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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346709/synthetic-%C3%AE-nitrostyrene-derivative-cyt-rx20-as-inhibitor-of-oral-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-tumor-growth-through-glutathione-suppression-and-reactive-oxygen-species-induction
#1
Yen-Yun Wang, Yuk-Kwan Chen, Ya-Ling Hsu, Wen-Chin Chiu, Chun-Hao Tsai, Stephen Chu-Sung Hu, Pei-Wen Hsieh, Shyng-Shiou F Yuan
BACKGROUND: The β-nitrostyrene family possesses anticancer properties. In this study, β-nitrostyrene derivative CYT-Rx20 (3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxy-β-methyl-β-nitrostyrene) was synthesized and investigated its anticancer activity in oral cancer. METHODS: Anticancer activity of CYT-Rx20 and the underlying mechanisms were analyzed using cell viability assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation assay, fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis, annexin V staining, comet assay, glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio, immunoblotting, soft agar assay, nude mice xenograft study, and immunohistochemistry...
March 27, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335548/study-of-different-variants-of-mo-enzyme-crarc-and-the-interaction-with-its-partners-crcytb5-r-and-crcytb5-1
#2
Alejandro Chamizo-Ampudia, Aurora Galvan, Emilio Fernandez, Angel Llamas
The mARC (mitochondrial Amidoxime Reducing Component) proteins are recently discovered molybdenum (Mo) Cofactor containing enzymes. They are involved in the reduction of several N-hydroxylated compounds (NHC) and nitrite. Some NHC are prodrugs containing an amidoxime structure or mutagens such as 6-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP). We have studied this protein in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (crARC). Interestingly, all the ARC proteins need the reducing power supplied by other proteins. It is known that crARC requires a cytochrome b₅ (crCytb5-1) and a cytochrome b₅ reductase (crCytb5-R) that form an electron transport chain from NADH to the substrates...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333392/the-biosynthesis-of-nitrous-oxide-in-the-green-alga-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#3
Maxence Plouviez, David Wheeler, Andy Shilton, Michael A Packer, Patricia A McLenachan, Emanuel Sanz-Luque, Francisco Ocaña-Calahorro, Emilio Fernández, Benoit Guieysse
Over the last decades, several studies have reported emissions of nitrous oxide (N2 O) from microalgae cultures and aquatic ecosystems characterized by a high level of algal activity (e.g. eutrophic lakes). As N2 O is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) and an ozone depleting pollutant, these findings suggest that large scale microalgae cultivation (and possibly, natural eutrophic ecosystems) could have significant environmental impacts. Using the model unicellular microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this study was conducted to investigate the molecular basis of microalgal N2 O synthesis...
March 23, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332314/the-mitochondrial-hinge-protein-uqcrh-is-a-novel-prognostic-factor-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#4
Eun-Ran Park, Sang-Bum Kim, Jee-San Lee, Yang-Hyun Kim, Dong-Hyoung Lee, Eung-Ho Cho, Sun-Hoo Park, Chul Ju Han, Bu-Yeo Kim, Dong Wook Choi, Young Do Yoo, Ami Yu, Jae Won Lee, Ja June Jang, Young Nyun Park, Kyung-Suk Suh, Kee-Ho Lee
Alterations in mitochondrial respiration contribute to the development and progression of cancer via abnormal biogenesis, including generation of reactive oxygen species. Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase hinge protein (UQCRH) consists of the cytochrome bc1 complex serving respiration in mitochondria. In the present study, we analyzed UQCRH abnormalities in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its association with clinical outcomes of patients. UQCRH expression in HCC was determined via semiquantitative and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of 96 surgically resected HCC tissues positive for hepatitis B virus surface antigen...
March 23, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317859/physiological-and-transcriptional-approaches-reveal-connection-between-nitrogen-and-manganese-cycles-in-shewanella-algae-c6g3
#5
Axel Aigle, Patricia Bonin, Chantal Iobbi-Nivol, Vincent Méjean, Valérie Michotey
To explain anaerobic nitrite/nitrate production at the expense of ammonium mediated by manganese oxide (Mn(IV)) in sediment, nitrate and manganese respirations were investigated in a strain (Shewanella algae C6G3) presenting these features. In contrast to S. oneidensis MR-1, a biotic transitory nitrite accumulation at the expense of ammonium was observed in S. algae during anaerobic growth with Mn(IV) under condition of limiting electron acceptor, concomitantly, with a higher electron donor stoichiometry than expected...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306139/the-tir-bb-loop-mimetic-as-1-prevents-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-hepatic-insulin-resistance-by-inhibiting-nlrp3-asc-inflammasome-activation
#6
Xiaolu Wang, Yun Gao, Juan Song, Chao Tang, Man Wang, Linli Que, Li Liu, Guoqing Zhu, Qi Chen, Yong Yao, Yong Xu, Jiantao Li, Yuehua Li
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by excessive intracellular lipid accumulation, inflammation and hepatic insulin resistance. Considering the rising prevalence of NASH worldwide, it is urgent to find novel interventional approaches. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, generated and released from the Kupffer cells, is considered to be an initiating event in NASH. AS-1, a synthetic low-molecule mimetic to myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), has been reported to disrupt the IL-1R-MyD88 interaction...
March 17, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294491/an-efficient-chemoenzymatic-synthesis-of-dihydroartemisinic-aldehyde
#7
Melodi Demiray, Xiaoping Tang, Thomas Wirth, Juan A Faraldos, Rudolf K Allemann
Artemisinin from the plant Artemisia annua is the most potent pharmaceutical for the treatment of malaria. In the plant, the sesquiterpene cyclase amorphadiene synthase, a cytochrome-dependent CYP450, and an aldehyde reductase convert farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) into dihydroartemisinic aldehyde (DHAAl), which is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of artemisinin and a semisynthetic precursor for its chemical synthesis. Here, we report a chemoenzymatic process that is able to deliver DHAAl using only the sesquiterpene synthase from a carefully designed hydroxylated FDP derivative...
March 13, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286729/a-novel-cytochrome-p450-cyp3201b1-is-involved-in-r-mandelonitrile-biosynthesis-in-a-cyanogenic-millipede
#8
Takuya Yamaguchi, Yasumasa Kuwahara, Yasuhisa Asano
Specialized arthropods and more than 2500 plant species biosynthesize hydroxynitriles and release hydrogen cyanide as a defensive mechanism. The millipede Chamberlinius hualienensis accumulates (R)-mandelonitrile as a cyanide precursor. Although biosynthesis of hydroxynitriles in cyanogenic plants and in an insect are extensively studied, (R)-mandelonitrile biosynthesis in cyanogenic millipedes has remained unclear. In this study, we identified the biosynthetic precursors of (R)-mandelonitrile and an enzyme involved in (R)-mandelonitrile biosynthesis...
March 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285895/transcriptomic-analysis-of-basidiocarp-development-in-ustilago-maydis-dc-cda
#9
C G León-Ramírez, J L Cabrera-Ponce, D Martínez-Soto, A Sánchez-Arreguin, E T Aréchiga-Carvajal, J Ruiz-Herrera
Previously, we demonstrated that when Ustilago maydis (DC) Cda., a phytopathogenic basidiomycete and the causal agent of corn smut, is grown in the vicinity of maize embryogenic calli in a medium supplemented with the herbicide Dicamba, it developed gastroid-like basidiocarps. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the basidiocarp development by the fungus, we proceeded to analyze the transcriptome of the process, identifying a total of 2002 and 1064 differentially expressed genes at two developmental stages, young and mature basidiocarps, respectively...
March 7, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285348/n-adamantyl-4-methylthiazol-2-amine-attenuates-glutamate-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-the-brain
#10
Seung-Ju Yang, Eun-A Kim, Min-Jun Chang, Jiae Kim, Jung-Min Na, Soo Young Choi, Sung-Woo Cho
In this study, we explored the possible mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective and anti-oxidative effects of N-adamantyl-4-methylthiazol-2-amine (KHG26693) against in vivo glutamate-induced toxicity in the rat cerebral cortex. Our results showed that pretreatment with KHG26693 significantly attenuated glutamate-induced elevation of lipid peroxidation, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon gamma, IFN-γ, interleukin-1β, nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, NADPH oxidase, caspase-3, calpain activity, and Bax...
March 11, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276499/mutagenesis-and-redox-partners-analysis-of-the-p450-fatty-acid-decarboxylase-oletje
#11
Bo Fang, Huifang Xu, Yi Liu, Fengxia Qi, Wei Zhang, Hui Chen, Cong Wang, Yilin Wang, Wenxia Yang, Shengying Li
The cytochrome P450 enzyme OleTJE from Jeotgalicoccus sp. ATCC 8456 is capable of converting free long-chain fatty acids into α-alkenes via one-step oxidative decarboxylation in presence of H2O2 as cofactor or using redox partner systems. This enzyme has attracted much attention due to its intriguing but unclear catalytic mechanism and potential application in biofuel production. Here, we investigated the functionality of a select group of residues (Arg245, Cys365, His85, and Ile170) in the active site of OleTJE through extensive mutagenesis analysis...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274101/enhanced-purification-of-recombinant-rat-nadph-p450-reductase-by-using-a-hexahistidine-tag
#12
Hyoung-Goo Park, Young-Ran Lim, Songhee Han, Dabin Jeong, Donghak Kim
NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR) transfers electrons from NADPH to cytochrome P450 and heme oxygenase enzymes to support their catalytic activities. This protein is localized within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and utilizes FMN, FAD, and NADPH as cofactors. While NPR is essential toward enabling the biochemical and pharmacological analyses of P450 enzymes, its production as a recombinant purified protein requires a series of tedious efforts and a high cost due to the use of NADP⁺ in the affinity chromatography process...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273578/polarity-inversion-of-bioanode-for-biocathodic-reduction-of-aromatic-pollutants
#13
Hui Yun, Bin Liang, De-Yong Kong, Hao-Yi Cheng, Zhi-Ling Li, Ya-Bing Gu, Hua-Qun Yin, Ai-Jie Wang
The enrichment of specific pollutant-reducing consortium is usually required prior to the startup of biocathode bioelectrochemical system (BES) and the whole process is time consuming. To rapidly establish a non-specific functional biocathode, direct polar inversion from bioanode to biocathode is proposed in this study. Based on the diverse reductases and electron transfer related proteins of anode-respiring bacteria (ARB), the acclimated electrochemically active biofilm (EAB) may catalyze reduction of different aromatic pollutants...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265262/genomic-analysis-of-caldithrix-abyssi-the-thermophilic-anaerobic-bacterium-of-the-novel-bacterial-phylum-calditrichaeota
#14
Ilya V Kublanov, Olga M Sigalova, Sergey N Gavrilov, Alexander V Lebedinsky, Christian Rinke, Olga Kovaleva, Nikolai A Chernyh, Natalia Ivanova, Chris Daum, T B K Reddy, Hans-Peter Klenk, Stefan Spring, Markus Göker, Oleg N Reva, Margarita L Miroshnichenko, Nikos C Kyrpides, Tanja Woyke, Mikhail S Gelfand, Elizaveta A Bonch-Osmolovskaya
The genome of Caldithrix abyssi, the first cultivated representative of a phylum-level bacterial lineage, was sequenced within the framework of Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project. The genomic analysis revealed mechanisms allowing this anaerobic bacterium to ferment peptides or to implement nitrate reduction with acetate or molecular hydrogen as electron donors. The genome encoded five different [NiFe]- and [FeFe]-hydrogenases, one of which, group 1 [NiFe]-hydrogenase, is presumably involved in lithoheterotrophic growth, three other produce H2 during fermentation, and one is apparently bidirectional...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255462/profiling-proteins-in-the-hypothalamus-and-hippocampus-of-a-rat-model-of-premenstrual-syndrome-irritability
#15
Mingqi Qiao, Peng Sun, Yang Wang, Sheng Wei, Xia Wei, Chunhong Song, Fushun Wang, Jibiao Wu
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) refers to several physical and mental symptoms (such as irritability) commonly encountered in clinical gynaecology. The incidence of PMS has been increasing, attracting greater attention from medical fields. However, PMS pathogenesis remains unclear. This study employed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) for proteomic map analysis of the hypothalamus and hippocampus of rat models of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) irritability. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time of flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF-MS) was used to identify proteins possibly related with PMS irritability...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249567/a-reference-gene-set-for-sex-pheromone-biosynthesis-and-degradation-genes-from-the-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-based-on-genome-and-transcriptome-digital-gene-expression-analyses
#16
Peng He, Yun-Fei Zhang, Duan-Yang Hong, Jun Wang, Xing-Liang Wang, Ling-Hua Zuo, Xian-Fu Tang, Wei-Ming Xu, Ming He
BACKGROUND: Female moths synthesize species-specific sex pheromone components and release them to attract male moths, which depend on precise sex pheromone chemosensory system to locate females. Two types of genes involved in the sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation pathways play essential roles in this important moth behavior. To understand the function of genes in the sex pheromone pathway, this study investigated the genome-wide and digital gene expression of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation genes in various adult tissues in the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, which is a notorious vegetable pest worldwide...
March 1, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246887/effect-of-nacl-on-aerobic-denitrification-by-strain-achromobacter-sp-gad-3
#17
Mengyao Gui, Qian Chen, Jinren Ni
This paper presents the effect of NaCl on aerobic denitrification by a novel aerobic denitrifier strain Achromobacter sp. GAD-3. Results indicated that the aerobic denitrification process was inhibited by NaCl concentrations ≥20 g L(-1), leading to lower nitrate removal rates (1.67∼4.0 mg L(-1) h(-1)), higher nitrite accumulation (50.2∼87.4 mg L(-1)), and increasing N2O emission ratios (13∼72 mg L(-1)/mg L(-1)). Poor performance of aerobic denitrification at high salinity was attributed to the suppression of active microbial biomass and electron donating capacity of strain GAD-3...
March 1, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245791/24-epibrassinolide-stimulates-imidacloprid-detoxification-by-modulating-the-gene-expression-of-brassica-juncea-l
#18
Anket Sharma, Sharad Thakur, Vinod Kumar, Anup Kumar Kesavan, Ashwani Kumar Thukral, Renu Bhardwaj
BACKGROUND: Pesticides cause oxidative stress to plants and their residues persist in plant parts, which are a major concern for the environment as well as human health. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are known to protect plants from abiotic stress conditions including pesticide toxicity. The present study demonstrated the effects of seed-soaking with 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on physiological responses of 10-day old Brassica juncea seedlings grown under imidacloprid (IMI) toxicity. RESULTS: In the seedlings raised from EBR-treated seeds and grown under IMI toxicity, the contents of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion (O(...
February 28, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241869/de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-functional-annotation-and-differential-gene-expression-analysis-of-juvenile-and-adult-e-fetida-a-model-oligochaete-used-in-ecotoxicological-studies
#19
Michelle Thunders, Jo Cavanagh, Yinsheng Li
BACKGROUND: Earthworms are sensitive to toxic chemicals present in the soil and so are useful indicator organisms for soil health. Eisenia fetida are commonly used in ecotoxicological studies; therefore the assembly of a baseline transcriptome is important for subsequent analyses exploring the impact of toxin exposure on genome wide gene expression. RESULTS: This paper reports on the de novo transcriptome assembly of E. fetida using Trinity, a freely available software tool...
February 27, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235459/searching-for-the-low-affinity-ubiquinone-binding-site-in-cytochrome-bo3-from-escherichia-coli
#20
Sylvia K Choi, Myat T Lin, Hanlin Ouyang, Robert B Gennis
The cytochrome bo3 ubiquinol oxidase is one of three respiratory oxygen reductases in the aerobic respiratory chain of Escherichia coli. The generally accepted model of catalysis assumes that cyt bo3 contains two distinct ubiquinol binding sites: (i) a low affinity (QL) site which is the traditional substrate binding site; and (ii) a high affinity (QH) site where a "permanently" bound quinone acts as a cofactor, taking two electrons from the substrate quinol and passing them one-by-one to the heme b component of the enzyme which, in turn, transfers them to the heme o3/CuB active site...
February 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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