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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910907/micrornas-modulate-adaption-to-multiple-abiotic-stresses-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#1
Xiang Gao, Fengge Zhang, Jinlu Hu, Wenkai Cai, Ge Shan, Dongsheng Dai, Kaiyao Huang, Gaohong Wang
MicroRNAs play an important role in abiotic stress responses in higher plants and animals, but their role in stress adaptation in algae remains unknown. In this study, the expression of identified and putative miRNAs in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction; some of the miRNAs (Cre-miR906-3p) were up-regulated, whereas others (Cre-miR910) were down-regulated when the species was subjected to multiple abiotic stresses. With degradome sequencing data, we also identified ATP4 (the d-subunit of ATP synthase) and NCR2 (NADPH: cytochrome P450 reductase) as one of the several targets of Cre-miR906-3p and Cre-miR910, respectively...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899849/statin-therapy-review-of-safety-and-potential-side-effects
#2
REVIEW
Satish Ramkumar, Ajay Raghunath, Sudhakshini Raghunath
BACKGROUND: Hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, commonly called statins, are some of the most commonly prescribed medications worldwide. Evidence suggests that statin therapy has significant mortality and morbidity benefit for both primary and secondary prevention from cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, concern has been expressed regarding the adverse effects of long term statin use. The purpose of this article was to review the current medical literature regarding the safety of statins...
November 2016: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890531/short-term-effects-of-diabetes-on-neurosteroidogenesis-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#3
Simone Romano, Nico Mitro, Silvia Diviccaro, Roberto Spezzano, Matteo Audano, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Donatella Caruso, Roberto Cosimo Melcangi
Diabetes may induce neurophysiological and structural changes in the central nervous system (i.e., diabetic encephalopathy). We here explored whether the levels of neuroactive steroids (i.e., neuroprotective agents) in the hippocampus may be altered by short-term diabetes (i.e., one month). To this aim, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry we observed that in the experimental model of the rat raised diabetic by streptozotocin injection, one month of pathology induced changes in the levels of several neuroactive steroids, such as pregnenolone, progesterone and its metabolites (i...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888364/in-vitro-reconstitution-of-the-cyclosporine-specific-p450-hydroxylases-using-heterologous-redox-partner-proteins
#4
Yue Sun, Li Ma, Dongfei Han, Lei Du, Fengxia Qi, Wei Zhang, Jingran Sun, Shan Huang, Eung-Soo Kim, Shengying Li
The cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) CYP-sb21 from Sebekia benihana and CYP-pa1 from Pseudonocardia autotrophica are able to hydroxylate the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA) in a regioselective manner, giving rise to the production of two hair-stimulating agents (with dramatically attenuated immunosuppressant activity), γ-hydroxy-N-methyl-L-Leu4-CsA (CsA-4-OH) and γ-hydroxy-N-methyl-L-Leu9-CsA (CsA-9-OH). Recently, the in vitro activity of CYP-sb21 was identified using several surrogate redox partner proteins...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879469/frequency-of-common-vkorc1-polymorphisms-and-their-impact-on-warfarin-dose-requirement-in-pakistani-population
#5
Aisha Qayyum, Muzammil Hasan Najmi, Qaisar Mansoor, Muhammad Irfan, Abdul Khaliq Naveed, Andleeb Hanif, Ali Raza Kazmi, Muhammad Ismail
Polymorphisms in vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) gene lead to interindividual variability in warfarin dose requirement. The characterization of genotype frequency distribution is required in different populations for construction of customized dosing algorithms to enhance the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of warfarin therapy. This study was carried out in Pakistani population to evaluate the contribution of common VKORC1 polymorphisms to warfarin therapy. A total of 550 stable patients taking warfarin were enrolled after medical history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations...
November 21, 2016: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872699/the-effects-of-fenvalerate-on-hepatic-and-cerebral-xenobiotic-metabolizing-enzymes-in-selenium-and-or-iodine-deficient-rats
#6
Aydan Caglayan, Belma Kocer-Gumusel, Pinar Erkekoglu, Filiz Hincal
OBJECTIVES: Particularly in developing countries, selenium and/or iodine deficiencies are encountered and use of pesticides in agriculture are not well-controlled. Fenvalerate is a pyrethroid insectide used in agriculture and has applications against a wide range of pests. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of fenvalerate on hepatic and cerebral xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities in the presence of iodine and/or selenium deficiency on a rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Iodine and/or selenium deficiency was induced by feeding three-week-old Wistar rats with a diet containing <0...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866976/protective-effect-of-rosiglitazone-against-acetaminophen-induced-acute-liver-injury-is-associated-with-down-regulation-of-hepatic-nadph-oxidases
#7
Jun-Xian Wang, Cheng Zhang, Lin Fu, Da-Gang Zhang, Bi-Wei Wang, Zhi-Hui Zhang, Yuan-Hua Chen, Yan Lu, Xi Chen, De-Xiang Xu
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of rosiglitazone (RSG), a synthetic PPAR-γ agonist, on acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver injury. Male CD-1 mice were injected with APAP (300mg/kg). Some mice were pretreated with RSG (20mg/kg) 48, 24 and 1h before APAP injection. As expected, RSG pretreatment alleviated APAP-induced acute liver injury...
November 17, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863990/cytochrome-p450-enzymes-but-not-nadph-oxidases-are-the-source-of-the-nadph-dependent-lucigenin-chemiluminescence-in-membrane-assays
#8
Flávia Rezende, Kim-Kristin Prior, Oliver Löwe, Ilka Wittig, Valentina Strecker, Franziska Moll, Valeska Helfinger, Frank Schnütgen, Nina Kurrle, Frank Wempe, Maria Walter, Sven Zukunft, Bert Luck, Ingrid Fleming, Norbert Weissmann, Ralf P Brandes, Katrin Schröder
: Measuring NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living tissues and cells is a constant challenge. All probes available display limitations regarding sensitivity, specificity or demand highly specialized detection techniques. In search for a presumably easy, versatile, sensitive and specific technique, numerous studies have used NADPH-stimulated assays in membrane fractions which have been suggested to reflect Nox activity. However, we previously found an unaltered activity with these assays in triple Nox knockout mouse (Nox1-Nox2-Nox4(-/-)) tissue and cells compared to wild type...
November 15, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863456/a-microplate-reader-based-method-to-quantify-nadh-cytochrome-b5-reductase-activity-for-diagnosis-of-recessive-congenital-methaemoglobinemia
#9
Prabhakar Kedar, Anand Desai, Prashant Warang, Roshan Colah
OBJECTIVES: Congenital methemoglobinemia due to NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase 3 (CYB5R3) deficiencies is an autosomal recessive disorder that occurs sporadically worldwide, A sensitive, accurate, and rapid analysis of NADH-CYB5R enzyme concentrations is necessary for the diagnosis of RCM. Here we present an alternative microplate method that is based on a standard 96-well microplate format and microplate reader that simplify the quantification of NADH-CYB5R activity. METHODS: TECAN (Infinite 200 PRO series) microplate reader with Tecan's proven Magellan™ software measured the NADH-CYB5R enzyme activity in 250 normal controls and previously diagnosed 25 cases of RCM due to NADH-CYB5R deficiency in the Indian population using 96-well microplates using 200 μl of total reaction mixture and also compared with standard spectrophotometric assay...
November 18, 2016: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857202/napb-in-excess-inhibits-growth-of-shewanella-oneidensis-by-dissipating-electrons-of-the-quinol-pool
#10
Miao Jin, Qianyun Zhang, Yijuan Sun, Haichun Gao
Shewanella, a group of ubiquitous bacteria renowned for respiratory versatility, thrive in environments where various electron acceptors (EAs) of different chemical and physiological characteristics coexist. Despite being extensively studied, we still know surprisingly little about strategies by which multiple EAs and their interaction define ecophysiology of these bacteria. Previously, we showed that nitrite inhibits growth of the genus representative Shewanella oneidensis on fumarate and presumably some other CymA (quinol dehydrogenase)-dependent EAs by reducing cAMP production, which in turn leads to lowered expression of nitrite and fumarate reductases...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845902/systematic-expression-analysis-of-the-mitochondrial-complex-iii-subunits-identifies-uqcrc1-as-biomarker-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#11
Jörg Ellinger, Arabella Gromes, Mirjam Poss, Maria Brüggemann, Doris Schmidt, Nadja Ellinger, Yuri Tolkach, Dimo Dietrich, Glen Kristiansen, Stefan C Müller
Mitochondrial dysfunction is common in cancer, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain is often affected in carcinogenesis. So far, few is known about the expression of the mitochondrial complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex) subunits in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). In this study, the NextBio database was used to determine an expression profile of the mitochondrial complex III subunits based on published microarray studies. We observed that five out of 11 subunits of the complex III were downregulated in at least three microarray studies...
November 10, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836596/arm-microcontroller-based-portable-nitrite-electrochemical-analyzer-using-cytochrome-c-reductase-biofunctionalized-onto-screen-printed-carbon-electrode
#12
Paulraj Santharaman, Krishna Arun Venkatesh, Kanagavel Vairamani, Alby Robson Benjamin, Niroj K Sethy, Kalpana Bhargava, Chandran Karunakaran
Nitrite (NO2(-)) supplementation limits hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and activates the alternate NO pathway which may partially account for the nitrite-mediated cardioprotection. So, sensitive and selective biosensors with point-of-care devices need to be explored to detect the physiological nitrite level due to its important role in human pathophysiology. In this work, cytochrome c reductase (CcR) biofunctionalized self assembled monolayer (SAM) functionalized on gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposite onto the screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was investigated as a biosensor for the detection of nitrite based on its electrochemical and catalytic properties...
October 19, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832308/mechanism-of-electron-transport-during-thiosulfate-oxidation-in-an-obligately-mixotrophic-bacterium-thiomonas-bhubaneswarensis-strain-s10-dsm-18181-t
#13
Kunwar Digvijay Narayan, Surendra Chandra Sabat, Subrata K Das
This study describes the thiosulfate-supported respiratory electron transport activity of Thiomonas bhubaneswarensis strain S10 (DSM 18181(T)). Whole-genome sequence analysis revealed the presence of complete sox (sulfur oxidation) gene cluster (soxCDYZAXB) including the sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR), sulfide quinone reductase (SQR), sulfide dehydrogenase (flavocytochrome c (fcc)), thiosulfate dehydrogenase (Tsd), sulfite dehydrogenase (SorAB), and intracellular sulfur oxidation protein (DsrE/DsrF). In addition, genes encoding respiratory electron transport chain components viz...
November 10, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825803/protective-effects-of-dieckol-on-n-nitrosodiethylamine-induced-hepatocarcinogenesis-in-rats
#14
Velayutham Sadeeshkumar, Arul Duraikannu, Samuthrapandian Ravichandran, Wilson Sylvester Fredrick, Ramar Sivaperumal, Paulrasu Kodisundaram
Dieckol (DEK) is a naturally occuring phlorotannins found in marine brown algae Ecklonia cava which is attributed with various pharmacological properties. This study was aimed to investigate the protective role of DEK on N-Nitrosdiethylamine (NDEA) induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis. In this investigation 0.01% NDEA in drinking water for 15 weeks to induce hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). DEK was administered orally (10, 20 and 40mg/kg body weight) for 15 weeks with 0.01% NDEA through drinking water. Hepatocarcinogesis was measured by the increased activities of serum liver marker enzymes namely aspartate trasaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), α-fetoprotein (AFP) and total bilirubin along with increased elevation of cytochrome p450, lipid peroxidation markers, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (HP), protein carbonyl content (PCC) and conjugated dienes (CD)...
November 5, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815364/predictors-of-variation-in-cyp2a6-mrna-protein-and-enzyme-activity-in-a-human-liver-bank-influence-of-genetic-and-non-genetic-factors
#15
Julie-Anne Tanner, Bhagwat Prasad, Katrina G Claw, Patricia Stapleton, Amarjit Chaudhry, Erin G Schuetz, Kenneth E Thummel, Rachel F Tyndale
Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) metabolizes several clinically relevant substrates, including nicotine, the primary psychoactive component in cigarette smoke. Smokers vary widely in their rate of inactivation and clearance of nicotine, altering numerous smoking phenotypes. We aimed to characterize independent and shared impact of genetic and non-genetic sources of variation in CYP2A6 mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity in a human liver bank (n=360). We quantified levels of CYP2A6, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), and aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) mRNA, and CYP2A6 and POR protein...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814979/improving-the-activity-of-surface-displayed-cytochrome-p450-enzymes-by-optimizing-the-outer-membrane-linker
#16
Paul Quehl, Jan Schüürmann, Joel Hollender, Joachim Jose
Anchorage of recombinant proteins onto the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria is an attractive solution for protein library screening and whole cell biocatalysis if a membrane environment is required or mass transfer into the cell is limiting. Autotransporters have been successfully applied for surface display of various heterologous proteins. Still, many underlying parameters for achieving active enzymes are not known. Here, we systematically tested different linkers between passenger and the membrane embedded β-barrel of the autotransporter...
November 1, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802299/protective-effects-of-essential-oils-as-natural-antioxidants-against-hepatotoxicity-induced-by-cyclophosphamide-in-mice
#17
Salah A Sheweita, Lobna S El-Hosseiny, Munther A Nashashibi
Clinical application of cyclophosphamide (CP) as an anticancer drug is often limited due to its toxicity. CP is metabolized mainly in the liver by cytochrome P450 system into acrolein which is the proximate toxic metabolite. Many different natural antioxidants were found to alleviate the toxic effects of various toxic agents via different mechanisms. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating the role of essential oils extracted from fennel, cumin and clove as natural antioxidants in the alleviation of hepatotoxicity induced by CP through assessment of hepatotoxicity biomarkers (AST, ALT, ALP), histopathology of liver tissues as well as other biochemical parameters involved in the metabolism of CP...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800121/erectile-dysfunction-drugs-changed-the-protein-expressions-and-activities-of-drug-metabolising-enzymes-in-the-liver-of-male-rats
#18
Salah A Sheweita, Mona Wally, Mostafa Hassan
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a major health problem and is mainly associated with the persistent inability of men to maintain sufficient erection for satisfactory sexual performance. Millions of men are using sildenafil, vardenafil, and/or tadalafil for ED treatment. Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) play a central role in the metabolism of a wide range of xenobiotics as well as endogenous compounds. Susceptibility of individuals to the adverse effects of different drugs is mainly dependent on the expression of CYPs proteins...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797496/protonation-of-the-hydroperoxo-intermediate-of-cytochrome-p450-2b4-is-slower-in-the-presence-of-cytochrome-p450-reductase-than-in-the-presence-of-cytochrome-b5
#19
Naw May Pearl, Jarett Wilcoxen, Sangchoul Im, Ryan C Kunz, Joseph E Darty, R David Britt, Stephen W Ragsdale, Lucy Ann Waskell
Microsomal cytochromes P450 (P450) require two electrons and two protons for the oxidation of substrates. Although the two electrons can be provided by cytochrome P450 reductase, the second electron can also be donated by cytochrome b5 (b5). The steady-state activity of P450 2B4 is increased up to 10-fold by b5. To gain a greater understanding of the molecular basis of the stimulatory effect of b5 and to test the hypothesis that b5 stimulates catalysis by more rapid protonation of the anionic ferric hydroperoxo heme intermediate of P450 (Fe+3OOH)¯ and subsequent formation of the active oxidizing species, we have freeze quenched the reaction mixture during a single turnover following reduction of oxyferrous P450 2B4 by each of its redox partners, b5 and P450 reductase...
October 31, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789780/influence-of-heme-environment-on-the-catalytic-properties-of-the-tetrathionate-reductase-tsda-from-campylobacter-jejuni
#20
Julia M Kurth, Julea N Butt, David J Kelly, Christiane Dahl
Bifunctional diheme cytochrome c thiosul-fate dehydrogenases/tetrathionate reductases (TsdA) exhibit different catalytic properties depend-ing on the source organism. In the human food-borne intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni , TsdA functions as a tetrathionate reductase en-abling respiration with tetrathionate as an al-ternative electron acceptor. Here, evidence is provided that Cys(138) and Met(255) serve as the sixth ligands of Heme 1 and Heme 2, respec-tively, in the oxidized Cj TsdA wt protein. Re-placement of Cys(138) resulted in a virtually inac-tive enzyme, confirming Heme 1 as the active site heme...
October 27, 2016: Bioscience Reports
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