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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664149/evidence-for-an-urethro-vesical-crosstalk-mediated-by-serotonin
#1
Ana Coelho, Raquel Oliveira, Helena Cavaleiro, Celia Duarte Cruz, Francisco Cruz
AIM: To study the contribution of urethral serotonin for the urethro-vesical crosstalk METHODS: Urethane-anesthetized female rats and TPH1-/- mice underwent isovolumetric or urethral-opened cystometries during intravesical or intraurethral infusion of saline or serotonin solutions. Human and rat bladders and urethrae were immunoreacted against serotonin and neuronal markers. Serotonin concentration and TPH1 mRNA were determined in rat tissue by HPLC and qPCR. RESULTS: In rats, under isovolumetric conditions, intraurethral serotonin infusion, but not saline, evoked bladder contractions...
April 17, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658099/identification-of-serotoninergic-system-components-in-stallion-sperm
#2
F Jiménez-Trejo, I Coronado-Mares, M Boeta, I González-Santoyo, R Vigueras-Villaseñor, C Arriaga-Canon, L Herrera-Montalvo, M Tapia-Rodríguez
Assisted reproductive techniques have been used on several domestic animals to preserve desirable traits in strains of high genetic and commercial value; however in equines its efficiency rate is relatively low. To increase the conception ratio in stallions, some research groups have used pharmacological treatments which promote sperm hyperactivation in order to increase male's fertility rates. In this way, our previous work suggests that serotonin (5-HT) could be a good pharmacological candidate that facilitates conception rate in domestic horses...
April 16, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628275/peripheral-serotonin-synthesis-as-a-new-drug-target
#3
REVIEW
Susann Matthes, Michael Bader
The first step in serotonin (5-HT) biosynthesis is catalyzed by tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH). There are two independent sources of the monoamine that have distinct functions: first, the TPH1-expressing enterochromaffin cells (ECs) of the gut; second, TPH2-expressing serotonergic neurons. TPH1-deficient mice revealed that peripheral 5-HT plays important roles in platelet function and in inflammatory and fibrotic diseases of gut, pancreas, lung, and liver. Therefore, TPH inhibitors were developed which cannot pass the blood-brain barrier to specifically block peripheral 5-HT synthesis...
April 5, 2018: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620694/genetic-polymorphisms-associated-with-constipation-and-anticholinergic-symptoms-in-patients-receiving-clozapine
#4
Anssi Solismaa, Olli Kampman, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Niko Seppälä, Merja Viikki, Nina Mononen, Terho Lehtimäki, Esa Leinonen
BACKGROUND: Clozapine impairs gastrointestinal motility owing to its anticholinergic and antiserotonergic properties. This commonly leads to constipation and potentially to more severe complications such as bowel obstruction and ischemia. The aim of this study was to determine whether genetic variations in the genes encoding muscarinic and serotonergic receptors (CHRM2, CHRM3, HTR2, HTR3, HTR4, and HTR7) explain the variations in incidence of constipation and anticholinergic symptoms during clozapine treatment...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617866/serotonin-induces-parathyroid-hormone-related-protein-in-goat-mammary-gland
#5
W J Zang, H Li, Z F Zhang, R QuZhen, Y Z CuoMu, D K Zhang, J Luo, J J Loor, H L Zheng
During lactation, large amounts of calcium are exported from the mammary gland into milk to ensure skeletal growth of the offspring. Recent studies revealed that serotonin (5-HT) is essential to stimulate skeletal calcium resorption for milk synthesis. Our objective was to explore the correlation between circulating 5-HT and serum calcium and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) concentrations around parturition in dairy goats. We also investigated the effect of 5-HT on PTHrP expression in cultured primary goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC)...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576437/enterochromaffin-5-ht-cells-a-major-target-for-glp-1-and-gut-microbial-metabolites
#6
Mari L Lund, Kristoffer L Egerod, Maja S Engelstoft, Oksana Dmytriyeva, Elvar Theodorsson, Bhavik A Patel, Thue W Schwartz
OBJECTIVES: 5-HT storing enterochromaffin (EC) cells are believed to respond to nutrient and gut microbial components, and 5-HT receptor-expressing afferent vagal neurons have been described to be the major sensors of nutrients in the GI-tract. However, the molecular mechanism through which EC cells sense nutrients and gut microbiota is still unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: TPH1, the 5-HT generating enzyme, and chromogranin A, an acidic protein responsible for secretory granule storage of 5-HT, were highly enriched in FACS-purified EC cells from both small intestine and colon using a 5-HT antibody-based method...
March 10, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569002/mast-cells-and-serotonin-synthesis-modulate-chagas-disease-in-the-colon-clinical-and-experimental-evidence
#7
Vinicius Kannen, Juliana Y Sakita, Zumira A Carneiro, Michael Bader, Natalia Alenina, Regina R Teixeira, Enio C de Oliveira, Mariângela O Brunaldi, Bianca Gasparotto, Daniela C Sartori, Cleverson R Fernandes, João S Silva, Marcus V Andrade, Wilson A Silva, Sergio A Uyemura, Sérgio B Garcia
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infects millions of Latin Americans each year and can induce chagasic megacolon. Little is known about how serotonin (5-HT) modulates this condition. Aim We investigated whether 5-HT synthesis alters T. cruzi infection in the colon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight paraffin-embedded samples from normal colon and chagasic megacolon were histopathologically analyzed (173/2009). Tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) knockout (KO) mice and c-KitW-sh mice underwent T...
March 22, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568107/augmented-capacity-for-peripheral-serotonin-release-in-human-obesity
#8
Richard L Young, Amanda L Lumsden, Alyce M Martin, Gudrun Schober, Nektaria Pezos, Sony S Thazhath, Nicole J Isaacs, Nada Cvijanovic, Emily W L Sun, Tongzhi Wu, Christopher K Rayner, Nam Q Nguyen, Dayan de Fontgalland, Philippa Rabbitt, Paul Hollington, Luigi Sposato, Steven L Due, David A Wattchow, Alice P Liou, V Margaret Jackson, Damien J Keating
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence from animal studies highlights an important role for serotonin (5-HT), derived from gut enterochromaffin (EC) cells, in regulating hepatic glucose production, lipolysis and thermogenesis, and promoting obesity and dysglycemia. Evidence in humans is limited, although elevated plasma 5-HT concentrations are linked to obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We assessed (i) plasma 5-HT concentrations before and during intraduodenal glucose infusion (4 kcal/min for 30 min) in non-diabetic obese (BMI 44 ± 4 kg/m2 , N = 14) and control (BMI 24 ± 1 kg/m2 , N = 10) subjects, (ii) functional activation of duodenal EC cells (immunodetection of phospho-extracellular related-kinase, pERK) in response to glucose, and in separate subjects, (iii) expression of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1) in duodenum and colon (N = 39), and (iv) 5-HT content in primary EC cells from these regions (N = 85)...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536299/synthesis-and-membrane-transport-of-serotonin-in-the-developing-ovarian-follicle-of-mouse
#9
D A Nikishin, N M Alyoshina, Y B Shmukler
Using RT-PCR, we showed the presence of Tph1 mRNA in follicular cells and Tph2 mRNA in oocytes isolated from primary multilayer ovarian follicles of mouse and the absence of Ddc expression, which indicates that serotonin cannot be synthesized in a developing ovarian follicle. The membrane serotonin transporter Sert is expressed in follicular cells and oocytes. Experiments on the cultivation of follicles in vitro confirmed the absence of serotonin synthesis from 5-hydroxytryptophan and the presence of membrane transport activity in the oocyte...
January 2018: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468941/the-serotonin-hypothesis-in-pulmonary-hypertension-revisited-targets-for-novel-therapies-2017-grover-conference-series
#10
Margaret Mandy R MacLean
Increased synthesis of serotonin and/or activity of serotonin in pulmonary arteries has been implicated in the pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The incidence of PAH associated with diet pills such as aminorex, fenfluramine, and chlorphentermine initially led to the "serotonin hypothesis of pulmonary hypertension." Over the last couple of decades there has been an accumulation of convincing evidence that targeting serotonin synthesis or signaling is a novel and promising approach to the development of novel therapies for PAH...
April 2018: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382152/evaluation-of-melatonin-secretion-and-metabolism-exponents-in-patients-with-ulcerative-and-lymphocytic-colitis
#11
Cezary Chojnacki, Janusz Błasiak, Jakub Fichna, Jan Chojnacki, Tomasz Popławski
Inflammatory bowel diseases, particularly ulcerative colitis (UC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC), affect many people. The role of melatonin in the pathogenesis of UC is precisely determined, whereas in LC it remains unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of the melatonin-synthesizing enzymes tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH1), arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), and N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase (ASMT) in the colonic mucosa and urinary excretion of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin in patients with ulcerative and lymphocytic colitis...
January 29, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381782/pathway-of-maternal-serotonin-to-the-human-embryo-and-fetus
#12
Harvey J Kliman, Sarah B Quaratella, Alessandra C Setaro, Erin C Siegman, Zarrin T Subha, Reshef Tal, Kristin M Milano, Theodore L Steck
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is essential to intrauterine development, but its source is debated. We used immunocytochemistry to gauge 5-HT; its biosynthetic enzyme (tryptophan hydroxylase 1, TPH1); an importer (serotonin transporter, 5-HTT/SERT/SLC6A); other transporters (P-glycoprotein 1 [P-gp/ABCB1], OCT3/SLC22A3 and gap junction connexin-43); and the 5-HT degradative enzyme (monoamine oxidase A, MAOA) in sections of placentas. In humans, 5-HT was faintly stained only in first trimester trophoblasts, while TPH1 was not seen at any stage...
January 26, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358097/the-effect-of-5-httlpr-and-a-serotonergic-multi-marker-score-on-amygdala-prefrontal-and-anterior-cingulate-cortex-reactivity-and-habituation-in-a-large-healthy-fmri-cohort
#13
J H Piel, T A Lett, C Wackerhagen, M M Plichta, S Mohnke, O Grimm, N Romanczuk-Seiferth, F Degenhardt, H Tost, S Witt, M Nöthen, M Rietschel, A Heinz, A Meyer-Lindenberg, H Walter, S Erk
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by low mood for at least two weeks. Impaired emotion regulation has been suggested to be the consequence of dysfunctional serotonergic regulation of limbic and prefrontal regions, especially the amygdala, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The impact of genetic variation on brain function can be investigated with intermediate phenotypes. A suggested intermediate phenotype of MDD is emotion recognition: The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of SLC6A4 as well as other serotonergic genes have been associated with amygdala and prefrontal function during emotion recognition...
March 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345193/serotonin-2a-receptor-inhibition-protects-against-the-development-of-pulmonary-hypertension-and-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-in-neonatal-mice
#14
Cassidy Delaney, Laurie Sherlock, Susan Fisher, Joanne K Maltzahn, Clyde J Wright, Eva Nozik-Grayck
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) complicating bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) worsens clinical outcomes in former preterm infants. Increased serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) signaling plays a prominent role in PH pathogenesis and progression in adults. We hypothesized that increased 5-HT signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of neonatal PH complicating BPD and neonatal lung injury. Thus, we interrogated 5-HT signaling in neonatal mice exposed to bleomycin, previously demonstrated to induce PH and alveolar simplification...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314569/association-between-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-of-tph1-and-tph2-genes-and-depressive-disorders
#15
Paulina Wigner, Piotr Czarny, Ewelina Synowiec, Michał Bijak, Katarzyna Białek, Monika Talarowska, Piotr Galecki, Janusz Szemraj, Tomasz Sliwinski
Tryptophan catabolites pathway disorders are observed in patients with depression. Moreover, single nucleotide polymorphisms of tryptophan hydroxylase genes may modulate the risk of depression occurrence. The objective of our study was to confirm the association between the presence of polymorphic variants of TPH1 and TPH2 genes, and the development of depressive disorders. Six polymorphisms were selected: c.804-7C>A (rs10488682), c.-1668T>A (rs623580), c.803+221C>A (rs1800532), c.-173A>T (rs1799913)-TPH1, c...
March 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223399/ectopic-serotonin-production-in-%C3%AE-cell-specific-transgenic-mice
#16
Hyeongseok Kim, Hyunki Kim, Kyuho Kim, Michael S German, Hail Kim
Genetically modified mice have been widely used in the field of β-cell research. However, analysis of results gathered using genetically modified organisms should be interpreted carefully as the results may be confounded by several factors. Here, we showed the ectopic serotonin (5-HT) production in β-cells of RIP-CreMgn , MIP-GFP, and MIP-Cre/ERT mice. These mice contained a human growth hormone (hGH) cassette to enhance transgene expression and hGH expression and Stat5 phosphorylation were detected in pancreatic islets of these mice...
January 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194046/updates-on-the-biology-of-serotonin-and-tryptophan-hydroxylase
#17
Tara Swami, H Christian Weber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the most recent findings relevant to the biology of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in human gastrointestinal disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Serotonin is synthesized in the central nervous system (CNS) and the gastrointestinal tract where it is secreted from enteroendocrine cells. Its biosynthesis is regulated by two isoforms of the enzyme TPH of which TPH1 is localized predominantly in gastrointestinal enteroendocrine cells...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133842/serotonin-regulates-prostate-growth-through-androgen-receptor-modulation
#18
Emanuel Carvalho-Dias, Alice Miranda, Olga Martinho, Paulo Mota, Ângela Costa, Cristina Nogueira-Silva, Rute S Moura, Natalia Alenina, Michael Bader, Riccardo Autorino, Estêvão Lima, Jorge Correia-Pinto
Aging and testosterone almost inexorably cause benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Human males. However, etiology of BPH is largely unknown. Serotonin (5-HT) is produced by neuroendocrine prostatic cells and presents in high concentration in normal prostatic transition zone, but its function in prostate physiology is unknown. Previous evidence demonstrated that neuroendocrine cells and 5-HT are decreased in BPH compared to normal prostate. Here, we show that 5-HT is a strong negative regulator of prostate growth...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123193/characterization-of-mammary-specific-disruptions-for-tph1-and-lrp5-during-murine-lactation
#19
Samantha R Weaver, Nicholas J Jury, Karen A Gregerson, Nelson D Horseman, Laura L Hernandez
Serotonin is a homeostatic regulator of the mammary gland during lactation. The contribution of mammary-derived serotonin to circulating serum serotonin concentrations was previously unknown. We have developed mice with mammary-specific disruptions of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) or low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (Lrp5) that are induced during late pregnancy and lactation via use of the whey acidic protein (WAP)-Cre cre-lox system. Our objective was to characterize dams with a lactation- and mammary-specific disruption of Lrp5 (WAP-Cre × Lrp5FL/FL ) or Tph1 (WAP-Cre × Tph1FL/FL )...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122693/vitamin-a-improves-the-symptoms-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-decreases-5-hydroxytryptamine-5-ht-a-pilot-study
#20
Min Guo, Jiang Zhu, Ting Yang, Xi Lai, Xiao Liu, Juan Liu, Jie Chen, Tingyu Li
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complicated neurodevelopmental disorders. Many studies have demonstrated that children with autism have multiple nutritional deficiencies and increased serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels. In our previous study, 77.9% of autistic children were found to have vitamin A deficiency, and the concentration of vitamin A was negatively associated with the CARS score. In the present study, we sought to test whether vitamin A supplementation could improve autistic symptoms and decrease serum 5-HT levels...
November 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
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