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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938192/idh2-deficiency-increases-the-liver-susceptibility-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-increased-mitochondrial-oxidative-injury
#1
Sang Jun Han, Hong Seok Choi, Jee In Kim, Jeen-Woo Park, Kwon Moo Park
Mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) is a major producer of mitochondrial NADPH, required for glutathione (GSH)-associated mitochondrial antioxidant systems including glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR). Here, we investigated the role of IDH2 in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (HIR)-associated mitochondrial injury using Idh2-knockout (Idh2(-/-)) mice and wild-type (Idh2(+/+)) littermates. Mice were subjected to either 60min of partial liver ischemia or sham-operation...
September 8, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937159/duodenal-cytochrome-b-cybrd1-ferric-reductase-functional-studies-in-cells
#2
F Schlottmann, M Vera-Aviles, G O Latunde-Dada
Dietary non-heme ferric iron is reduced by the ferric reductase enzyme, duodenal cytochrome b (Dcytb), before absorption by the divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs10455 mutant) that is located in the last exon of the Dcytb gene was reported in C282Y haemochromatosis HFE subjects. The present work therefore investigated the phenotype of this mutant Dcytb in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. These cultured cells were transfected with either wild type (WT) or the SNP vector plasmids of Dcytb...
September 22, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932888/assessment-of-molecular-detection-of-anaerobic-ammonium-oxidizing-anammox-bacteria-in-different-environmental-samples-using-pcr-primers-based-on-16s-rrna-and-functional-genes
#3
Ping Han, Uli Klümper, Alex Wong, Meng Li, Jih-Gaw Lin, Zhexue Quan, Martin Denecke, Ji-Dong Gu
Eleven published PCR primer sets for detecting genes encoding 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), hydrazine oxidoreductase (HZO), cytochrome cd 1-containing nitrite reductase (NirS), and hydrazine synthase subunit A (HzsA) of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria were assessed for the diversity and abundance of anammox bacteria in samples of three environments: wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), wetland of Mai Po Nature Reserve (MP), and the South China Sea (SCS). Consistent phylogenetic results of three biomarkers (16S rRNA, hzo, and hzsA) of anammox bacteria were obtained from all samples...
September 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931395/effect-of-cell-permeability-and-dehydrogenase-expression-on-octane-activation-by-cyp153a6-based-whole-cell-escherichia-coli-catalysts
#4
Bronwyn E White, Caryn J Fenner, Martha S Smit, Susan T L Harrison
BACKGROUND: The regeneration of cofactors and the supply of alkane substrate are key considerations for the biocatalytic activation of hydrocarbons by cytochrome P450s. This study focused on the biotransformation of n-octane to 1-octanol using resting Escherichia coli cells expressing the CYP153A6 operon, which includes the electron transport proteins ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase. Glycerol dehydrogenase was co-expressed with the CYP153A6 operon to investigate the effects of boosting cofactor regeneration...
September 20, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925551/clade-ii-nitrous-oxide-respiration-of-wolinella-succinogenes-depends-on-the-nosg-c1-c2-h-electron-transport-module-nosb-and-a-rieske-cytochrome-bc-complex
#5
Sascha Hein, Samantha Witt, Jörg Simon
Microbial reduction of nitrous oxide (N2 O) is an environmentally significant process in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. However, it has been recognized only recently that the gene encoding N2 O reductase (nosZ) is organized in varying genetic contexts, thereby defining clade I (or "typical") and clade II (or "atypical") N2 O reductases and nos gene clusters. This study addresses the enzymology of the clade II Nos system from Wolinella succinogenes, a nitrate-ammonifying and N2 O-respiring Epsilonproteobacterium that contains a cytochrome c N2 O reductase (cNosZ)...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919450/seasonal-expression-of-p450c17-and-5%C3%AE-reductase-2-in-the-scented-gland-of-male-muskrats-ondatra-zibethicus
#6
Wentao Han, Wenqian Xie, Yan Zhang, Fengwei Zhang, Haolin Zhang, Yingying Han, Zhengrong Yuan, Qiang Weng
Cytochrome P450 17A1 (P450c17) is the key enzyme required for the production of androgenic sex steroids by converting progestogens to androgens. 5α-reductases are enzymes that convert testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which has a greater affinity for androgen receptors (AR) and stronger action than T. Our previous studies revealed that the scented glands of male muskrats expressed AR during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. To further seek evidence of the activities of androgens in scented glands, the expression patterns of P450c17 and 5α-reductase 2 were investigated in the scented glands of male muskrats during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons...
September 14, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918527/alterations-in-epididymal-proteomics-and-antioxidant-activity-of-mice-exposed-to-fluoride
#7
Zilong Sun, Sujuan Li, Yuxiang Yu, Hongyu Chen, Mohammad Mehdi Ommati, Ram Kumar Manthari, Ruiyan Niu, Jundong Wang
It is well known that high fluoride results in low fertility. Epididymis is the important place for spermatozoa maturation, which is essential for successful fertilization. In the previous studies, fluoride was reported to damage the epididymal structure of mouse and rabbit. However, the mechanism underlying sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced epididymal toxicity has not yet been well elucidated. The aim of this study is to explore the global protein alterations in epididymis of mice exposed to NaF using the iTRAQ technique...
September 16, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918158/recombinant-expression-and-characterization-of-lucilia-cuprina-cyp6g3-activity-and-binding-properties-toward-multiple-pesticides
#8
Matthew J Traylor, Jong-Min Baek, Katelyn E Richards, Roberto Fusetto, W Huang, Peter Josh, Zhengzhong Chen, Padma Bollapragada, Richard A J O'Hair, Philip Batterham, Elizabeth M J Gillam
The Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, is a primary cause of sheep flystrike and a major agricultural pest. Cytochrome P450 enzymes have been implicated in the resistance of L. cuprina to several classes of insecticides. In particular, CYP6G3 is a L. cuprina homologue of Drosophila melanogaster CYP6G1, a P450 known to confer multi-pesticide resistance. To investigate the basis of resistance, a bicistronic Escherichia coli expression system was developed to co-express active L. cuprina CYP6G3 and house fly (Musca domestica) P450 reductase...
September 13, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916473/down-regulation-of-nox2-activity-in-phagocytes-mediated-by-atm-kinase-dependent-phosphorylation
#9
Sylvain Beaumel, Antoine Picciocchi, Franck Debeurme, Corinne Vivès, Anne-Marie Hesse, Myriam Ferro, Didier Grunwald, Heather Stieglitz, Pahk Thepchatri, Susan M E Smith, Franck Fieschi, Marie José Stasia
NADPH oxidases (NOX) have many biological roles, but their regulation to control production of potentially toxic ROS molecules remains unclear. A previously identified insertion sequence of 21 residues (called NIS) influences NOX activity, and its predicted flexibility makes it a good candidate for providing a dynamic switch controlling the NOX active site. We constructed NOX2 chimeras in which NIS had been deleted or exchanged with those from other NOXs (NIS1, 3 and 4). All contained functional heme and were expressed normally at the plasma membrane of differentiated PLB-985 cells...
September 13, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910726/knockdown-of-nadph-cytochrome-p450-reductase-increases-the-susceptibility-to-carbaryl-in-the-migratory-locust-locusta-migratoria
#10
Xueyao Zhang, Junxiu Wang, Jiao Liu, Yahong Li, Xiaojian Liu, Haihua Wu, Enbo Ma, Jianzhen Zhang
BACKGROUND: NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) plays important roles in cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds, and participates in cytochrome P450-related detoxification of insecticides. However, the CPR from Locusta migratoria has not been well characterized and its function is still undescribed. RESULTS: The full-length of CPR gene from Locusta migratoria (LmCPR) was cloned by RT-PCR based on transcriptome information. The membrane anchor region, and 3 conserved domains (FMN binding domain, connecting domain, FAD/NADPH binding domain) were analyzed by bioinformatics analysis...
August 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904078/towards-a-systems-approach-to-human-cytochrome-p450-ensemble-interactions-between-cyp2d6-and-cyp2e1-and-their-functional-consequences
#11
Dmitri R Davydov, Nadezhda Y Davydova, John T Rodgers, Thomas H Rushmore, Jeffrey P Jones
Functional cross-talk among human drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450 through their association is a topic of emerging importance. Here we studied the interactions of human CYP2D6, a major metabolizer of psychoactive drugs, with one of the most prevalent human P450 enzymes, ethanol-inducible CYP2E1. Detection of P450-P450 interactions was accomplished through luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) between labeled proteins incorporated into human liver microsomes and the microsomes of insect cells containing NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase...
September 13, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885627/ecological-and-genomic-profiling-of-anaerobic-methane-oxidizing-archaea-in-a-deep-granitic-environment
#12
Kohei Ino, Alex W Hernsdorf, Uta Konno, Mariko Kouduka, Katsunori Yanagawa, Shingo Kato, Michinari Sunamura, Akinari Hirota, Yoko S Togo, Kazumasa Ito, Akari Fukuda, Teruki Iwatsuki, Takashi Mizuno, Daisuke D Komatsu, Urumu Tsunogai, Toyoho Ishimura, Yuki Amano, Brian C Thomas, Jillian F Banfield, Yohey Suzuki
Recent single-gene-based surveys of deep continental aquifers demonstrated the widespread occurrence of archaea related to Candidatus Methanoperedens nitroreducens (ANME-2d) known to mediate anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). However, it is unclear whether ANME-2d mediates AOM in the deep continental biosphere. In this study, we found the dominance of ANME-2d in groundwater enriched in sulfate and methane from a 300-m deep underground borehole in granitic rock. A near-complete genome of one representative species of the ANME-2d obtained from the underground borehole has most of functional genes required for AOM and assimilatory sulfate reduction...
September 8, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876471/taxadiene-5%C3%AE-ol-is-a-minor-product-of-cyp725a4-when-expressed-in-escherichia-coli
#13
Laxmi Sagwan-Barkdoll, Aldwin M Anterola
CYP725A4 is a P450 enzyme from Taxus cuspidata that catalyzes the formation of taxadiene-5α-ol (T5α-ol) from taxadiene in paclitaxel biosynthesis. Past attempts expressing CYP725A4 in heterologous hosts reported the formation of 5(12)-oxa-3(11)-cyclotaxane (OCT) and/or 5(11)-oxa-3(11)-cyclotaxane (iso-OCT) instead of, or in addition to, T5α-ol. Here we report that T5α-ol is produced as a minor product by Escherichia coli expressing both taxadiene synthase (TS) and CYP725A4. The major products were OCT and iso-OCT, while trace amounts of unidentified monooxygenated taxanes were also detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
September 6, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868064/hydrogen-peroxide-is-involved-in-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-hemin-complex-induced-lateral-root-formation-in-tomato-seedlings
#14
Weiti Cui, Dan Zhu, Wenbiao Shen, Yudong Mei, Dekun Hu, Yujian Shi, Yong Ren, Wei Shen, Quan Gu, Daokun Xu, Liqin Huang
Although previous results showed that β-cyclodextrin-hemin complex (β-CDH) could induce tomato lateral root (LR) formation, the corresponding downstream messengers are still not fully understood. In this report, similar to the inducing effects of exogenously applied hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), we discovered that β-CDH elicited RBOH1 transcript upregulation, endogenous H2O2 accumulation, and thereafter tomato LR development. Above responses were sensitive to dimethylthiourea (DMTU) and ascorbic acid (AsA), two membrane-permeable scavengers of H2O2, showing that accumulation of H2O2 and LR formation were significantly blocked...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866653/strategies-for-the-construction-of-insect-p450-fusion-enzymes
#15
Lea Talmann, Jochen Wiesner, Andreas Vilcinskas
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are ubiquitous enzymes with a broad substrate spectrum. Insect P450s are known to catalyze reactions such as the detoxification of insecticides and the synthesis of hydrocarbons, which makes them useful for many industrial processes. Unfortunately, it is difficult to utilize P450s effectively because they must be paired with cytochrome P450 reductases (CPRs) to facilitate electron transfer from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). Furthermore, eukaryotic P450s and CPRs are membrane-anchored proteins, which means they are insoluble and therefore difficult to purify when expressed in their native state...
September 26, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859807/construction-and-functional-analysis-of-a-whole-cell-biocatalyst-based-on-cyp108n7
#16
Chao Guo, Zhong-Liu Wu
Cytochrome P450 enzymes are versatile biocatalysts with great potential in biotechnology. A new bacterial P450 was identified from the genome of Rhodococcus wratislaviensis NBRC 100605 and annotated as CYP108N7. The enzyme accepted the ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase from spinach as surrogate redox partners for improved electron transfer efficiency. It was heterologous expressed in Escherichia coli together with the redox partners and a glucose dehydrogenase which supplied the reduced cofactor NADPH. The resulting whole-cell biocatalyst catalyzed a variety of reactions including sulfoxidation, epoxidation, hydroxylation, demethylation and dehalogenation...
November 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854671/investigating-differences-in-the-ability-of-xpla-b-containing-bacteria-to-degrade-the-explosive-hexahydro-1-3-5-trinitro-1-3-5-triazine-rdx
#17
Dana Khdr Sabir, Nicolas Grosjean, Elizabeth L Rylott, Neil C Bruce
The xenobiotic hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a toxic explosive and environmental pollutant. This study examines three bacterial species that degrade RDX, using it as a sole source of nitrogen for growth. Although isolated from diverse geographical locations, the species contain near identical copies of genes encoding the RDX-metabolising cytochrome P450, XplA and accompanying reductase, XplB. Sequence analysis indicates a single evolutionary origin for xplA and xplB as part of a genomic island, which has been distributed around the world via horizontal gene transfer...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852040/engineering-of-versatile-redox-partner-fusions-that-support-monooxygenase-activity-of-functionally-diverse-cytochrome-p450s
#18
Patrick J Bakkes, Jan L Riehm, Tanja Sagadin, Ansgar Rühlmann, Peter Schubert, Stefan Biemann, Marco Girhard, Michael C Hutter, Rita Bernhardt, Vlada B Urlacher
Most bacterial cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s or CYPs) require two redox partner proteins for activity. To reduce complexity of the redox chain, the Bacillus subtilis flavodoxin YkuN (Y) was fused to the Escherichia coli flavodoxin reductase Fpr (R), and activity was tuned by placing flexible (GGGGS)n or rigid ([E/L]PPPP)n linkers (n = 1-5) in between. P-linker constructs typically outperformed their G-linker counterparts, with superior performance of YR-P5, which carries linker ([E/L]PPPP)5. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that ([E/L]PPPP)n linkers are intrinsically rigid, whereas (GGGGS)n linkers are highly flexible and biochemical experiments suggest a higher degree of separation between the fusion partners in case of long rigid P-linkers...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852004/orchestrated-domain-movement-in-catalysis-by-cytochrome-p450-reductase
#19
Samuel L Freeman, Anne Martel, Emma L Raven, Gordon C K Roberts
NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase is a multi-domain redox enzyme which is a key component of the P450 mono-oxygenase drug-metabolizing system. We report studies of the conformational equilibrium of this enzyme using small-angle neutron scattering, under conditions where we are able to control the redox state of the enzyme precisely. Different redox states have a profound effect on domain orientation in the enzyme and we analyse the data in terms of a two-state equilibrium between compact and extended conformations...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837661/contrasting-effects-of-copper-limitation-on-the-photosynthetic-apparatus-in-two-strains-of-the-open-ocean-diatom-thalassiosira-oceanica
#20
Anna A Hippmann, Nina Schuback, Kyung-Mee Moon, John P McCrow, Andrew E Allen, Leonard J Foster, Beverley R Green, Maria T Maldonado
There is an intricate interaction between iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) physiology in diatoms. However, strategies to cope with low Cu are largely unknown. This study unveils the comprehensive restructuring of the photosynthetic apparatus in the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica (CCMP1003) in response to low Cu, at the physiological and proteomic level. The restructuring results in a shift from light harvesting for photochemistry-and ultimately for carbon fixation-to photoprotection, reducing carbon fixation and oxygen evolution...
2017: PloS One
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