxification of NO produced by the immune defense of the host. Although NORs belong to the heme-copper oxidase superfamily, comprising proton-pumping O2 -reducing enzymes, the best studied NORs, cNORs (cytochrome c-dependent), are non-electrogenic. Here, we focus on another type of NOR, qNOR (quinol-dependent). Recombinant qNOR from Neisseria meningitidis, a human pathogen, purified from Escherichia coli, showed high catalytic activity and spectroscopic properties largely similar to cNORs...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Prabhakar S Kedar, Vinod Gupta, Prashant Warang, Ashish Chiddarwar, Manisha Madkaikar
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cause of recessive congenital methemoglobinemia (RCM) in Indian families and to identify molecular defect associated with RCM. METHODS: Eight cases of RCM have been addressed to our laboratory in order to investigate the cause of cyanosis associated with genetic disorders. NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase (cytb5r) enzyme activities were measured by standard methods, and molecular analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by DNA sequencing...
February 27, 2018: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Debashis Ghosh, Chinaza Egbuta, Jessica Lo
Cytochrome P450 aromatase (AROM) catalyzes the biosynthesis of estrogen from androgen. Previously crystal structures of human AROM in complex with the substrate androstenedione, and inhibitors exemestane, as well as the newly designed steroidal compounds, have been reported. Here we report the first crystal structure of testosterone complex of human placental AROM. Testosterone binds at the androgen-specific heme distal pocket. The polar and hydrophobic interactions with the surrounding residues resemble the interactions observed for other ligands...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Samuel L Freeman, Anne Martel, Juliette Devos, Jaswir Basran, Emma L Raven, Gordon C K Roberts
Electron transfer in all living organisms critically relies on formation of complexes between the proteins involved. The function of these complexes requires specificity of the interaction to allow for selective electron transfer but also a fast turnover of the complex and they are therefore often transient in nature, making them challenging to study. Here, using small-angle neutron scattering with contrast matching with deuterated protein, we report the solution structure of the electron transfer complex between cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and its electron transfer partner cytochrome c...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Viola Krukenberg, Dietmar Riedel, Harald R Gruber-Vodicka, Pier Luigi Buttigieg, Halina E Tegetmeyer, Antje Boetius, Gunter Wegener
The sulfate-dependent, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is an important sink for methane in marine environments. It is carried out between anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) living in syntrophic partnership. In this study, we compared the genomes, gene expression patterns and ultrastructures of three phylogenetically different microbial consortia found in hydrocarbon-rich environments under different temperature regimes: ANME-1a/HotSeep-1 (60°C), ANME-1a/Seep-SRB2 (37°C) and ANME-2c/Seep-SRB2 (20°C)...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Mayra A Borrero Landazabal, Aurora L Carreño Otero, Vladimir V Kouznetsov, Jonny E Duque Luna, Stelia C Mendez-Sanchez
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are responsible for dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus transmission in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. Due to the absence of vaccines or antiviral drugs for human treatment, the majority of control strategies are targeted at Ae. aegypti elimination. Our research on mosquito control insecticidal agents has previously shown that the alkaloid girgensohnine and its analogues (α-aminonitriles) present in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vivo insecticidal activity against Ae...
January 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Hiromasa Imaishi, Tatsushi Goto
Chlorpyrifos (CPS) is a broad-spectrum organophosphate insecticide that is neurotoxic in humans. Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) is a toxic metabolite of CPS that is produced by CYP2B6. In this study, we examined the variability of CPS metabolism resulting from single-nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP2B6. Wild-type CYP2B6 (CYP2B6.1) and two variants each with a single amino acid substitution: CYP2B6.5 (R487C) and CYP2B6.8 (K139E) were co-expressed together with human NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase in Escherichia coli (E...
January 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Xiulong Shen, Charles H Laber, Ujjal Sarkar, Fabio Gallazzi, Kevin M Johnson, Nathaniel Guy Mahieu, Roman Hillebrand, Tarra Fuchs-Knotts, Charles L Barnes, Gary A Baker, Kent S Gates
Hypoxia-selective cytotoxins (HSCs) seek to exploit the oxygen-poor nature of tumor tissue for therapeutic gain. Typically, HSCs require activation by one-electron bioreductive enzymes such as NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase (CYPOR). Thus, successful clinical deployment of HSCs may be facilitated by the development and implementation of diagnostic probes that detect the presence of relevant bioreductive enzymes in tumor tissue. The work described here develops analogs of the well-studied HSC tirapazamine (3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-di-N-oxide, TPZ) as profluorescent substrates of the one-electron reductases involved in bioactivation of HSCs...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
P V Ershov, Yu V Mezentsev, E O Yablokov, L A Kalushskiy, A V Florinskaya, A V Svirid, A A Gilep, S A Usanov, A E Medvedev, A S Ivanov
Cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase systems exist basically in all living organisms, where they perform various important functions. The coordinated functioning of these systems involves many proteins participating in different protein-protein interactions (PPI). Previously, we have found that the endogenous non-peptide bioregulator isatin (indoledione-2,3), synthesized from indole by means of certain cytochromes P450 (e.g. P450 2E1, P450 2C19, P450 2A6) regulates affinity of some PPI. In this work, an attempt has been undertaken to register a direct interaction of isatin with a set of different proteins related to the functioning of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase: five isoforms of cytochromes P450, two isoforms of cytochrome b5, cytochrome P450 reductase, adrenodoxin, adrenodoxin reductase and ferrochelatase...
January 2018: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
E J Fleming, T Woyke, A R Donatello, M M M Kuypers, A Sczyrba, S Littmann, D Emerson
Leptothrix ochracea is known for producing large volumes of iron-oxyhydroxide sheaths that alter wetland biogeochemistry. For over a century, these delicate structures have fascinated microbiologists and geoscientists. Because L. ochracea still resists long-term in vitro culture, the debate regarding its metabolic classification dates back to 1885. We developed a novel culturing technique for L. ochracea using in situ natural waters, and coupled this with single cell genomics and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrophotometry (nanoSIMS) to probe L...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Agata Hanna Bryk, Ewa Wypasek, Krzysztof Plens, Magdalena Awsiuk, Anetta Undas
INTRODUCTION: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes encoding proteins involved in metabolism and action of vitamin K antagonists (VKA) affect anticoagulation stability. We investigated how those polymorphisms influence bleeding rates in patients following venous thromboembolism (VTE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 324 patients following unprovoked VTE, 143 (44%) on warfarin and 181 (56%) on acenocoumarol, we recorded bleedings within the preceding 24 months...
February 9, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Huihui Fu, Lulu Liu, Ziyang Dong, Shupan Guo, Haichun Gao
Iron, a major protein cofactor, is essential for most organisms but can be toxic simultaneously. Iron homeostasis thus has to be effectively maintained under a range of iron regimes. This may be particularly true with Shewanella oneidensis, a representative of dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria (DMRB) capable of respiring a variety of chemicals as electron acceptors (EAs), including iron ores. Although iron respiration and its regulation have been extensively studied in this bacterium, how iron homeostasis is maintained remains largely unknown...
February 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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