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Resistant starch

Caleigh M Sawicki, Kara A Livingston, Martin Obin, Susan B Roberts, Mei Chung, Nicola M McKeown
Interest is rapidly growing around the role of the human gut microbiota in facilitating beneficial health effects associated with consumption of dietary fiber. An evidence map of current research activity in this area was created using a newly developed database of dietary fiber intervention studies in humans to identify studies with the following broad outcomes: (1) modulation of colonic microflora; and/or (2) colonic fermentation/short-chain fatty acid concentration. Study design characteristics, fiber exposures, and outcome categories were summarized...
February 10, 2017: Nutrients
Liyi Huang, Grzegorz Szewczyk, Tadeusz Sarna, Michael R Hamblin
It is known that non-cationic porphyrins such as Photofrin (PF) are effective in mediating antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) of Gram-positive bacteria or fungi. However the aPDI activity of PF against Gram-negative bacteria is accepted to be extremely low. Here we report that the non-toxic inorganic salt, potassium iodide (KI) at a concentration of 100mM when added to microbial cells (10(8)/mL) + PF (10µM hematoporphyrin equivalent) + 415nm light (10J/cm2) can eradicate (>6 logs killing) five different Gram-negative species (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Acinetobacter baumannii), while no killing was obtained without KI...
February 16, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
Timo Engelsdorf, Cornelia Will, Jörg Hofmann, Christine Schmitt, Brian B Merritt, Leonie Rieger, Marc S Frenger, André Marschall, Rochus B Franke, Sivakumar Pattathil, Lars M Voll
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Chun-Xia Li, Zhi-Gang Xu, Rui-Qi Dong, Sheng-Xin Chang, Lian-Zhen Wang, Muhammad Khalil-Ur-Rehman, Jian-Min Tao
Using an RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) approach, we analyzed the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and physiological behaviors of "Manicure Finger" grape plantlets grown in vitro under white, blue, green, and red light. A total of 670, 1601, and 746 DEGs were identified in plants exposed to blue, green, and red light, respectively, compared to the control (white light). By comparing the gene expression patterns with the growth and physiological responses of the grape plantlets, we were able to link the responses of the plants to light of different spectral wavelengths and the expression of particular sets of genes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xu Chen, Xiaowei He, Xiong Fu, Bin Zhang, Qiang Huang
This study investigated structural, in vitro digestion and physicochemical properties of normal rice starch (NRS)/flour (NRF) complexed with maize oil (MO) through heat-moisture treatment (HMT). The NRS-/NRF-MO complex displayed an increased pasting temperature and a decreased peak viscosity. After HMT, less ordered Maltese and more granule fragments were observed for NRS-/NRF-MO complex. Meanwhile, more aggregation was observed in the HMT samples with higher moisture contents. We found that higher onset temperature, lower enthalpy change and relative crystallinity of the NRS-/NRF-MO complex were associated with a higher moisture content of HMT samples...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Tingting Chen, Choon Young Kim, Amandeep Kaur, Lisa Lamothe, Maliha Shaikh, Ali Keshavarzian, Bruce R Hamaker
Impaired gut barrier function plays an important role in the development of many diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and in HIV infection. Dietary fibres have been shown to improve intestinal barrier function through their fermentation products, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and the effects of individual SCFAs have been studied. Here, different SCFA mixtures representing possible compositions from fibre fermentation products were studied for protective and reparative effects on intestinal barrier function...
February 8, 2017: Food & Function
Tao Wei, Kejun Deng, Qingxia Zhang, Yonghong Gao, Yu Liu, Meiling Yang, Lipeng Zhang, Xuelian Zheng, Chunguo Wang, Zhiwei Liu, Chengbin Chen, Yong Zhang
Dehydration responsive element binding proteins are transcription factors of the plant-specific AP2 family, many of which contribute to abiotic stress responses in several plant species. We investigated the possibility of increasing drought tolerance in the traditional Chinese medicinal herb, Salvia miltiorrhiza, through modulating the transcriptional regulation of AtDREB1C in transgenic plants under the control of a constitutive (35S) or drought-inducible (RD29A) promoter. AtDREB1C transgenic S. miltiorrhiza plants showed increased survival under severe drought conditions compared to the non-transgenic wild-type (WT) control...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Miguel A Martínez-Ortiz, Apolonio Vargas-Torres, Alma D Román-Gutiérrez, Norberto Chavarría-Hernández, Paul B Zamudio-Flores, Martín Meza-Nieto, Heidi M Palma-Rodríguez
Chayotextle starch was modified by subjecting it to a dual treatment with acid and heating-cooling cycles. This caused a decrease in the content of amylose, which showed values of 30.22%, 4.80%, 3.27% and 3.57% for native chayotextle starch (NCS), starch modified by acid hydrolysis (CMS), and CMS with one (CMS1AC) and three autoclave cycles (CMS3AC), respectively. The percentage of crystallinity showed an increase of 36.9%-62% for NCS and CMS3AC. The highest content of resistant starch (RS) was observed in CMS3AC (37...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Laure B Bindels, Rafael R Segura Munoz, João Carlos Gomes-Neto, Valentin Mutemberezi, Inés Martínez, Nuria Salazar, Elizabeth A Cody, Maria I Quintero-Villegas, Hatem Kittana, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Robert J Schmaltz, Giulio G Muccioli, Jens Walter, Amanda E Ramer-Tait
BACKGROUND: Obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, have reached epidemic proportions in industrialized nations, and dietary interventions for their prevention are therefore important. Resistant starches (RS) improve insulin sensitivity in clinical trials, but the mechanisms underlying this health benefit remain poorly understood. Because RS fermentation by the gut microbiota results in the formation of physiologically active metabolites, we chose to specifically determine the role of the gut microbiota in mediating the metabolic benefits of RS...
February 7, 2017: Microbiome
Xuetao Chen, Xia Li, Xinhui Mao, Hanhan Huang, Tingting Wang, Zhuo Qu, Jing Miao, Wenyuan Gao
The effects of five different drying processes, air drying (AD), sulphur fumigation drying (SFD), hot air drying (HAD), freeze drying (FD) and microwave drying (MWD) for yams in terms of starch-related properties and antioxidant activity were studied. From the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarized optical microscopy (POM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), the MWD sample was found to contain gelatinized starch granules. The FD yam had more slow digestible (SDS) and resistant starches (RS) compared with those processed with other modern drying methods...
June 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Ewelina Basiak, Andrzej Lenart, Frédéric Debeaufort
Food preservation is mostly related to packaging in oil-based plastics, inducing environmental problems, but this drawback could be limited by using edible/biodegradable films and coatings. Physical and chemical properties were assessed and reflect the role of the starch type (wheat, corn or potato) and thus that of the amylose/amylopectin ratio, which influences thickness, colour, moisture, wettability, thermal, surface and mechanical properties. Higher amylose content in films induces higher moisture sensitivity, and thus affects the mechanical and barrier properties...
January 28, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Moul Dey
Recent characterization of the human microbiome and its influences on health have led to dramatic conceptual shifts in dietary bioactives research. Prebiotic foods that include many dietary fibers and resistant starches are perceived as beneficial for maintaining a healthy gut microbiota. This article brings forward some current perspectives in prebiotic research to discuss why reporting of individual variations in response to interventions will be important to discern suitability of prebiotics as a disease prevention tool...
January 26, 2017: Nutrients
Carlo G Rizzello, Michela Verni, Hanna Koivula, Marco Montemurro, Laila Seppa, Marianna Kemell, Kati Katina, Rossana Coda, Marco Gobbetti
Faba bean has gained increasing attention from the food industry and the consumers mainly due to the quality of its protein fraction. Fermentation has been recently recognized as the most efficient tool for improving its nutritional and organoleptic properties. In this study, faba bean flour fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum DPPMAB24W was used to fortify semolina pasta. Pasta samples including different percentages of fermented faba bean flour were produced at the pilot-plant level and characterized using an integrated approach for chemical, nutritional, technological, and sensory features...
January 27, 2017: Food & Function
Annalisa Romano, Alan Mackie, Federica Farina, Maria Aponte, Fabrizio Sarghini, Paolo Masi
In this study native starches as ingredients (corn, rice, wheat, tapioca and potato) were characterized for microstructure, physicochemical, functional and thermal properties, in vitro digestibility and glycemic index. There was a significant variation in the granule shape and size distribution of the starches. Particle size monomodal (corn, tapioca, potato) and bimodal (rice, wheat) distribution was observed amongst the starches. The potato starch showed the biggest size granules while the rice showed the smallest...
December 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Ridhwan Jumaidin, Salit M Sapuan, Mohammad Jawaid, Mohamad R Ishak, Japar Sahari
The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of sugar palm fibre (SPF) on the mechanical, thermal and physical properties of seaweed/thermoplastic sugar palm starch agar (TPSA) composites. Hybridized seaweed/SPF filler at weight ratio of 25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 were prepared using TPSA as a matrix. Mechanical, thermal and physical properties of hybrid composites were carried out. Obtained results indicated that hybrid composites display improved tensile and flexural properties accompanied with lower impact resistance...
April 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Alireza Dafe, Hossein Etemadi, Azita Dilmaghani, Gholam Reza Mahdavinia
The present study highlights the fabrication of novel food-grade hydrogel particles based on pectin and starch for probiotic colon delivery. Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC:13643 (L. plantarum) cells were encapsulated in pectin/starch hydrogels by extrusion method. Four batches were formulated with different ratios of starch/pectin solutions. Optical and scanning electron microscopy obviously showed the random distribution of L. plantarum throughout the hydrogel network. The viability of encapsulated cells in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and bile salt solution was significantly higher when compared to nonencapsulated cells...
April 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Margarita Pérez-Jiménez, María Hernández-Munuera, M Carmen Piñero, Gregorio López-Ortega, Francisco M Del Amor
High CO2 is able to ameliorate some negative effects due to climate change and intensify others. This study involves the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivar 'Burlat' grafted on the 'Mariana 2624', 'Adara' and 'LC 52' rootstocks. In a climate chamber at two CO2 concentrations: ambient (400 µmol mol(-1) ) and elevated (800 µmol mol(-1) ), the plants were submitted to waterlogging for seven days, followed by seven days of recovery after drainage. Waterlogging drastically decreased the rate of photosynthesis, significantly endangering plant survival, particularly for the 'LC 52' and 'Adara' rootstocks...
January 20, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
Chengdeng Chi, Xiaoxi Li, Yiping Zhang, Ling Chen, Lin Li, Zhijiang Wang
The effects of non-covalent interactions between gallic acid (GA) and starch on starch digestibility and supramolecular structural changes (short-range ordered molecular structure, crystalline structure, lamellar structure and fractal structure) were investigated. The results indicated that the digestibility of both starches was substantially reduced in the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) content, but resistant starch (RS) was increased after interacting with GA. The RS content of starch-GA complexes ranged from 17...
January 20, 2017: Food & Function
Kaustav Majumder, Toshihiko Fukuda, Hua Zhang, Takeo Sakurai, Yoshifumi Taniguchi, Hikaru Watanabe, Hitoshi Mitsuzumi, Toshiro Matsui, Yoshinori Mine
Isomaltodextrin (IMD), a highly branched α-glucan, is a type of resistant starch. Earlier studies have indicated that polysaccharides could prevent inflammation and can be effective in reducing the complications of chronic gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of IMD in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in a mouse model. IMD (0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0% (w/v)) was given orally for 23 days to female Balb/c mice, and then 5% DSS was administered to induce colitis (from day 15 onward to the end of the trial)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Rocío Toraya-Avilés, Maira Segura-Campos, Luis Chel-Guerrero, David Betancur-Ancona
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) native starch was treated with pyroconversion and enzymatic hydrolysis to produce a pyrodextrin and an enzyme-resistant maltodextrin. Some nutritional characteristics were quantified for both compounds. Pyroconversion was done using a 160:1 (p/v) starch:HCl ratio, 90 °C temperature and 3 h reaction time. The resulting pyrodextrin contained 46.21% indigestible starch and 78.86% dietary fiber. Thermostable α-amylase (0.01%) was used to hydrolyze the pyrodextrin at 95 °C for 5 min...
January 19, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
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