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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933064/metabolic-pathway-engineering-for-high-level-production-of-5-hydroxytryptophan-in-escherichia-coli
#1
Haijiao Wang, Wenqian Liu, Feng Shi, Lei Huang, Jiazhang Lian, Liang Qu, Jin Cai, Zhinan Xu
Cellular metabolic networks should be carefully balanced using metabolic engineering to produce the desired products at the industrial scale. As the precursor for the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is effective in treating a variety of diseases, such as depression, fibromyalgia, obesity, and cerebellar ataxia. Due to the lack of an efficient synthetic method, commercial production of 5-HTP is only achieved by extracting from the seeds of Griffonia Smplicifolia. This study reports efficient microbial production of 5-HTP via metabolically engineered Escherichia coli...
June 19, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892168/the-tph1-rs211105-gene-polymorphism-affects-abdominal-symptoms-and-quality-of-life-of-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#2
Ryo Katsumata, Akiko Shiotani, Takahisa Murao, Manabu Ishii, Minoru Fujita, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Ken Haruma
The gastrointestinal symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome are strongly related to impaired quality of life (QOL), especially in diarrhea-predominant. The gene polymorphisms associated with serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine, alter gastrointestinal symptoms and mental status. We aimed to evaluate the effects of gene polymorphisms on gastrointestinal symptoms, psychological conditions, and QOL, and compare these between patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome ( n  = 62) and healthy controls ( n  = 64)...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863055/-endogenous-serotonin-and-milk-production-regulation-in-the-mammary-gland
#3
Takeshi Chiba, Tomoji Maeda, Kenzo Kudo
 Intrinsic serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) synthesized within the mammary epithelium has an important physiological role in milk volume homeostasis in many species including mice, cows, and humans. During lactation, mammary epithelial cells activate 5-HT synthesis by tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1). TPH1 catalyzes the rate-limiting step in 5-HT biosynthesis within mammary glands. 5-HT synthesized in mammary glands is released into both the apical (milk) and basolateral spaces by a vesicular monoamine transporter...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849496/serotonin-exhibits-accelerated-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-through-tph1-knockout-mouse-experiments
#4
Jingyao Zhang, Ruixia Cui, Yang Feng, Weiman Gao, Jianbin Bi, Zeyu Li, Chang Liu
Background: Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic progressive fibrosis interstitial lung disease that is characterized by inflammatory infiltration and fibrotic changes. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is an important regulatory factor in inflammation, immunomodulation, and fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of 5-HT in bleomycin- (BLM-) induced pulmonary fibrosis through wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) and TPH1 knockout (KO) mouse experiments. Methods: The mice were grouped as follows: WT control group, KO control group, WT BLM group, and KO BLM group...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730451/the-effects-of-fasting-and-appetite-regulators-on-catecholamine-and-serotonin-synthesis-pathways-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#5
Stephanie Mandic, Hélène Volkoff
Monoamine neurotransmitters such as catecholamines [dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E)] and serotonin have been shown to influence feeding in vertebrates. In order to better understand the role of monoamine neurotransmitters in the regulation of feeding in fish, we examined the effects of fasting on the brain and intestine gene expression of enzymes involved in their synthesis pathways (SPR: sepiapterin reductase; DHPR: dihydropteridine reductase; TH: tyrosine hydroxylase; TPH: tryptophan hydroxylase; AADC: aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase; DBH: dopamine β-hydroxylase) in goldfish...
May 3, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697747/genetic-psychological-and-personal-network-factors-associated-with-changes-in-binge-drinking-over-2-years-among-mexican-heritage-adolescents-in-the-usa
#6
Sunmi Song, Christopher Steven Marcum, Anna V Wilkinson, Sanjay Shete, Laura M Koehly
Background: Despite prevalent binge drinking and alcohol-dependent symptoms among Hispanics, few studies have examined how multidimensional factors influence Hispanic adolescents' binge drinking. Purpose This study examines the effects of genetic, psychological, and social network factors on binge drinking over time among Mexican heritage adolescents in the USA and whether there are correlations among genetic variants that are associated with binge drinking and psychological and network characteristics...
April 24, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696773/complex-phenotype-of-dyskeratosis-congenita-and-mood-dysregulation-with-novel-homozygous-rtel1-and-tph1-variants
#7
Rachel A Ungar, Neelam Giri, Maryland Pao, Payal P Khincha, Weiyin Zhou, Blanche P Alter, Sharon A Savage
Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome caused by germline mutations in telomere biology genes. Patients have extremely short telomeres for their age and a complex phenotype including oral leukoplakia, abnormal skin pigmentation, and dysplastic nails in addition to bone marrow failure, pulmonary fibrosis, stenosis of the esophagus, lacrimal ducts and urethra, developmental anomalies, and high risk of cancer. We evaluated a patient with features of DC, mood dysregulation, diabetes, and lack of pubertal development...
June 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684863/psychological-and-genetic-risk-factors-associated-with-suicidal-behavior-in-korean-patients-with-mood-disorders
#8
Hee-Yeon Choi, Ga Eun Kim, Kyoung Ae Kong, Yu Jin Lee, Weon-Jeong Lim, So-Hyun Park, Su Hee Ha, Soo In Kim
INTRODUCTION: To prevent suicide, a nationwide important issue in Korea, understanding its etiology is essential. This study aimed to delineate the risk factors for suicidal behavior in mood disorder patients in Korea. METHODS: 216 patients with mood disorders were recruited. We measured suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempt (SA) history and the association of six gene polymorphisms with SB: COMT (rs4680), HTR1A (rs6295), TPH1 (rs1800532), BDNF (rs6265), SLC1A3 (rs2269272), and SLC1A2 (rs4755404)...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664149/evidence-for-an-urethro-vesical-crosstalk-mediated-by-serotonin
#9
Ana Coelho, Raquel Oliveira, Helena Cavaleiro, Celia Duarte Cruz, Francisco Cruz
AIM: To study the contribution of urethral serotonin for the urethro-vesical crosstalk METHODS: Urethane-anesthetized female rats and TPH1-/- mice underwent isovolumetric or urethral-opened cystometries during intravesical or intraurethral infusion of saline or serotonin solutions. Human and rat bladders and urethrae were immunoreacted against serotonin and neuronal markers. Serotonin concentration and TPH1 mRNA were determined in rat tissue by HPLC and qPCR. RESULTS: In rats, under isovolumetric conditions, intraurethral serotonin infusion, but not saline, evoked bladder contractions...
April 17, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658099/identification-of-serotoninergic-system-components-in-stallion-sperm
#10
F Jiménez-Trejo, I Coronado-Mares, M Boeta, I González-Santoyo, R Vigueras-Villaseñor, C Arriaga-Canon, L A Herrera, M Tapia-Rodríguez
Assisted reproductive techniques have been used on several domestic animals to preserve desirable traits in strains of high genetic and commercial value; however in equines its efficiency rate is relatively low. To increase the conception ratio in stallions, some research groups have used pharmacological treatments which promote sperm hyperactivation in order to increase male's fertility rates. In this way, our previous work suggests that serotonin (5-HT) could be a good pharmacological candidate that facilitates conception rate in domestic horses...
April 16, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628275/peripheral-serotonin-synthesis-as-a-new-drug-target
#11
REVIEW
Susann Matthes, Michael Bader
The first step in serotonin (5-HT) biosynthesis is catalyzed by tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH). There are two independent sources of the monoamine that have distinct functions: first, the TPH1-expressing enterochromaffin cells (ECs) of the gut; second, TPH2-expressing serotonergic neurons. TPH1-deficient mice revealed that peripheral 5-HT plays important roles in platelet function and in inflammatory and fibrotic diseases of gut, pancreas, lung, and liver. Therefore, TPH inhibitors were developed which cannot pass the blood-brain barrier to specifically block peripheral 5-HT synthesis...
June 2018: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620694/genetic-polymorphisms-associated-with-constipation-and-anticholinergic-symptoms-in-patients-receiving-clozapine
#12
Anssi Solismaa, Olli Kampman, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Niko Seppälä, Merja Viikki, Nina Mononen, Terho Lehtimäki, Esa Leinonen
BACKGROUND: Clozapine impairs gastrointestinal motility owing to its anticholinergic and antiserotonergic properties. This commonly leads to constipation and potentially to more severe complications such as bowel obstruction and ischemia. The aim of this study was to determine whether genetic variations in the genes encoding muscarinic and serotonergic receptors (CHRM2, CHRM3, HTR2, HTR3, HTR4, and HTR7) explain the variations in incidence of constipation and anticholinergic symptoms during clozapine treatment...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617866/serotonin-induces-parathyroid-hormone-related-protein-in-goat-mammary-gland
#13
W J Zang, H Li, Z F Zhang, R QuZhen, Y Z CuoMu, D K Zhang, J Luo, J J Loor, H L Zheng
During lactation, large amounts of calcium are exported from the mammary gland into milk to ensure skeletal growth of the offspring. Recent studies revealed that serotonin (5-HT) is essential to stimulate skeletal calcium resorption for milk synthesis. Our objective was to explore the correlation between circulating 5-HT and serum calcium and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) concentrations around parturition in dairy goats. We also investigated the effect of 5-HT on PTHrP expression in cultured primary goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC)...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576437/enterochromaffin-5-ht-cells-a-major-target-for-glp-1-and-gut-microbial-metabolites
#14
Mari L Lund, Kristoffer L Egerod, Maja S Engelstoft, Oksana Dmytriyeva, Elvar Theodorsson, Bhavik A Patel, Thue W Schwartz
OBJECTIVES: 5-HT storing enterochromaffin (EC) cells are believed to respond to nutrient and gut microbial components, and 5-HT receptor-expressing afferent vagal neurons have been described to be the major sensors of nutrients in the GI-tract. However, the molecular mechanism through which EC cells sense nutrients and gut microbiota is still unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: TPH1, the 5-HT generating enzyme, and chromogranin A, an acidic protein responsible for secretory granule storage of 5-HT, were highly enriched in FACS-purified EC cells from both small intestine and colon using a 5-HT antibody-based method...
May 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569002/mast-cells-and-serotonin-synthesis-modulate-chagas-disease-in-the-colon-clinical-and-experimental-evidence
#15
Vinicius Kannen, Juliana Y Sakita, Zumira A Carneiro, Michael Bader, Natalia Alenina, Regina R Teixeira, Enio C de Oliveira, Mariângela O Brunaldi, Bianca Gasparotto, Daniela C Sartori, Cleverson R Fernandes, João S Silva, Marcus V Andrade, Wilson A Silva, Sergio A Uyemura, Sérgio B Garcia
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infects millions of Latin Americans each year and can induce chagasic megacolon. Little is known about how serotonin (5-HT) modulates this condition. Aim We investigated whether 5-HT synthesis alters T. cruzi infection in the colon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight paraffin-embedded samples from normal colon and chagasic megacolon were histopathologically analyzed (173/2009). Tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) knockout (KO) mice and c-KitW-sh mice underwent T...
June 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568107/augmented-capacity-for-peripheral-serotonin-release-in-human-obesity
#16
Richard L Young, Amanda L Lumsden, Alyce M Martin, Gudrun Schober, Nektaria Pezos, Sony S Thazhath, Nicole J Isaacs, Nada Cvijanovic, Emily W L Sun, Tongzhi Wu, Christopher K Rayner, Nam Q Nguyen, Dayan de Fontgalland, Philippa Rabbitt, Paul Hollington, Luigi Sposato, Steven L Due, David A Wattchow, Alice P Liou, V Margaret Jackson, Damien J Keating
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence from animal studies highlights an important role for serotonin (5-HT), derived from gut enterochromaffin (EC) cells, in regulating hepatic glucose production, lipolysis and thermogenesis, and promoting obesity and dysglycemia. Evidence in humans is limited, although elevated plasma 5-HT concentrations are linked to obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We assessed (i) plasma 5-HT concentrations before and during intraduodenal glucose infusion (4 kcal/min for 30 min) in non-diabetic obese (BMI 44 ± 4 kg/m2 , N = 14) and control (BMI 24 ± 1 kg/m2 , N = 10) subjects, (ii) functional activation of duodenal EC cells (immunodetection of phospho-extracellular related-kinase, pERK) in response to glucose, and in separate subjects, (iii) expression of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1) in duodenum and colon (N = 39), and (iv) 5-HT content in primary EC cells from these regions (N = 85)...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536299/synthesis-and-membrane-transport-of-serotonin-in-the-developing-ovarian-follicle-of-mouse
#17
D A Nikishin, N M Alyoshina, Y B Shmukler
Using RT-PCR, we showed the presence of Tph1 mRNA in follicular cells and Tph2 mRNA in oocytes isolated from primary multilayer ovarian follicles of mouse and the absence of Ddc expression, which indicates that serotonin cannot be synthesized in a developing ovarian follicle. The membrane serotonin transporter Sert is expressed in follicular cells and oocytes. Experiments on the cultivation of follicles in vitro confirmed the absence of serotonin synthesis from 5-hydroxytryptophan and the presence of membrane transport activity in the oocyte...
January 2018: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468941/the-serotonin-hypothesis-in-pulmonary-hypertension-revisited-targets-for-novel-therapies-2017-grover-conference-series
#18
Margaret Mandy R MacLean
Increased synthesis of serotonin and/or activity of serotonin in pulmonary arteries has been implicated in the pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The incidence of PAH associated with diet pills such as aminorex, fenfluramine, and chlorphentermine initially led to the "serotonin hypothesis of pulmonary hypertension." Over the last couple of decades there has been an accumulation of convincing evidence that targeting serotonin synthesis or signaling is a novel and promising approach to the development of novel therapies for PAH...
April 2018: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382152/evaluation-of-melatonin-secretion-and-metabolism-exponents-in-patients-with-ulcerative-and-lymphocytic-colitis
#19
Cezary Chojnacki, Janusz Błasiak, Jakub Fichna, Jan Chojnacki, Tomasz Popławski
Inflammatory bowel diseases, particularly ulcerative colitis (UC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC), affect many people. The role of melatonin in the pathogenesis of UC is precisely determined, whereas in LC it remains unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of the melatonin-synthesizing enzymes tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH1), arylalkylamine- N -acetyltransferase (AANAT), and N -acetylserotonin methyltransferase (ASMT) in the colonic mucosa and urinary excretion of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin in patients with ulcerative and lymphocytic colitis...
January 29, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381782/pathway-of-maternal-serotonin-to-the-human-embryo-and-fetus
#20
Harvey J Kliman, Sarah B Quaratella, Alessandra C Setaro, Erin C Siegman, Zarrin T Subha, Reshef Tal, Kristin M Milano, Theodore L Steck
Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is essential to intrauterine development, but its source is debated. We used immunocytochemistry to gauge 5-HT, its biosynthetic enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1); an importer (serotonin transporter, 5-HTT/SERT/SLC6A); other transporters [P-glycoprotein 1 (P-gp/ABCB1), OCT3/SLC22A3, and gap junction connexin-43]; and the 5-HT degradative enzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) in sections of placentas. In humans, 5-HT was faintly stained only in first-trimester trophoblasts, whereas TPH1 was not seen at any stage...
April 1, 2018: Endocrinology
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