Read by QxMD icon Read

cytochrome reductase

Meghan MacKenzie, Richard Hall
PURPOSE: Knowledge of how alterations in pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics may affect drug therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) has received little study. We review the clinically relevant application of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics to drugs and conditions encountered in the ICU. SOURCE: We selected relevant literature to illustrate the important concepts contained within. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two main approaches have been used to identify genetic abnormalities - the candidate gene approach and the genome-wide approach...
October 17, 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Yusuf Haydar Ertekin, Burkay Yakar, Hülya Ertekin, Ayşegül Uludağ, Murat Tekin
BACKGROUND: Drugs represent one of the etiologic causes of acute rhabdomyolysis (AR) with drug-induced rhabdomyolysis most commonly associated with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. AR etiology can also result from the use of diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor. Cases of AR triggered by pantoprazole have never before been reported, although it has been observed that its inclusion in multiple drug therapies can result in muscle events...
December 2015: Drug Saf Case Rep
Koroush Khalighi, Gang Cheng, Seyedabbas Mirabbasi, Bahar Khalighi, Yin Wu, Wuqiang Fan
Warfarin therapy is complicated by its large inter-individual and intra-individual variability. Both genetic and non-genetic factors can affect warfarin therapy. This study aims to investigate the allele distribution of VKORC1, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19, contribution of different allele variants and possible gene-gene interaction on warfarin therapy. Four hundreds and ninety-two patients were enrolled and single nucleotide polymorphisms for vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1), cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 and cytochrome P450 CYP2C19 were genotyped...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Ignat Printsev, Daniel Curiel, Kermit L Carraway
The canonical function of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) system is to enforce quality control among membrane-associated proteins by targeting misfolded secreted, intra-organellar, and intramembrane proteins for degradation. However, increasing evidence suggests that ERAD additionally functions in maintaining appropriate levels of a subset of membrane-associated proteins. In this 'quantity control' capacity, ERAD responds to environmental cues to regulate the proteasomal degradation of specific ERAD substrates according to cellular need...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Membrane Biology
Xue-Jiao Chang, Chao-Qun Zheng, Yu-Wei Wang, Chuang Meng, Xiao-Lu Xie, Hai-Peng Liu
Gradually increasing atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) has caused an imbalance in carbonate chemistry and resulted in decreased seawater pH in marine ecosystems, termed seawater acidification. Anthropogenic seawater acidification is postulated to affect the physiology of many marine calcifying organisms. To understand the possible effects of seawater acidification on the proteomic responses of a marine crustacean brine shrimp (Artemia sinica) three groups of cysts were hatched and further raised in seawater at different pH levels (8...
October 7, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Tsan-Wan Chiu, Ying-Lun Chen, Chien-Yi Wu, Pei-Ling Yu, Ying-Hua Shieh, Bin Huang
BACKGROUND: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of the endogenous gaseous molecules promoting the production of nitric oxide (NO) which has cardioprotective functions. However, the role of the H2S-mediated protein S-nitrosoproteome and its subsequent physiological response remains unclear. METHODS: Endothelial cells EAhy 926 were treated with 50 μM of H2S for 2 hours. The NO bound S-nitrosoproteins were purified by a biotin-switch and then digested by trypsin. Resulting peptides from control and H2S treatment were separately labeled by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation 114/115, quantified by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry and analyzed by ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) software...
September 2016: Acta Cardiol Sin
Jessica A Lee, Christopher A Francis
Denitrifying bacteria play a critical role in the estuarine nitrogen cycle. Through the transformation of nitrate into nitrogen gas, these organisms contribute to the loss of bioavailable (i.e., fixed) nitrogen from low-oxygen environments such as estuary sediments. Denitrifiers have been shown to vary in abundance and diversity across the spatial environmental gradients that characterize estuaries, such as salinity and nitrogen availability; however, little is known about how their communities change in response to temporal changes in those environmental properties...
October 5, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Lai Peng, Stephanie Piekos, Grace L Guo, Xiao-Bo Zhong
The expression of phase-I drug metabolizing enzymes in liver changes dramatically during postnatal liver maturation. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is critical for bile acid and lipid homeostasis in liver. However, the role of FXR in regulating ontogeny of phase-I drug metabolizing genes is not clear. Hence, we applied RNA-sequencing to quantify the developmental expression of phase-I genes in both Fxr-null and control (C57BL/6) mouse livers during development. Liver samples of male C57BL/6 and Fxr-null mice at 6 different ages from prenatal to adult were used...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Fang Xie, Xinxin Ding, Qing-Yu Zhang
Oral administration is the most commonly used route for drug treatment. Intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated metabolism can eliminate a large proportion of some orally administered drugs before they reach systemic circulation, while leaving the passage of other drugs unimpeded. A better understanding of the ability of intestinal P450 enzymes to metabolize various clinical drugs in both humans and preclinical animal species, including the identification of the CYP enzymes expressed, their regulation, and the relative importance of intestinal metabolism compared to hepatic metabolism, is important for improving bioavailability of current drugs and new drugs in development...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Zhewang Lin, Min Dong, Yugang Zhang, Eunyoung Alisa Lee, Hening Lin
Diphthamide and the tRNA wobble uridine modifications both require diphthamide biosynthesis 3 (Dph3) protein as an electron donor for the iron-sulfur clusters in their biosynthetic enzymes. Here, using a proteomic approach, we identified Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytochrome b5 reductase (Cbr1) as a NADH-dependent reductase for Dph3. The NADH- and Cbr1-dependent reduction of Dph3 may provide a regulatory linkage between cellular metabolic state and protein translation.
October 3, 2016: Nature Chemical Biology
Julia M Kurth, José A Brito, Jula Reuter, Alexander Flegler, Tobias Koch, Thomas Franke, Eva-Maria Klein, Sam F Rowe, Julea N Butt, Kevin Denkmann, Inês A C Pereira, Margarida Archer, Christiane Dahl
The enzymes of the thiosulfate dehydrogenase (TsdA) family are wide-spread diheme c-type cytochromes. Here, redox carriers were studied mediating the flow of electrons arising from thiosulfate oxidation into respiratory or photosynthetic electron chains. In a number of organisms, including Thiomonas intermedia and Sideroxydans lithotrophicus the tsdA gene is immediately preceded by tsdB encoding for another diheme cytochrome. Spectrophotometric experiments in combination with enzymatic assays in solution showed that TsdB acts as an effective electron acceptor of TsdA in vitro when TsdA and TsdB originate from the same source organism...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Fuguo Shi, Xiaobing Li, Hong Pan, Li Ding
Rifampicin (RIF) is used in regimens for infections caused by Mycobacteria accompanied by serious adverse reactions. Rifampicin-quinone (RIF-Q) is a major autoxidation product of RIF. It is not clear whether RIF-Q plays a role in RIF induced adverse reactions. Investigation of the systemic exposure of RIF-Q is helpful to better understand the role of RIF-Q in RIF induced adverse reactions. In this study, a simple and reproducible high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method involving a procedure to prevent the RIF from oxidation for simultaneous quantification of RIF and RIF-Q in rat plasma has been developed and validated, and applied to elucidate the systemic exposure of RIF-Q in rats...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Claire Parage, Emilien Foureau, Franziska Kellner, Vincent Burlat, Samira Mahroug, Arnaud Lanoue, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Monica Arias Londono, Ines Teto Carqueijeiro, Audrey Oudin, Sebastien Besseau, Nicolas Papon, Gaelle Glévarec, Lucia Atehortua, Nathalie Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Benoit St-Pierre, Marc Clastre, Sarah O'Connor, Vincent Courdavault
Expansion of the biosynthesis of plant specialized metabolites notably results from the massive recruitment of cytochrome P450s that catalyze multiple types of conversion of biosynthetic intermediates. For catalysis, P450s require a two-electron transfer catalyzed by shared cytochrome P450 oxido-reductases (CPR), making these auxiliary proteins an essential component of specialized metabolism. CPR isoforms usually group into two distinct classes with different proposed roles, namely involvement in primary and basal specialized metabolisms for class I and inducible specialized metabolism for class II...
September 29, 2016: Plant Physiology
Frederic Melin, Hao Xie, Thomas Meyer, Young Ok Ahn, Robert B Gennis, Hartmut Michel, Petra Hellwig
Cytochrome cbb3 (also known as C-type) oxidases belong to the family of heme-copper terminal oxidases which couple at the end of the respiratory chain the reduction of molecular oxygen into water and the pumping of protons across the membrane. They are expressed most often at low pressure of O2 and they exhibit a low homology of sequence with the cytochrome aa3 (A-type) oxidases found in mitochondria. Their binuclear active site comprises a high-spin heme b3 associated with a CuB center. The protein also contains one low-spin heme b and 3 hemes c...
September 21, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Xiaoyang Xu, Aolin Zhang, Matthew S Halquist, Xinxu Yuan, Scott C Henderson, William L Dewey, Pin-Lan Li, Ningjun Li, Fan Zhang
Statins, 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, are the first-line medications prescribed for the prevention and treatment of coronary artery diseases. The efficacy of statins has been attributed not only to their systemic cholesterol-lowering actions but also to their pleiotropic effects that are unrelated to cholesterol reduction. These pleiotropic effects have been increasingly recognized as essential in statins therapy. This study was designed to investigate the pleiotropic actions of simvastatin, one of the most commonly prescribed statins, on macrophage cholesterol homeostasis with a focus on lysosomal free cholesterol egression...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Tahir Mehmood, Amara Maryam, He Zhang, Yongming Li, Muhammad Khan, Tonghui Ma
Deoxyelephantopin (DET), a naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactone present in Chinese medicinal herb, Elephantopus scaber has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory as well as anticancer effects in various cancer cells of human origin in vitro. However, the exact molecular mechanism underlying DET-induced apoptosis remains largely unexplored, particularly in human hepatocellular carcinoma G2 (HepG2) cells. In the present study, we found that DET inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner...
September 15, 2016: BioFactors
Tobias M Hedison, Sam Hay, Nigel S Scrutton
This perspective reviews single molecule and ensemble fluorescence spectroscopy studies of the three tissue specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoenzymes and the related diflavin oxidoreductase cytochrome P450 reductase. The focus is on the role of protein dynamics and the protein conformational landscape and we discuss how recent fluorescence-based studies have helped in illustrating how the nature of the NOS conformational landscape relates to enzyme turnover and catalysis.
September 9, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Mohammad Mahfuzul Haque, Sougata Sinha Ray, Dennis J Stuehr
The activity of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is triggered by calmodulin (CaM) binding and is often further regulated by phosphorylation at several positions in the enzyme. Phosphorylation at Ser(1179) occurs in response to diverse physiologic stimuli and increases the NO synthesis and cytochrome c reductase activities of eNOS, thereby enhancing its participation in biological signal cascades. Despite its importance, the mechanism by which Ser(1179) phosphorylation increases eNOS activity is not understood...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
A Kamali Sangani, A A Masoudi, R Vaez Torshizi
The objectives of the current study were to investigate the activity of the electron transport chain (ETC) complexes, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the sperm mitochondria of 2 Iranian slow- and fast-growing chickens, namely native and Aryan strains. In this study, semen of 133 roosters was analyzed by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). The roosters were categorized by sperm progressivity, as a low or high sperm motility phenotype. Mitochondrial complex I (NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase), II (succinate dehydrogenase), III (ubiquinol cytochrome C reductase), IV (cytochrome C oxidase) activity, ATP, and ROS production in sperm were assayed...
September 2, 2016: Poultry Science
Kristian Parey, Alistair J Fielding, Matthias Sörgel, Reinhard Rachel, Harald Huber, Christine Ziegler, Chitra Rajendran
The Crenarchaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis lives in symbiosis with Nanoarchaeum equitans providing essential cell components and nutrients to its symbiont. Ignicoccus hospitalis shows an intriguing morphology that points towards an evolutionary role in driving compartmentalization. Therefore, the bioenergetics of this archaeal host-symbiont system remains a pressing question. To date, the only electron acceptor described for I. hospitalis is elemental sulfur, but the organism comprises genes that encode for enzymes involved in nitrogen metabolism, e...
September 1, 2016: FEBS Journal
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"