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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382152/evaluation-of-melatonin-secretion-and-metabolism-exponents-in-patients-with-ulcerative-and-lymphocytic-colitis
#1
Cezary Chojnacki, Janusz Błasiak, Jakub Fichna, Jan Chojnacki, Tomasz Popławski
Inflammatory bowel diseases, particularly ulcerative colitis (UC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC), affect many people. The role of melatonin in the pathogenesis of UC is precisely determined, whereas in LC it remains unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of the melatonin-synthesizing enzymes tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH1), arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), and N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase (ASMT) in the colonic mucosa and urinary excretion of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin in patients with ulcerative and lymphocytic colitis...
January 29, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381782/pathway-of-maternal-serotonin-to-the-human-embryo-and-fetus
#2
Harvey J Kliman, Sarah B Quaratella, Alessandra C Setaro, Erin C Siegman, Zarrin T Subha, Reshef Tal, Kristin M Milano, Theodore L Steck
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is essential to intrauterine development, but its source is debated. We used immunocytochemistry to gauge 5-HT; its biosynthetic enzyme (tryptophan hydroxylase 1, TPH1); an importer (serotonin transporter, 5-HTT/SERT/SLC6A); other transporters (P-glycoprotein 1 [P-gp/ABCB1], OCT3/SLC22A3 and gap junction connexin-43); and the 5-HT degradative enzyme (monoamine oxidase A, MAOA) in sections of placentas. In humans, 5-HT was faintly stained only in first trimester trophoblasts, while TPH1 was not seen at any stage...
January 26, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358097/the-effect-of-5-httlpr-and-a-serotonergic-multi-marker-score-on-amygdala-prefrontal-and-anterior-cingulate-cortex-reactivity-and-habituation-in-a-large-healthy-fmri-cohort
#3
J H Piel, T A Lett, C Wackerhagen, M M Plichta, S Mohnke, O Grimm, N Romanczuk-Seiferth, F Degenhardt, H Tost, S Witt, M Nöthen, M Rietschel, A Heinz, A Meyer-Lindenberg, H Walter, S Erk
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by low mood for at least two weeks. Impaired emotion regulation has been suggested to be the consequence of dysfunctional serotonergic regulation of limbic and prefrontal regions, especially the amygdala, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The impact of genetic variation on brain function can be investigated with intermediate phenotypes. A suggested intermediate phenotype of MDD is emotion recognition: The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of SLC6A4 as well as other serotonergic genes have been associated with amygdala and prefrontal function during emotion recognition...
January 18, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345193/serotonin-2a-receptor-inhibition-protects-against-the-development-of-pulmonary-hypertension-and-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-in-neonatal-mice
#4
Cassidy Delaney, Laurie Sherlock, Susan Fisher, Joanne K Maltzahn, Clyde J Wright, Eva Nozik-Grayck
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) complicating bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) worsens clinical outcomes in former preterm infants. Increased serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) signaling plays a prominent role in PH pathogenesis and progression in adults. We hypothesized that increased 5-HT signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of neonatal PH complicating BPD and neonatal lung injury. Thus, we interrogated 5-HT signaling in neonatal mice exposed to bleomycin, previously demonstrated to induce PH and alveolar simplification...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314569/association-between-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-of-tph1-and-tph2-genes-and-depressive-disorders
#5
Paulina Wigner, Piotr Czarny, Ewelina Synowiec, Michał Bijak, Katarzyna Białek, Monika Talarowska, Piotr Galecki, Janusz Szemraj, Tomasz Sliwinski
Tryptophan catabolites pathway disorders are observed in patients with depression. Moreover, single nucleotide polymorphisms of tryptophan hydroxylase genes may modulate the risk of depression occurrence. The objective of our study was to confirm the association between the presence of polymorphic variants of TPH1 and TPH2 genes, and the development of depressive disorders. Six polymorphisms were selected: c.804-7C>A (rs10488682), c.-1668T>A (rs623580), c.803+221C>A (rs1800532), c.-173A>T (rs1799913)-TPH1, c...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223399/ectopic-serotonin-production-in-%C3%AE-cell-specific-transgenic-mice
#6
Hyeongseok Kim, Hyunki Kim, Kyuho Kim, Michael S German, Hail Kim
Genetically modified mice have been widely used in the field of β-cell research. However, analysis of results gathered using genetically modified organisms should be interpreted carefully as the results may be confounded by several factors. Here, we showed the ectopic serotonin (5-HT) production in β-cells of RIP-CreMgn, MIP-GFP, and MIP-Cre/ERT. These mice contained a human growth hormone (hGH) cassette to enhance transgene expression and hGH expression and Stat5 phosphorylation were detected in pancreatic islets of these mice...
December 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194046/updates-on-the-biology-of-serotonin-and-tryptophan-hydroxylase
#7
Tara Swami, H Christian Weber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the most recent findings relevant to the biology of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in human gastrointestinal disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Serotonin is synthesized in the central nervous system (CNS) and the gastrointestinal tract where it is secreted from enteroendocrine cells. Its biosynthesis is regulated by two isoforms of the enzyme TPH of which TPH1 is localized predominantly in gastrointestinal enteroendocrine cells...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133842/serotonin-regulates-prostate-growth-through-androgen-receptor-modulation
#8
Emanuel Carvalho-Dias, Alice Miranda, Olga Martinho, Paulo Mota, Ângela Costa, Cristina Nogueira-Silva, Rute S Moura, Natalia Alenina, Michael Bader, Riccardo Autorino, Estêvão Lima, Jorge Correia-Pinto
Aging and testosterone almost inexorably cause benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Human males. However, etiology of BPH is largely unknown. Serotonin (5-HT) is produced by neuroendocrine prostatic cells and presents in high concentration in normal prostatic transition zone, but its function in prostate physiology is unknown. Previous evidence demonstrated that neuroendocrine cells and 5-HT are decreased in BPH compared to normal prostate. Here, we show that 5-HT is a strong negative regulator of prostate growth...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123193/characterization-of-mammary-specific-disruptions-for-tph1-and-lrp5-during-murine-lactation
#9
Samantha R Weaver, Nicholas J Jury, Karen A Gregerson, Nelson D Horseman, Laura L Hernandez
Serotonin is a homeostatic regulator of the mammary gland during lactation. The contribution of mammary-derived serotonin to circulating serum serotonin concentrations was previously unknown. We have developed mice with mammary-specific disruptions of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) or low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (Lrp5) that are induced during late pregnancy and lactation via use of the whey acidic protein (WAP)-Cre cre-lox system. Our objective was to characterize dams with a lactation- and mammary-specific disruption of Lrp5 (WAP-Cre × Lrp5 (FL/FL)) or Tph1 (WAP-Cre × Tph1 (FL/FL))...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122693/vitamin-a-improves-the-symptoms-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-decreases-5-hydroxytryptamine-5-ht-a-pilot-study
#10
Min Guo, Jiang Zhu, Ting Yang, Xi Lai, Xiao Liu, Juan Liu, Jie Chen, Tingyu Li
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complicated neurodevelopmental disorders. Many studies have demonstrated that children with autism have multiple nutritional deficiencies and increased serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels. In our previous study, 77.9% of autistic children were found to have vitamin A deficiency, and the concentration of vitamin A was negatively associated with the CARS score. In the present study, we sought to test whether vitamin A supplementation could improve autistic symptoms and decrease serum 5-HT levels...
November 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035515/isoform-specific-substrate-inhibition-mechanism-of-human-tryptophan-hydroxylase
#11
Kasper D Tidemand, Günther H Peters, Pernille Harris, Eva Stensgaard, Hans E M Christensen
Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of serotonin, which is associated with a variety of disorders such as depression and irritable bowel syndrome. TPH exists in two isoforms: TPH1 and TPH2. TPH1 catalyzes the initial step in the synthesis of serotonin in the peripheral tissues, while TPH2 catalyzes this step in the brain. In this study, the steady-state kinetic mechanism for the catalytic domain of human TPH1 has been determined. Varying substrate tryptophan (Trp) and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) results in a hybrid Ping Pong-ordered mechanism in which the reaction can either occur through a Ping Pong or a sequential mechanism depending on the concentration of tryptophan...
October 27, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031728/single-cell-rna-sequencing-reveals-a-distinct-population-of-proglucagon-expressing-cells-specific-to-the-mouse-upper-small-intestine
#12
Leslie L Glass, Fernando J Calero-Nieto, Wajid Jawaid, Pierre Larraufie, Richard G Kay, Berthold Göttgens, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble
OBJECTIVES: To identify sub-populations of intestinal preproglucagon-expressing (PPG) cells producing Glucagon-like Peptide-1, and their associated expression profiles of sensory receptors, thereby enabling the discovery of therapeutic strategies that target these cell populations for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. METHODS: We performed single cell RNA sequencing of PPG-cells purified by flow cytometry from the upper small intestine of 3 GLU-Venus mice. Cells from 2 mice were sequenced at low depth, and from the third mouse at high depth...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991991/effects-of-ghrelin-on-nocturnal-melatonin-secretion-in-sheep-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-approach
#13
K Kirsz, M Szczesna, E Molik, D A Zieba
Recent studies confirmed that pineal melatonin (MEL) secretion is regulated by ghrelin (GHRL) in seasonally reproductive sheep. The first in vivo experiment investigated whether the effect of GHRL on nocturnal secretion of MEL in sheep is mediated by type 2 serotonin receptors. Sheep ( = 16) were intravenously injected with GHRL (2.5 μg/kg of BW) and meta-Chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP; a mixed agonist of 5-HT2B/5-HT2C receptors; 1 mg/kg BW), either combined or individually, during the short-day (SDS) and long-day (LDS) seasons...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968985/stress-inhibits-tryptophan-hydroxylase-expression-in-a-rat-model-of-depression
#14
Yi Chen, Haixia Xu, Mingyue Zhu, Kun Liu, Bo Lin, Ruxian Luo, Chuanbai Chen, Mengsen Li
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) dysfunction is associated with the pathophysiology of depression. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), the rate-limiting enzyme in 5-HT biosynthesis, is believed to have essential role in many mental disorders, including depression. In the present study, we generated a rat model of depression by exposing the animals to stress, and the rats were then treated with paroxetine. The results indicated that the concentration of 5-HT in the brain and liver tissues were significantly lower in the rat model of depression than in healthy or treated rats...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951738/serotonin-related-gene-variants-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-depressive-or-anxiety-disorders
#15
Magdalena Grzesiak, Jan Aleksander Beszłej, Ewa Waszczuk, Marcin Szechiński, Monika Szewczuk-Bogusławska, Dorota Frydecka, Tadeusz Dobosz, Anna Jonkisz, Arleta Lebioda, Małgorzata Małodobra, Agata Mulak
AIM: To assess the association of six polymorphisms in serotonin-related genes with depressive or anxiety disorders in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: The lifetime prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders was assessed in 95 IBS patients (85% women) using the Munich version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). IBS was diagnosed according to the Rome III criteria. SCL6A4 HTTLPR polymorphism (rs4795541) was determined using PCR-based method...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948742/-effects-of-baldrinal-of-valeriana-jatamansi-on-expression-of-crf-tph1-mrna-and-5-ht-in-rats-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#16
Si-Yu Tao, Cong-Rui Xiao, Jing Wang, Shu-Jing Zhang, Yu-Shan Gao, Fang-Yuan Mu, Yi-Cheng Wang, Xing-Li Yan
This study aimed to investigate the effects of baldrinal of Valeriana jatamansi on the expression of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) mRNA and levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in colon of rats with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and to explain its therapeutic mechanism on IBS through 5-HT pathway. Fifty-four male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: blank group, model group, baldrinal high, medium and low dose groups, and pinaverium bromide group, n=9 in each group...
January 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902619/a-case-control-association-study-of-12-candidate-genes-and-attempted-suicide-in-french-adolescents
#17
Bojan Mirkovic, David Cohen, Claudine Laurent, Malaika Lasfar, Christophe Marguet, Prsicille Gerardin
Background Suicide is the second leading cause of death for 10-19-year-olds. Evidence has shown that attempted suicide is a complex interplay of genes and environmental factors. In the adult population, possible associations between genetic polymorphisms and suicidal behaviors have been investigated for several genes, most often with inconsistent findings and poor replicability of significant associations. This study aimed to identify gene variants conferring risk for adolescent suicide attempt. Methods We selected the genes and variants after an analysis of the literature and a selection of the most significant associations identified...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855642/peripheral-serotonin-regulates-postoperative-intra-abdominal-adhesion-formation-in-mice
#18
Jianbin Bi, Simin Zhang, Zhaoqing Du, Jia Zhang, Yan Deng, Chang Liu, Jingyao Zhang
The aim of the present study is to investigate the role and potential mechanisms of peripheral serotonin in postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion formation in mice. The caecum-rubbing operations were conducted for intra-abdominal adhesion formation modelling in wild-type and Tph1-/- mice. The deficiency of serotonin significantly decreased the adhesion scores, weight loss, and adhesion thickness as well as levels of collagen fibres and hydroxyproline in the adhesive tissues. The Tph1-/- mice exhibited a milder inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the adhesive tissues than did the wild-type mice...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794173/glucose-potentiates-%C3%AE-cell-function-by-inducing-tph1-expression-in-rat-islets
#19
Yuqing Zhang, Ruyuan Deng, Xue Yang, Wan Xu, Yun Liu, Fengying Li, Juan Zhang, Hongju Tang, Xueying Ji, Yufang Bi, Xiao Wang, Libin Zhou, Guang Ning
Impaired pancreatic β-cell function is the primary defect in type 2 diabetes. Glucose is an important regulator of β-cell growth and function; however, the mechanisms that are involved in the chronic adaptation of β-cells to hyperglycemia remain largely unknown. In the present study, global gene expression patterns revealed that tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) was the most profound of genes that are up-regulated in rat islets exposed to high glucose. Calcium and cAMP signals synergistically mediated glucose-stimulated Tph1 transcription in β-cells by activating cAMP-responsive element-binding protein and promoting its binding with a Tph1 promoter...
August 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774871/enteric-serotonin-and-oxytocin-endogenous-regulation-of-severity-in-a-murine-model-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#20
Kara Gross Margolis, Jennifer Vittorio, Maria Talavera, Karen Gluck, Zhishan Li, Alina Iuga, Korey Stevanovic, Virginia Saurman, Narek Israelyan, Martha G Welch, Michael D Gershon
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a gastrointestinal inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, causes a great deal of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. The liver as well as the gut may be affected in NEC. We tested the hypothesis that signaling molecules, which are endogenous to the bowel, regulate the severity of experimental NEC in mice. Specifically, we postulated that mucosal serotonin (5-HT), which is proinflammatory, would increase the severity of NEC and that oxytocin (OT), which is present in enteric neurons and is anti-inflammatory, would oppose NEC...
August 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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