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Resistant starch

Noha M Mesbah, Juergen Wiegel
A pullulanase, PulD7, was identified in the genome of the halophilic, alkalithermophilic isolate Alkalilimnicola sp. NM-DCM-1. PulD7 is 701 amino acids large with a carbohydrate binding module (CBM) 48 at the N-terminal. The full length PulD7 and N- and C-terminal truncated versions were cloned, heterologously expressed and functionally characterized. PulD7 displayed maximal activity at 55 °C, pH 9.5 and 2 M NaCl. PulD7 had good thermal stability, with a half-life of 693 min at 50 °C. PulD7 is an amylopullulanase, hydrolyzing both α‑1,4‑ and α‑1,6‑glycosidic bonds in soluble starch and pullulan, respectively...
January 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Stefanie Hackenberg, Mario Jekle, Thomas Becker
Mechanical flour modification is frequently associated with a reduced bread volume due to changed structural and functional properties of protein and starch. To clarify the effect of mechanical flour treatment on the protein network formation at the optimum kneading time (Peaktime), dough was produced with various mechanical starch modification (MSM) levels and visualized by confocal laser scanning microscope before being characterized by protein network analysis (PNA). Dough produced with high MSM showed a reduced branching rate (-14%), a high end-point rate (+25%) and an increased lacunarity (+139%), indicating a poor network connectivity with network interruptions...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Hilal Demirkesen-Bicak, Zeynep Tacer-Caba, Dilara Nilufer-Erdil
This study aimed to increase resistant starch (RS) content of black chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) by using pullulanase enzyme. Physicochemical and functional properties of enzyme treated starch (NE) was compared with that of enzyme-treated and gelatinized starch (GE) and the retrograded control starch (RC). RS contents for native black chickpea starch (NS) and black chickpea flour (NF) were measured as 15.2% and 5.0%, respectively. While for NE and GE, were found as 16.4% and 12.3%, respectively. Treatments made on the NS, increased the amount of RDS and reduced the amount of SDS significantly (p < ...
January 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ting Pan, Lingshang Lin, Juan Wang, Qiaoquan Liu, Cunxu Wei
BACKGROUND: Endosperm starch provides prime energy for cereal seedling growth. Cereal endosperm with repression of starch branching enzyme (SBE) has been widely studied for its high resistant starch content and health benefit. However, in barley and maize, the repression of SBE changes starch component and amylopectin structure which affects grain germination and seedling establishment. A high resistant starch rice line (TRS) has been developed through inhibiting SBEI/IIb, and its starch has very high resistance to in vitro hydrolysis and digestion...
January 8, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Zhan-Hui Lu, Elizabeth Donner, Qiang Liu
Oven or microwave roasting and alginate encapsulation of pea flour and starch to produce novel pea ingredients for enrichment of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) content in pea bread were investigated. Pea flour treated either by oven roasting (160°C, 30min) or by microwave roasting (1.1kW, 6min) effectively retained its low starch digestibility similar to its native form (∼25% SDS; ∼60% RS). When oven roasting was applied to pea starch, SDS content increased triply compared to the fully boiled counterpart...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Na Ji, Chengzhen Liu, Man Li, Qingjie Sun, Liu Xiong
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) on amylolytic enzyme activity and starch digestibility. For the first time, we investigated the interaction between α-amylase or glucoamylase and CNCs using ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence quenching method, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and circular dichroism (CD). The results of UV and fluorescence spectra suggested that CNCs interacted with α-amylase and glucoamylase. Increasing the concentration of CNCs caused a reduction of α-amylase and glucoamylase activities...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Chunjiang Xu, Chao Chen, Defeng Wu
The platelet-like starch nanocrystal (SNC) particles were used to prepare composite membrane with biodegradable poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) for the potential packaging membrane application. The presence of SNC particles improves gas barrier properties, tearing strength, as well as the creep resistance of the PCL membrane evidently at the lower loading levels. This improvement effect can be further enhanced by the surface acetylation of SNC. The presence of acetylated SNC particles (1wt%) can reduce the oxygen transmission rate by about 70% and increase the tearing strength by about 68%, which is due to the improved phase adhesion...
February 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Ceren Mutlu, Sultan Arslan-Tontul, Cihadiye Candal, Ozlem Kilic, Mustafa Erbas
The aim of this study was to investigate some physicochemical and sensory properties of blue corn cultivated in Turkey. The length and width of the cob with kernels, hectoliter, and 1000-kernel weight of blue corn were measured as 7.66, 2.02 mm, 84.40 kg/100 L, and 44.27 g, respectively. The gelatinization onset, peak, and end temperatures were measured as 61.12 °C, 64.35 °C, and 75.65 °C, respectively. The water activity, moisture content, total protein, lipid, and crude fiber contents of the blue corn sample were detected as 0...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Kara L Marlatt, Ursula A White, Robbie A Beyl, Courtney M Peterson, Corby K Martin, Maria L Marco, Michael J Keenan, Roy J Martin, Kayanush J Aryana, Eric Ravussin
Dietary resistant starch (RS) might alter gastrointestinal tract function in a manner that improves human health, particularly among adults at risk for diabetes. Here, we report the design and baseline results (with emphasis on race differences) from the STARCH trial, the first comprehensive metabolic phenotyping of people with prediabetes enrolled in a randomized clinical trial testing the effect of RS on risk factors for diabetes. Overweight/obese participants (BMI≥27kg/m2 and weight≤143kg), age 35-75y, with confirmed prediabetes were eligible...
December 21, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Hao Zhang, Zhengxing Chen, Xing Zhou, Jian He, Tao Wang, Xiaohu Luo, Li Wang, Ren Wang
Amylosucrase is a valuable enzymatic tool for the preparation of resistant starch (RS). This study investigated the morphology, thermal properties and molecular structure of the RS components resulting from the digestion of amylosucrase modified starches (MSs). Morphology of starch samples suggests that the surface of MSs is partially attacked by the digestion enzymes. Besides, the peak melting temperature of RSs shows a considerable increase compared with that of the corresponding MSs. Branch chain length distributions data reveals that the long branch chains of MSs are prone to being hydrolyzed, and the branch chains with degree polymerization of 22-32 are the largest populations among the RS components...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Elizabeth A Pletsch, Bruce R Hamaker
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Consumption of whole vs. refined grain foods is recommended by nutrition or dietary guideline authorities of many countries, yet specific aspects of whole grains leading to health benefits are not well understood. Gastric emptying rate is an important consideration, as it is tied to nutrient delivery rate and influences glycemic response. Our objective was to explore two aspects of cooked rice related to gastric emptying, (1) whole grain brown vs. white rice and (2) potential effect of elevated levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) from high-amylose rice...
October 23, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Yan Hu, Xi Zhong, Xuelu Liu, Binghai Lou, Changyong Zhou, Xuefeng Wang
Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), a highly devastating citrus disease, is associated with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiacitus' (CLas), a member of phloem-inhabiting α-proteobacteria. HLB can affect all cultivated citrus and no cure is currently available. Previous studies showed that Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix), primarily grown in South Asia and Southeast Asia, was tolerant to HLB but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, gene expression profiling experiments were performed on HLB-tolerant C. hystrix and HLB-susceptible C...
2017: PloS One
Guo-Qiang Chen, Xiao-Ran Jiang
Industrial biotechnology aims to produce bulk chemicals including polymeric materials and biofuels based on bioprocessing sustainable agriculture products such as starch, fatty acids and/or cellulose. However, traditional bioprocesses require bioreactors made of stainless steel, complicated sterilization, difficult and expensive separation procedures as well as well-trained engineers that are able to conduct bioprocessing under sterile conditions, reducing the competitiveness of the bio-products. Amid the continuous low petroleum price, next generation industrial biotechnology (NGIB) allows bioprocessing to be conducted under unsterile (open) conditions using ceramic, cement or plastic bioreactors in a continuous way, it should be an energy, water and substrate saving technology with convenient operation procedure...
December 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Birgit W Hütsch, Katrin Keipp, Ann-Kathrin Glaser, Sven Schubert
BACKGROUND: Chloride sensitivity of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Marabel and Désirée was investigated in two pot experiments (soil/sand mixture and hydroponics). It was tested whether there are differential effects of KCl and K2 SO4 application on tuber yield and tuber quality, and whether both potato cultivars differ in their chloride sensitivity. RESULTS: Tuber yield, dry matter percentage of the tubers, starch concentration and starch yield were not significantly affected by potassium source (K2 SO4 or KCl)...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Fasahath Husain, Kevin Tang, Yaligara Veeranagouda, Renata Boente, Sheila Patrick, Garry Blakely, Hannah M Wexler
Bacteroides fragilis, an important component of the human gastrointestinal microbiota, can cause lethal extra-intestinal infection upon escape from the gastrointestinal tract. We demonstrated transfer and recombination of large chromosomal segments from B. fragilis HMW615, a multidrug resistant clinical isolate, to B. fragilis 638R. In one example, the transfer of a segment of ~435 Kb/356 genes replaced ~413 Kb/326 genes of the B. fragilis 638R chromosome. In addition to transfer of antibiotic resistance genes, these transfers (1) replaced complete divergent polysaccharide biosynthesis loci; (2) replaced DNA inversion-controlled intergenic shufflons (that control expression of genes encoding starch utilization system outer membrane proteins) with more complex, divergent shufflons; and (3) introduced additional intergenic shufflons encoding divergent Type 1 restriction/modification systems...
November 2017: Microbial Genomics
Ayesha Siddiqui, Mustafa Kamal, Seyed Abdulmajid Ayatollahi, Mohsin Ali, Mansoor Ahmed
Bacillus licheniformis RM44 was isolated from hot spring near Karachi and screened for the production of extracellular amylase Amy RM44. Amy RM44 was purified to homogeneity on a single step by affinity chromatography using insoluble corn starch. The molecular weight of Amy RM44 was estimated to be 66 kDa by SDS-PAGE and zymographic analysis. Nine fold purification was achieved with the specific activity of 870 U/mg that provides the total yield of the enzyme up to 31%. Studies on purified AmyRM44 characterization revealed that the optimum temperature of enzyme was 100 ºC...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Kuaifei Xia, Xuan Zeng, Zhengli Jiao, Maolin Li, Weijuan Xu, Quandong Nong, Hui Mo, Taihui Cheng, Mingyong Zhang
Correct folding of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum is important for their stability and function under stress. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDIs) OsPDIL1;1 is a key protein-folding catalyst in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Here, microRNA5144 (osa-miR5144-3p) is reported to mediate the formation of protein disulfide bonds via targeting OsPDIL1;1 mRNA in rice seeds and seedlings during development and under conditions of abiotic stress, respectively. Expression analysis of transgenic rice and identification of cleavage sites showed that OsPDIL1;1 mRNA is a target of osa-miR5144-3p...
November 28, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Hui Sun, Xiaohan Ma, Shiqi Zhang, Dan Zhao, Xiong Liu
The aim of the study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of low, medium, and high doses of resistant starch type 2(RS2;100, 150, and 200g/kg) for 28days and explore its potential mechanism of this effect in type 2 diabetic rats treated with high-glucose-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin(STZ). RS2 treatment induced better regulation of lipid in plasma and liver, fructosamine, oral glucose tolerance test, insulin, glucose metabolism and pancreatic damage in diabetic rats. The best hypoglycemic activity was observed after the medium-dose RS2 treatment...
November 27, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mochamad Asrofi, Hairul Abral, Yogi Kurnia Putra, S M Sapuan, Hyun-Joong Kim
This paper characterizes properties of biocomposite sonicated during gelatinization. The biocomposite consisted of tapioca starch based plastic reinforced by 10% volume fraction of water hyacinth fiber (WHF). During gelatinization, the biocomposite was poured into a rectangular glass mold then vibrated in an ultrasonic bath using 40kHz, 250watts for varying durations (0, 15, 30, and 60min). The resulting biocomposite was then dried in a drying oven at 50°C for 20h. The results of this study indicate that a biocomposite with optimal properties can be produced using tapioca starch and WHF if the gelatinizing mixture is exposed to ultrasound vibration for 30min...
November 27, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mousami Shankar Addala, Muralikrishna Gudipati
Resistant starch is not digestible in the small intestine and is fermented by lactic acid bacteria in the large intestine into short chain fatty acids, such as acetate, propionate and butyrate, which result in several health benefits in analogy with dietary fibre components. The mode and mechanism of resistant starch degradation by lactic acid bacteria is still not understood. In the present study, we have purified α-D-glucosidase from Lactobacillus fermentum NCDC 156 by employing three sequential steps i...
November 29, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
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