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cytochrome reductase

Chen-Sung Lin, Li-Tzu Liu, Liang-Hung Ou, Siao-Cian Pan, Chia-I Lin, Yau-Huei Wei
We investigated the role of mitochondrial function in the invasiveness of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, using paired primary SW480 and metastatic SW620 cells, and appraised the clinical relevance of the alteration of mtDNA copy number in 33 pairs of CRC specimens after surgical resection. Suppression of mitochondrial function was achieved by the exposure of cells to oligomycin A (OA) or by knockdown of mitochondrial transcriptional factor A (TFAM) to evaluate their effects on energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species, protein expression levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and invasive activity of CRC cells...
November 9, 2017: Oncology Reports
H Kolarova, J Krizova, M Hulkova, H Hansikova, H Hulkova, V Smid, J Zeman, T Honzik, M Tesarova
Tissue differentiation and proliferation throughout fetal development interconnect with changes in the Oxidative Phosphorylation System (OXPHOS) on the cellular level. Reevaluation of the expression data revealed a significant increase in COX4 and MTATP6 liver transcription levels after the 22(nd) gestational week (GW) which inspired us to characterize its functional impact. Specific activities of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), citrate synthase (CS), succinate-coenzyme Q reductase (SQR) and mtDNA determined by spectrophotometry and RT-PCR were studied in a set of 25 liver and 18 skeletal muscle samples at 13(th) to 29(th) GW...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
Zixuan Zhong, Liu Li, Peng Chang, Haiying Xie, Huiting Zhang, Yasuo Igarashi, Nannan Li, Feng Luo
This study provided analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Pleurotus ostreatus under the interaction with Dichomitus squalens and Trametes versicolor, which is valuable for exploration on the fungal defence system against stressful condition caused by interspecific antagonistic interaction. Our result showed significant upregulation of abundant defence-related genes encoding laccase, manganese peroxidase, aldo-keto reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, which all play important roles in oxidative stress-resistant response...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
Narae Jung, Ho Jeong Kwon, Hye Jin Jung
Glioblastoma stem cell targeted therapies have become a powerful strategy for the treatment of this deadliest brain tumor. We demonstrate for the first time that downregulation of mitochondrial ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein (UQCRB) inhibits the cancer stem cell-like properties in human glioblastoma cells. The synthetic small molecules targeting UQCRB significantly suppressed not only the self-renewal capacity such as growth and neurosphere formation, but also the metastatic potential such as migration and invasion of glioblastoma stem‑like cells (GSCs) derived from U87MG and U373MG at subtoxic concentrations...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
Rebecca Joynt, Ryan F Seipke
Streptomyces species and other Actinobacteria are ubiquitous in diverse environments worldwide and are the source of, or inspiration for, the majority of antibiotics. The genomic era has enhanced biosynthetic understanding of these valuable chemical entities and has also provided a window into the diversity and distribution of natural product biosynthetic gene clusters. Antimycin is an inhibitor of mitochondrial cytochrome c reductase and more recently was shown to inhibit Bcl-2/Bcl-XL-related anti-apoptotic proteins commonly overproduced by cancerous cells...
November 7, 2017: Microbiology
Alejandro K Samhan-Arias, Rui M Almeida, Susana Ramos, Cristina M Cordas, Isabel Moura, Carlos Gutierrez-Merino, José J G Moura
Cytochrome b5 is the main electron acceptor of Cytochrome b5 reductase. The interacting domain between both human proteins has been unidentified up to date and very little is known about its redox properties modulation upon complex formation. In this article, we characterized the protein/protein interacting interface by solution NMR and molecular docking. In addition, upon complex formation, we measured an increase of cytochrome b5 reductase flavin autofluorescence that was dependent upon the presence of cytochrome b5...
October 27, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Wei Zhang, Shihua Zhang, Meiling Zhang, Lige Yang, Baojing Cheng, Jianping Li, Anshan Shan
Deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are among the most toxicologically important Fusarium toxins commonly found in nature that lead to nephrotoxicity in animals. The present study investigated that the individual and combined effects of subcytotoxic DON (0.25 μM), ZEN (20 μM) and FB1 (10 μM) on oxidative stress and apoptosis in porcine kidney cells (PK15). In addition, the protective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against the toxicity of Fusarium toxins was also evaluated...
November 7, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
A E Galván, M C Chalón, L A Schurig-Briccio, R A Salomón, C J Minahk, R B Gennis, A Bellomio
Microcin J25 has two targets in sensitive bacteria, the RNA polymerase, and the respiratory chain through inhibition of cellular respiration. In this work, the effect of microcin J25 in E. coli mutants that lack the terminal oxidases cytochrome bd-I and cytochrome bo3 was analyzed. The mutant strains lacking cytochrome bo3 or cytochrome bd-I were less sensitive to the peptide. In membranes obtained from the strain that only expresses cytochrome bd-I a great ROS overproduction was observed in the presence of microcin J25...
October 28, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Marie Stiborová, Radek Indra, Eva Frei, Kateřina Kopečková, Heinz H Schmeiser, Tomáš Eckschlager, Vojtěch Adam, Zbyněk Heger, Volker M Arlt, Václav Martínek
Abstract: Ellipticine is an anticancer agent that forms covalent DNA adducts after enzymatic activation by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, mainly by CYP3A4. This process is one of the most important ellipticine DNA-damaging mechanisms for its antitumor action. Here, we investigated the efficiencies of human hepatic microsomes and human recombinant CYP3A4 expressed with its reductase, NADPH:CYP oxidoreductase (POR), NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase and/or cytochrome b5 in Supersomes™ to oxidize this drug...
2017: Monatshefte Für Chemie
Marie Stiborová, Radek Indra, Michaela Moserová, Lucie Bořek-Dohalská, Petr Hodek, Eva Frei, Klaus Kopka, Heinz H Schmeiser, Volker M Arlt
Abstract: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 is the most important enzyme activating and detoxifying the human carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). In the previous studies, we had shown that not only the canonic NADPH:CYP oxidoreductase (POR) can act as electron donor but also cytochrome b5 and its reductase, NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase. Here, we studied the role of the expression system used on the metabolites generated and the levels of DNA adducts formed by activated BaP. We used an eukaryotic and a prokaryotic cellular system (Supersomes, microsomes isolated from insect cells, and Bactosomes, a membrane fraction of Escherichia coli, each transfected with cDNA of human CYP1A1 and POR)...
2017: Monatshefte Für Chemie
Weiwu Jiang, Paramahamsa Maturu, Yanhong Wei Liang, Lihua Wang, Krithika Lingappan, Xanthi Couroucli
Hyperoxia contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that newborn transgenic mice carrying the human CYP1A1-Luc promoter will display transcriptional activation of the human CYP1A1 promoter in vivo upon exposure to hyperoxia, and that these mice will be less susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury and alveolar simplification than similarly exposed wild type (WT) mice. Newborn WT (CD-1) or transgenic mice carrying a 13.2 kb human CYP1A1 promoter and the luciferase (Luc) reporter gene (CYP1A1-luc) were maintained in room air or exposed to hyperoxia (85% O2) for 7-14 days...
October 31, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Shuang Bao, Xiangping Nie, Yang Liu, Chao Wang, Wenlong Li, Sijia Liu
As one of widely used drugs, Diclofenac (DCF) recently has been universally detected in aquatic environment and some negative effects derived from DCF exposure to mammals have been also reported. However, studies about its potential deleterious effects on non-target organisms like fish still require more investigation. In this study an ubiquitous small freshwater invader species in Southern of China, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), was employed as test organism. We firstly cloned the crucial partial sequences of nucleus transcriptional factor related genes pregnane X receptor (PXR) and its downstream genes, including P-glycoprotein (P-gp), cytochrome 3A (CYP3A), multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (TXR) in mosquito fish...
October 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Kateřina Lněničková, Hana Svobodová, Lenka Skálová, Martin Ambrož, Filip Novák, Petra Matoušková
1. Sesquiterpenes, constituents of plant essential oil, are popular bioactive compounds due to the positive effect on human health, but their potential toxicity and possible herb-drug interactions are often omitted. In our in vivo study, we followed up the effect of p.o. administration of two sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene oxide (CAO) and trans-nerolidol (NER) on various xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in mice liver and small intestine. 2. To spot the early effect of studied compounds, enzymatic activity and mRNA levels were assessed 6 and 24 h after single dose...
November 3, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Mirna Velki, Henriette Meyer-Alert, Thomas-Benjamin Seiler, Henner Hollert
The zebrafish as a test organism enables the investigation of effects on a wide range of biological levels from molecular level to the whole-organism level. The use of fish embryos represents an attractive model for studies aimed at understanding toxic mechanisms and the environmental risk assessment of chemicals. In the present study, a zebrafish (Danio rerio) in vivo model was employed in order to assess the effects of two commonly used pesticides, the insecticide diazinon and the herbicide diuron, on zebrafish early life stages...
October 28, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Ping Su, Hongyu Guan, Yifeng Zhang, Xing Wang, Linhui Gao, Yujun Zhao, Tianyuan Hu, Jiawei Zhou, Baowei Ma, Lichan Tu, Yuru Tong, Luqi Huang, Wei Gao
Tripterygium wilfordii produces not only ent-kaurene, which is an intermediate of gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis in flowering plants, but also 16α-hydroxy-ent-kaurane, whose physiological role has not been characterized. The two compounds are biosynthesized from the universal diterpenoid precursor (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) by diterpene synthases, which have been discovered and functionally characterized in T. wilfordii. Here, we described the functional characterization of four cytochrome P450 reductases (TwCPR) and one ent-kaurene oxidase (TwKO)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sarah A Abd El-Aal, Mai A Abd El-Fattah, Hanan S El-Abhar
Statins were reported to lower the Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) content upon their inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase enzyme and both are known to possess neuroprotective potentials; therefore, the aim is to assess the possible use of CoQ10 as an adds-on therapy to rosuvastatin to improve its effect using global I/R model. Rats were allocated into sham, I/R, rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg), CoQ10 (10 mg/kg) and their combination. Drugs were administered orally for 7 days before I/R. Pretreatment with rosuvastatin and/or CoQ10 inhibited the hippocampal content of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and boosted glutathione and superoxide dismutase...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Sundarraj Jayakumar, Raghavendra S Patwardhan, Debojyoti Pal, Babita Singh, Deepak Sharma, Vijay Kumar Kutala, Santosh Kumar Sandur
Mitocurcumin is a derivative of curcumin, which has been shown to selectively enter mitochondria. Here we describe the anti-tumor efficacy of mitocurcumin in lung cancer cells and its mechanism of action. Mitocurcumin, showed 25-50 fold higher efficacy in killing lung cancer cells as compared to curcumin as demonstrated by clonogenic assay, flow cytometry and high throughput screening assay. Treatment of lung cancer cells with mitocurcumin significantly decreased the frequency of cancer stem cells. Mitocurcumin increased the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreased the mitochondrial glutathione levels and induced strand breaks in the mitochondrial DNA...
November 3, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Peter S Dragovich, Fabio Broccatelli, Jinhua Chen, Peter Fan, Hoa Le, Weiguang Mao, Thomas H Pillow, Andrew G Polson, John Wai, Zijin Xu, Hui Yao, Donglu Zhang
The ability of various pyrrolobenzodiazepine(PBD)-containing cytotoxic compounds to function as hypoxia-activated prodrugs was assessed. These molecules incorporated a 1-methyl-2-nitro-1H-imidazole hypoxia-activated trigger (present in the clinically evaluated compound TH-302) in a manner that masked a reactive imine moiety required for cytotoxic activity. Incubation of the prodrugs with cytochrome P450-reductase under normoxic and hypoxic conditions revealed that some, but not all, were efficient substrates for the enzyme...
October 13, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Linda Boss, Ramona Oehme, Susan Billig, Claudia Birkemeyer, Gunhild Layer
Heme d1 is a modified tetrapyrrole playing an important role for denitrification by acting as the catalytically essential cofactor in the cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase of many denitrifying bacteria. In the course of heme d1 biosynthesis, the two propionate side chains on pyrrole rings A and B of the intermediate 12,18-didecarboxysiroheme are removed from the tetrapyrrole macrocycle. In the final heme d1 molecule, the propionate groups are replaced by two keto functions. Although it was speculated that the Radical SAM enzyme NirJ might be responsible for the removal of the propionate groups and introduction of the keto functions, this has not been shown experimentally, so far...
October 27, 2017: FEBS Journal
Matthias Misslinger, Fabio Gsaller, Peter Hortschansky, Christoph Müller, Franz Bracher, Michael J Bromley, Hubertus Haas
Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450) play essential roles in redox metabolism in all domains of life including detoxification reactions and sterol biosynthesis. The activity of P450s is fuelled by two electron-transferring mechanisms, heme-independent P450 reductase (CPR) and the heme-dependent cytochrome b5 (CYB5)/cytochrome b5 reductase (CB5R) system. In this study, we characterised the role and regulation of the cytochrome b5 CybE in the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Deletion of the CybE encoding gene (cybE) caused a severe growth defect in two different A...
November 15, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
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