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Resistant starch

Marion Bienert, Niklas Plange, Andreas Remky, Kay Oliver Arend, David Kuerten
Purpose: Ischemic ocular disorders may be treated by hypervolemic hemodilution. The presumed therapeutic benefit is based on a volume effect and improved rheological factors. The aim was to investigate the acute effect of intravenous hydroxyethyl starch on retrobulbar hemodynamics in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Methods: 24 patients with acute NAION were included. Retrobulbar hemodynamics were measured using color Doppler imaging before and 15 min after intravenous infusion of 250 cc 10% hydroxyethyl starch (HES)...
2018: BioMed Research International
Roghayeh Amini Sarteshnizi, Hedayat Hosseini, Nader Karimian Khosroshahi, Farzane Shahraz, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah, Manije Kamran, Rozita Komeili, Emma Chiavaro
This study aims to evaluate the performance of two types of prebiotic sausages formulated with resistant starch (RS) and β-glucan (BG) extract (in ratios of 2.22:1.33 and 2.75:1.88) during frying and chilled storage. The oxidative stability indices and microbial counts were determined. The incorporation of two types of prebiotic dietary fibre increased frying loss and oil absorption. However, the moisture content of prebiotic sausages after production was higher than of conventional sausages and it decreased significantly during storage...
December 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Norikazu Watanabe, Masataka Suzuki, Yoshitake Yamaguchi, Yukari Egashira
It is well known that dietary fiber helps to relieve and prevent constipation, and there are a number of scientific papers, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of naturally derived dietary fiber on bowel movements. In recent years, there has been an increase in the manufacture of dietary fiber ingredients obtained from food raw materials, and these are now commonly available in the market. Resistant maltodextrin (RMD), a soluble dietary fiber, is manufactured from starch, and industrially produced soluble dietary fiber is used worldwide...
2018: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
Hamid Tayebi Khosroshahi, Nosratola D Vaziri, Behzad Abedi, Bahlol Habibi Asl, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Wanghui Jing, Amir Mansur Vatankhah
INTRODUCTION: Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress play a central role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and numerous other complications of CKD. Recent studies demonstrated that consumption of a diet enriched with amylose (HAM-RS2), attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation, and improves intestinal microbiome in CKD rats. The present study was designed to explore the effect of dietary amylose supplementation in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: Forty-six stable hemodialysis patients were randomized to receive biscuits containing 20 g/day during the first four weeks and 25 g/day in the next four weeks of either HAM-RS2 or wheat-flour...
March 13, 2018: Hemodialysis International
Jason P Londo, Alisson P Kovaleski, Jacquelyn A Lillis
Low-temperature stresses limit the sustainability and productivity of grapevines when early spring frosts damage young grapevine leaves. Spring conditions often expose grapevines to low, but not damaging, chilling temperatures and these temperatures have been shown to increase freeze resistance in other model systems. In this study, we examined whole-transcriptome gene expression patterns of young leaf tissue from cuttings of five different grapevine cultivars, exposed to chill and freeze shock, in order to understand the underlying transcriptional landscape associated with cold stress response...
2018: Horticulture Research
Monica A Newman, Renée M Petri, Dietmar Grüll, Qendrim Zebeli, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli
Dietary inclusion of resistant starches can promote host health through modulation of the gastrointestinal microbiota, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles, and lipid metabolism. This study investigated the impact of a transglycosylated cornstarch (TGS) on gastric, ileal, cecal, proximal-colonic, and mid-colonic bacterial community profiles and fermentation metabolites using a growing pig model. It additionally evaluated the effect of TGS on the expression of host genes related to glucose and SCFA absorption, incretins, and satiety in the gut as well as host genes related to lipid metabolism in hepatic and adipose tissue...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
G Arámbula-Villa, M G Figueroa-Rivera, R Rendón-Villalobos, M Mendoza-Elos, J D Figueroa-Cárdenas, R Castanedo-Pérez, F Rodríguez-González
Nixtamalized maize tortilla is a basic food for the Mexican population. It has high energy due to high starch, which may be modified to decrease its bioavailability and to produce changes in the characteristics of flours. For this research, nixtamalized maize flour was prepared and subjected to an acetylation chemical process, with and without prior hydrolysis. Raw maize flour, traditionally nixtamalized maize flour, acetylated-nixtamalized maize flour (AF) and acetylated-hydrolyzed nixtamalized maize flour (AHF) were prepared and evaluated...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Bárbara Biduski, Wyller Max Ferreira da Silva, Rosana Colussi, Shanise Lisie de Mello El Halal, Loong-Tak Lim, Álvaro Renato Guerra Dias, Elessandra da Rosa Zavareze
Gelatinization and retrogradation, influenced by amylose and amylopectin ratio, are important characteristics for elaboration starch hydrogels. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of amylose content and the gelatinization method on the physicochemical characteristics of native and cross-linked rice starch hydrogels. The native and cross-linked starches were gelatinized with heating or alkaline solution, added polyvinyl alcohol, frozen and then freeze-dried. The cross-linked starch had a low final viscosity (101...
February 24, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Bingyan Chen, Xiangze Jia, Song Miao, Shaoxiao Zeng, Zebin Guo, Yi Zhang, Baodong Zheng
Starch-lipid complexes were prepared using lotus seed starch (LS) and glycerin monostearate (GMS) via a high-pressure homogenization process, and the effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) on the slow digestion properties of LS-GMS was investigated. The digestion profiles showed HPH treatment reduced the digestive rate of LS-GMS, and the extent of this change was dependent on homogenized pressure. Scanning electron microscopy displayed HPH treatment change the morphology of LS-GMS, with high pressure producing more compact block-shape structure to resist enzyme digestion...
June 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Qing Zhou, Yihui Li, Yanhong Zhu, Chan Yu, Haibo Jia, Binghao Bao, Hang Hu, Chen Xiao, Jianqi Zhang, Xiaofan Zeng, Ying Wan, Huibi Xu, Zifu Li, Xiangliang Yang
Heterogeneous distribution of drug inside tumor is ubiquitous, causing regional insufficient chemotherapy, which might be the hotbed for drug resistance, tumor cell repopulation and metastasis. Herein, we verify, for the first time, that heterogeneous drug distribution induced insufficient chemotherapy would accelerate the process of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), consequently resulting in the promotion of tumor metastasis. To eliminate the insufficient chemotherapy promoted metastasis, we conceived a co-delivery strategy by hydroxyethyl starch-polylactide (HES-PLA) nanoparticle, in which DOX and TGF-β receptor inhibitor, LY2157299 (LY), were administered together...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Diana Obanda, Ryan Page, Justin Guice, Anne M Raggio, Claudia Husseneder, Brian Marx, Rhett W Stout, David A Welsh, Christopher M Taylor, Meng Luo, Eugene E Blanchard, Zach Bendiks, Diana Coulon, Michael J Keenan
OBJECTIVE: This study used CD obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rats to examine how weight gain and fat accretion relate to fermentation levels and microbiota composition after feeding resistant starch (RS). METHODS: After feeding OP rats and OR rats a high-fat (HF) diet for 4 weeks, rats were stratified into three groups: they were fed either an HF diet (group 1: HF-HF) or were switched to a low-fat (LF) diet (group 2: HF-LF) or an LF diet supplemented with 20% RS by weight for 4 weeks (group 3: HF-LFRS)...
March 2018: Obesity
Biao Zhang, Ke Guo, Lingshang Lin, Cunxu Wei
Chinese yam is an important edible starch plant and widely cultivated in China. Its rhizome and bulbil are starch storage tissues below and above ground, respectively. In this paper, starches were isolated from the rhizome and bulbil of Chinese yam, and their structural and functional properties were compared. Both starches had an oval shape with an eccentric hilum and a CA -type crystalline structure. Their short-range ordered structure and lamellar structure had no significant difference. However, the rhizome starch had a significantly bigger granule size and lower amylose content than the bulbil starch...
February 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yadong Sun, Jiyou Gu, Haiyan Tan, Yanhua Zhang, Pengfei Huo
Starch-based adhesives were prepared by esterification modification with dodecenyl succinic anhydride (DDSA) and polyaryl polymethylene isocyanate (PAPI) as a crosslinking agent. DDSA modified starch (DMS) adhesives could significantly enhance the viscosity and adhesion strength of starch adhesives, making it beneficial to be applied in the field of plywood industry. This paper investigated the physicochemical properties of starch modified by dodecenyl succinic anhydride. Solid content, viscosity, adhesion, structural change and morphological features were characterized in detail...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Camila de Barros Mesquita, Émerson Loli Garcia, Ana Carolina Batista Bolfarini, Sarita Leonel, Célia Maria L Franco, Magali Leonel
The unripe banana has been studied as a potential source of starch for use in various applications. Considering the importance of phosphorus in the biosynthesis of the starch and also the interference of this mineral in starch properties, in this study it was evaluated the effect of rates of phosphate fertilizer applied in the cultivation of 'Maçã' banana on the characteristics of the starch. Starches extracted from fruits from different treatments were analyzed for morphological characteristics, X-ray diffraction pattern, relative crystallinity, granule size, amylose, resistant starch and phosphorus levels, as well as, for pasting and thermal properties...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yan Cao, Xiaoli Chen, Ying Sun, Jialiang Shi, Xiaojuan Xu, Yong-Cheng Shi
Pyrodextrin shares some properties of resistant starch which is metabolically beneficial, and has potential applications as a functional food. In this study, we report that oral administration of pyrodextrin (50 mg/kg/d for 7 weeks) decreased the blood glucose (from 9.18±1.47 to 7.67±0.42 mmol/L), serum HbA1c, triglycerides, adipocyte size, and body weights (from 24.4±1.2 to 22.5±1.2 g) in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. The Western blotting analysis suggested that pyrodextrins decreased the intestinal SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 expression to ~70% and ~60% of the obese control to slow down glucose transportation from gut into blood, and improved the hepatic metabolism tentatively...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Carlos Trapero, Esteban Alcántara, Jaime Jiménez, María C Amaro-Ventura, Joaquín Romero, Birger Koopmann, Petr Karlovsky, Andreas von Tiedemann, Mario Pérez-Rodríguez, Francisco J López-Escudero
This study investigated starch content, amount of pathogen DNA and density of occluded vessels in healthy and Verticillium dahliae infected olive shoots and stems. Starch hydrolysis is considered a mechanism to refill xylem vessels that suffered cavitation by either, drought conditions or pathogen infections. The main objective of this work was to evaluate this mechanism in olive plants subjected to V. dahliae infection or to drought conditions, in order to know the importance of cavitation in the development of wilting symptoms...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Carolina Estefanía Chávez-Murillo, Jorge Ivan Veyna-Torres, Luisa María Cavazos-Tamez, Julián de la Rosa-Millán, Sergio Othon Serna-Saldívar
Hydrothermal treatments, annealing (ANN) and heat moisture treatment (HMT) were applied to four whole pulse flours (black bean, broad bean, chickpea and lentil) with the aim to increase their slow digestible (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) fractions. In order to assess differences in their molecular interactions, they were analyzed and compared by ATR-FTIR before and after in vitro digestion. Both hydrothermal treatments promoted changes on starch granular architecture, being reflected on their thermal and pasting properties, that where positively correlated with their amylose and protein contents (R=0...
March 2018: Food Research International
Luis A Bello-Perez, Pamela C Flores-Silva, Edith Agama-Acevedo, Juscelino Tovar
In the last century, starch present in foods was considered to be completely digested. However, during the eighties, studies on starch digestion started to show that besides digestible starch, which could be rapidly or slowly hydrolysed, there was a variable fraction that resisted hydrolysis by digestive enzymes. That fraction was named resistant starch (RS) and it encompasses those forms of starch that are not accessible to human digestive enzymes but can be fermented by the colonic microbiota, producing short chain fatty acids...
February 10, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Xue Zhao, Mariette Andersson, Roger Andersson
Tubers from a genetically modified high-amylose line T-2012 and its parental potato cultivar Dinamo were analyzed for resistant starch (RS) and dietary fiber (DF) after cooking and cold storage. For uncooked potatoes, the high-amylose tubers (30% of dry matter, DM) had much lower RS than the parent tubers (56% of DM). However, after cooking, the high-amylose tubers gave more RS (13% of DM) than the parent (4% of DM), and the RS level increased further to about 20% of DM after 1 day of cold storage. The altered RS content was attributable to changes in amylose content, starch granule structure, and amylopectin structure induced by the genetic modification...
June 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Hongliang Zeng, Peilin Chen, Chuanjie Chen, Cancan Huang, Shan Lin, Baodong Zheng, Yi Zhang
The objective of this study was to fractionate lotus seed resistant starch (LRS3) and investigate their structural properties and prebiotic activities. Two main fractions of resistant starch precipitated gradually by ethanol at concentrations of 20% and 30% were named as LRS3-20% and LRS3-30%, respectively. The swelling power and solubility of LRS3-20% were smaller compared to LRS3-30%, and their moisture and resistant starch contents were not significantly different. LRS3-20% and LRS3-30% had molecular weights mainly of 2...
June 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
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