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Resistant starch

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330563/characterization-of-the-endosperm-starch-and-the-pleiotropic-effects-of-biosynthetic-enzymes-on-their-properties-in-novel-mutant-rice-lines-with-high-resistant-starch-and-amylose-content
#1
Yuuki Itoh, Naoko Crofts, Misato Abe, Yuko Hosaka, Naoko Fujita
Resistant starch (RS) is beneficial to human health. In order to reduce the current prevalence of diabetes and obesity, several transgenic and mutant crops containing high RS content are being developed. RS content of steamed rice with starch-branching enzyme (BE)IIb-deficient mutant endosperms is considerably high. To understand the mechanisms of RS synthesis and to increase RS content, we developed novel mutant rice lines by introducing the gene encoding starch synthase (SS)IIa and/or granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS)I from an indica rice cultivar into a japonica rice-based BEIIb-deficient mutant line, be2b...
May 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326091/generation-of-high-amylose-rice-through-crispr-cas9-mediated-targeted-mutagenesis-of-starch-branching-enzymes
#2
Yongwei Sun, Guiai Jiao, Zupei Liu, Xin Zhang, Jingying Li, Xiuping Guo, Wenming Du, Jinlu Du, Frédéric Francis, Yunde Zhao, Lanqin Xia
Cereals high in amylose content (AC) and resistant starch (RS) offer potential health benefits. Previous studies using chemical mutagenesis or RNA interference have demonstrated that starch branching enzyme (SBE) plays a major role in determining the fine structure and physical properties of starch. However, it remains a challenge to control starch branching in commercial lines. Here, we use CRISPR/Cas9 technology to generate targeted mutagenesis in SBEI and SBEIIb in rice. The frequencies of obtained homozygous or bi-allelic mutant lines with indels in SBEI and SBEIIb in T0 generation were from 26...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325331/two-banana-cultivars-differ-in-composition-of-potentially-immunomodulatory-mannan-and-arabinogalactan
#3
Tânia M Shiga, Nicholas C Carpita, Franco Maria Lajolo, Beatriz Rosana Cordenunsi-Lysenko
Banana (Musa acuminata and M. acuminata x M. balbisiana) fruit cell walls are rich in mannans, homogalacturonans and xylogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan-I, and arabinogalactans, certain forms of which is considered to have immunomodulatory activity. The cultivars Nanicão and Thap Maeo represent two widely variants with respect to compositional differences in the forms of these polysaccharides. Nanicão has low amounts of mannan in the water-insoluble and water-soluble fraction. Both cultivars have high amounts of water-soluble arabinogalactan...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325312/structural-and-enzyme-kinetic-studies-of-retrograded-starch-inhibition-of-%C3%AE-amylase-and-consequences-for-intestinal-digestion-of-starch
#4
Hamung Patel, Paul G Royall, Simon Gaisford, Gareth R Williams, Cathrina H Edwards, Frederick J Warren, Bernadine M Flanagan, Peter R Ellis, Peter J Butterworth
Retrograded starch is known to be resistant to digestion. We used enzyme kinetic experiments to examine how retrogradation of starch affects amylolysis catalysed by porcine pancreatic amylase. Parallel studies employing differential scanning calorimetry, infra red spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and NMR spectroscopy were performed to monitor changes in supramolecular structure of gelatinised starch as it becomes retrograded. The total digestible starch and the catalytic efficiency of amylase were both decreased with increasing evidence of retrogradation...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317775/starch-and-protein-analysis-of-wheat-bread-enriched-with-phenolics-rich-sprouted-wheat-flour
#5
Michał Świeca, Dariusz Dziki, Urszula Gawlik-Dziki
Wheat flour in the bread formula was replaced with sprouted wheat flour (SF) characterized by enhanced nutraceutical properties, at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% levels. The addition of SF slightly increased the total protein content; however, it decreased their digestibility. Some qualitative and quantitative changes in the electrophoretic pattern of proteins were also observed; especially, in the bands corresponding with 27kDa and 15-17kDa proteins. These results were also confirmed by SE-HPLC technique, where a significant increase in the content of proteins and peptides (molecular masses <20kDa) was determined for breads with 20% of SF...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317765/the-effects-of-temperature-on-the-crystalline-properties-and-resistant-starch-during-storage-of-white-bread
#6
William R Sullivan, Jeff G Hughes, Russell W Cockman, Darryl M Small
Resistant starch (RS) can form during storage of foods, thereby bestowing a variety of potential health benefits. The purpose of the current study has been to determine the influence of storage temperature and time on the crystallinity and RS content of bread. Loaves of white bread were baked and stored at refrigeration, frozen and room temperatures with analysis over a period of zero to seven days. RS determination and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to evaluate the influence of storage temperature and time on total crystallinity and RS content...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303041/effect-of-triple-retrogradation-treatment-on-chickpea-resistant-starch-formation-and-its-characterization
#7
K Jagannadham, R Parimalavalli, A Surendra Babu
Chickpea starch was subjected to triple retrogradation cycle with time intervals of 24, 48 and 72 h. The impact on in vitro digestibility, functional, pasting and structural characteristics was investigated. Compared to native chickpea starch, the resistant starch (RS) content of triple retrograded starch was significantly increased with increased retrogradation time whereas slowly digestible starch content was decreased. Water binding capacity and solubility of triple retrograded starch were significantly increased whereas swelling power and pasting properties were decreased...
March 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303037/bioactive-constituents-in-pulses-and-their-health-benefits
#8
REVIEW
Balwinder Singh, Jatinder Pal Singh, Khetan Shevkani, Narpinder Singh, Amritpal Kaur
Pulses are good sources of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, phytosterols and non-digestible carbohydrates that play important physiological as well as metabolic roles. These compounds vary in concentration amongst different pulse species and varieties. Pulse seed coats are rich in water-insoluble fibres and polyphenols (having high antioxidant activities), while cotyledons contain higher soluble fibres, oligosaccharides, slowly digestible and resistant starch content. Ferulic acid is the most abundant phenolic acid present in pulses, while flavonol glycosides, anthocyanins and tannins are responsible for the seed coat colour...
March 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298678/effects-of-locust-bean-gum-on-the-structural-and-rheological-properties-of-resistant-corn-starch
#9
Raza Hussain, Ajaypal Singh, Hamed Vatankhah, Hosahalli S Ramaswamy
In this study, interactions between resistant corn starch (RS) (5% w/w) and locust bean gum (LBG) (0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0% w/v) on the viscoelastic, pasting and morphological characteristics of aqueous dispersions were evaluated. Results showed that the storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), and apparent viscosity values of starch/gum (RS/LBG) mixtures were enhanced with the addition of LBG, and the rheograms demonstrated a biphasic behavior. RS/LBG samples were predominantly either solid like (G' > G'') or viscous (G'' > G'), depending on the added concentration level of LBG...
March 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298535/resistant-starch-but-not-enzymatically-modified-waxy-maize-delays-development-of-diabetes-in-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#10
Mette Skou Hedemann, Kjeld Hermansen, Sven Pedersen, Knud Erik Bach Knudsen
Background: The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide, and nutritional management of circulating glucose may be a strategic tool in the prevention of T2D.Objective: We studied whether enzymatically modified waxy maize with an increased degree of branching delayed the onset of diabetes in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats.Methods: Forty-eight male ZDF rats, aged 5 wk, were divided into 4 groups and fed experimental diets for 9 wk that contained 52.95% starch: gelatinized corn starch (S), glucidex (GLU), resistant starch (RS), or enzymatically modified starch (EMS)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290325/assessing-the-effects-of-different-prebiotic-dietary-oligosaccharides-in-sheep-milk-ice-cream
#11
C F Balthazar, H L A Silva, A H Vieira, R P C Neto, L P Cappato, P T Coimbra, J Moraes, M M Andrade, V M A Calado, D Granato, M Q Freitas, M I B Tavares, R S L Raices, M C Silva, A G Cruz
The objective of this study was to assess the effects of different prebiotic dietary oligosaccharides (inulin, fructo-oligosaccharide, galacto-oligossacaride, short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide, resistant starch, corn dietary oligosaccharide and polydextrose) in non-fat sheep milk ice cream processing through physical parameters, water mobility and thermal analysis. Overall, the fat replacement by dietary prebiotic oligosaccharides significantly decreased the melting time, melting temperature and the fraction and relaxation time for fat and bound water (T22) while increased the white intensity and glass transition temperature...
January 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282260/production-optimization-of-a-heat-tolerant-alkaline-pectinase-from-bacillus-subtilis-zgl14-and-its-purification-and-characterization
#12
Ping Yu, Yishu Zhang, Donglu Gu
Alkaline pectinase has important applications in the pretreatment of waste water from food processing and in both the fabric and paper industries. In this study, a 2-level factorial design was used to screen significant factors that affect the activity of alkaline pectinase, and the response surface methodology (RSM) with a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize their concentrations. Starch, peptone, KH2PO4 and K2HPO4·3H2O were found to significantly affect the activity of alkaline pectinase. Their optimal concentrations were as follows: 4...
February 16, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273870/a-high-fiber-cookie-made-with-resistant-starch-type-4-reduces-post-prandial-glucose-and-insulin-responses-in-healthy-adults
#13
Maria L Stewart, J Paul Zimmer
Distarch phosphate is a resistant starch type 4 (RS4) containing phosphodiester cross-links within and between starch molecules. This study examined the glycemic effects of VERSAFIBE 1490™ resistant starch, a distarch phosphate derived from potato, containing 90% total dietary fiber (TDF, AOAC 991.43 method). In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 28 healthy adults consumed a cookie containing 24 g fiber from distarch phosphate (fiber cookie) or a control cookie containing 0...
March 5, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272804/in-vitro-starch-digestibility-of-commercial-gluten-free-pasta-the-role-of-ingredients-and-origin
#14
Alessandra Marti, Parisa Abbasi Parizad, Mauro Marengo, Daniela Erba, Maria Ambrogina Pagani, Maria Cristina Casiraghi
Gluten replacement in gluten-free (GF) products presents major challenges for the food industry in terms of sensorial, technological and nutritional characteristics. The absence of gluten reportedly affects starch digestibility, thus increasing the postprandial glycaemic response. However, the role of ingredients and processing conditions has been addressed only seldom. We investigated the in vitro starch digestibility of 9 commercial GF products (5 Italian pasta and 4 Oriental noodles) differing in formulation and processing conditions...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271854/verification-of-radio-frequency-pasteurization-treatment-for-controlling-aspergillus-parasiticus-on-corn-grains
#15
Ajuan Zheng, Lihui Zhang, Shaojin Wang
Radio frequency (RF) heating has been proposed and tested to achieve a required anti-fungal efficacy on various food samples due to its advantage of deeper penetration depth and better heating uniformity. The purpose of this study was to validate applications of RF treatments for controlling Aspergillus parasiticus in corn while maintaining product quality. A pilot-scale, 27.12MHz, 6kW RF heating system together with hot air heating was used to rapidly pasteurize 3.0kg corn samples. Results showed that the pasteurizing effect of RF heating on Aspergillus parasiticus increased with increasing heating temperature and holding time, and RF heating at 70°C holding in hot air for at least 12min resulted in 5-6 log reduction of Aspergillus parasiticus in corn samples with the moisture content of 15...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270822/biochar-amendment-modifies-expression-of-soybean-and-rhizoctonia-solani-genes-leading-to-increased-severity-of-rhizoctonia-foliar-blight
#16
Tanya Copley, Stéphane Bayen, Suha Jabaji
Application of biochar, a pyrolyzed biomass from organic sources, to agricultural soils is considered a promising strategy to sustain soil fertility leading to increased plant productivity. It is also known that applications of biochar to soilless potting substrates and to soil increases resistance of plants against diseases, but also bear the potential to have inconsistent and contradictory results depending on the type of biochar feedstock and application rate. The following study examined the effect of biochar produced from maple bark on soybean resistance against Rhizoctonia foliar blight (RFB) disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani, and examined the underlying molecular responses of both soybean and R...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267491/water-resistant-cellulosic-filter-containing-non-leaching-antimicrobial-starch-for-water-purification-and-disinfection
#17
Solmaz Heydarifard, Yuanfeng Pan, Huining Xiao, Mousa M Nazhad, Oleg Shipin
Water-resistant cellulose foam paper was developed in this work in an attempt to improve the antimicrobial activity of cellulose foam paper for capture and deactivation of pathogenic microorganisms existed in water. Results indicated that the cellulose foam paper could significantly improve household water quality by incorporating guanidine-based polymer modified with starch or called antibacterial thermoplastic starch (ATPS) into fibre network in the presence of proper amount of fiber fines. Ring diffusion testing demonstrated that no ATPS diffused around or underneath of samples, verifying that cellulose foam filter added by ATPS were of non-leaching type...
May 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265277/expression-pattern-of-erf-gene-family-under-multiple-abiotic-stresses-in-populus-simonii-%C3%A3-p-nigra
#18
Wenjing Yao, Xuemei Zhang, Boru Zhou, Kai Zhao, Renhua Li, Tingbo Jiang
Identification of gene expression patterns of key genes across multiple abiotic stresses is critical for mechanistic understanding of stress resistance in plant. In the present study, we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in di-haploid Populus simonii × P. nigra under respective stresses of NaCl, KCl, CdCl2, and PEG. On the basis of RNA-Seq, we detected 247 DEGs that are shared by the four stresses in wild type poplar, and mRNA abundance of the DEGs were validated in transgenic poplar overexpressing ERF76 gene by RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257879/enzymatically-synthesized-glycogen-inhibits-colitis-through-decreasing-oxidative-stress
#19
Takakazu Mitani, Yasukiyo Yoshioka, Takashi Furuyashiki, Yoko Yamashita, Yasuhito Shirai, Hitoshi Ashida
Inflammatory bowel diseases are a group of chronic inflammation conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Disruption of the mucosal immune response causes accumulation of oxidative stress, resulting in the induction of inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG), which is produced from starch, on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)- and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice. Oral administration of ESG suppressed DSS- and TNBS-induced shortening of large intestine in female mice and significant decreased DSS-induced oxidative stress and TNBS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the large intestine...
February 28, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244775/a-new-fructose-free-resistant-starch-type-iv-enriched-enteral-formula-improves-glycaemic-control-and-cardiovascular-risk-biomarkers-when-administered-for-six-weeks-to-elderly-diabetic-patients
#20
María Dolores Mesa García, Cruz Erika García-Rodríguez, María de la Cruz Rico, Concepción María Aguilera, Milagros Pérez-Rodríguez, Antonio Jesús Pérez-de-la-Cruz, Ángel Gil
BACKGROUND: Reducing the dietary glycaemic response has been proposed as a way to reduce the risk of diabetes complications. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk biomarkers in fragile, elderly type 2 diabetes patients after the intake of a new fructose-free diabetes-specific formula enriched with resistant-starch type IV and high in monounsaturated fatty acids. METHODS: Forty-one type 2 diabetes patients aged 78...
February 1, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
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