Read by QxMD icon Read

Resistant starch

Chagam Koteswara Reddy, M Suriya, P V Vidya, Sundaramoorthy Haripriya
This study describes a simple method of preparation and physico-chemical properties of modified starches (type-3 resistant starches) from banana (Musa AAB), and the modified starches investigated as functional food with a beneficial effect on type-2 diabetes. RS3 was prepared using a method combined with debranching modification and physical modification; native and modifies starches were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and rapid visco analyzer (RVA)...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Wyller Max Ferreira Silva, Bárbara Biduski, Karina Oliveira Lima, Vânia Zanella Pinto, Jéssica Fernanda Hoffmann, Nathan Levien Vanier, Alvaro Renato Guerra Dias
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the heat-moisture treatment (HMT) applied to paddy rice grains on the physicochemical properties, in vitro starch digestibility, and molecular weight distribution of proteins in rice flour. The paddy rice grains were adjusted to 13%, 16%, and 18% moisture and autoclaved at 121°C for 30 and 60min. The HMT promoted a reduction of the amylose content, the swelling power, and the solubility of the rice flour. Changes in the relative crystallinity and molecular weight of the proteins extracted with a sodium phosphate buffer containing 2...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Cristina Segundo, Laura Román, Manuel Gómez, Mario M Martínez
This article describes the effect of mechanically fractionated flours from green bananas on the nutritional, physical and sensory attributes of two types of cakes (sponge and layer). A plausible 30% replacement of banana flour in the formulation of layer cakes is demonstrated, finding only a small decline in the sensory perception. On the contrary, sponge cakes were noticeable worsened with the use of banana flours (lower specific volume, worse sensory attributes and higher hardness), which was minimized when using fine flour...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Thazin Thin, Lin Myat, Gi-Hyung Ryu
The effects of CO2 injection and barrel temperatures on the physiochemical and antioxidant properties of extruded cereals (sorghum, barley, oats, and millet) were studied. Extrusion was carried out using a twin-screw extruder at different barrel temperatures (80, 110, and 140°C), CO2 injection (0 and 500 mL/min), screw speed of 200 rpm, and moisture content of 25%. Extrusion significantly increased the total flavonoid content (TFC) of extruded oats, and β-glucan and protein digestibility (PD) of extruded barley and oats...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Sarah A Dainty, Shannon L Klingel, Stephanie E Pilkey, Evan McDonald, Bruce McKeown, Michael J Emes, Alison M Duncan
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) incidence continues to rise. Although increasing dietary fiber intake is an established strategy for improved glycemic control, most adults consume insufficient amounts. Fiber-enhanced functional foods can increase fiber intake, and there is particular interest in resistant starch (RS) as a high-fiber ingredient. Studies show that high-amylose maize resistant starch, type 2 (HAM-RS2) improves acute and chronic glycemic responses, but more studies are needed in individuals at high risk of T2D with RS delivered in commonly consumed foods...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Wenhang Wang, Kun Wang, Jingdong Xiao, Yaowei Liu, Yana Zhao, Anjun Liu
In order to study the impact of starch in film performance, high amylose corn starch was composited in gelatin films under different gelatinization conditions and, in high and low concentrations (10 and 50wt.%). It was found that hot water gelatinized starch (Gel-Shw) increased film mechanical strength and was dependent upon the starch concentration. The addition of an alkali component to the starch significantly enhanced the swelling of the starch granules and expedited the gelatinization process. Incorporation of starch, especially the alkalized starch (Sha), into the gelatin films decreased film solubility which improved its water resistance and water vapor permeability (WVP)...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jovyn K T Frost, Bernadine M Flanagan, David A Brummell, Erin M O'Donoghue, Suman Mishra, Michael J Gidley, John A Monro
The digestibility of starchy foods, such as potatoes, can be characterized by the proportion of starch that is rapidly digestible by in vitro hydrolysis (rapidly digestible starch, RDS). This study evaluated the RDS content in a potato germplasm collection consisting of 98 genotypes and identified three advanced lines, Crop39, Crop71 and Crop85, where cooked potato RDS content was significantly lower than that of their respective isolated starches (P < 0.05). In Crop39, Crop71 and Crop85, the properties of their isolated starch did not differ significantly from that of five control lines with higher RDS contents...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Alireza Chackoshian Khorasani, Seyed Abbas Shojaosadati
Incorporation of nanofibers of chitin (NC), lignocellulose (NLC) and bacterial cellulose (BNC) in pectin was studied to improve prebiotic activity and gastrointestinal resistance of the pectin-nanofibers biocomposites for protection of probiotics under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The biocomposites were prepared using various compositions of pectin and nanofibers, which were designed using D-optimal mixture method. The incorporation of the nanofibers in pectin led to a slow degradation of the pectin-nanofibers biocomposites in contrast to their rapid swelling...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ankita Mishra, Anuradha Singh, Monica Sharma, Pankaj Kumar, Joy Roy
BACKGROUND: Starch is a major part of cereal grain. It comprises two glucose polymer fractions, amylose (AM) and amylopectin (AP), that make up about 25 and 75 % of total starch, respectively. The ratio of the two affects processing quality and digestibility of starch-based food products. Digestibility determines nutritional quality, as high amylose starch is considered a resistant or healthy starch (RS type 2) and is highly preferred for preventive measures against obesity and related health conditions...
October 6, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Yi Liu, Bijaya Upadhyaya, Ali Reza Fardin-Kia, Robert M Juenemann, Moul Dey
Indigestible resistant starches (RS) are substrates for gut-microbial metabolism and have been shown to attenuate intestinal inflammation but the supporting evidence is inconsistent and lacks mechanistic explanation. We have recently reported dietary RS type 4 (RS4) induced improvements in immunometabolic functions in humans and a concomitant increase in butyrogenic gut-bacteria. Since inflammation is a key component in metabolic diseases, here we investigated the effects of RS4-derived butyrate on the epigenetic repression of pro-inflammatory genes in vivo and in vitro...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
Sumiko Nakamura, Takashi Hara, Toshio Joh, Atsushi Kobayashi, Akira Yamazaki, Kensaku Kasuga, Takeshi Ikeuchi, Ken'ichi Ohtsubo
Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes are very serious diseases with the latter having been suggested to cause the former. We prepared super-hard rice bread blended with black rice bran (SRBBB), which contained a high amount of resistant starch that showed strong inhibitory activities against β-secretase and acetylcholinesterase even after heating. Black rice bran showed greater β-secretase inhibitory activity (3.6-fold) than Koshihikari rice. The bran contained more oleic acid and anthocyanin, meaning that it is potentially a biofunctional food with a high antioxidant capacity...
October 4, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Ebrahim Kouchaki, Omid Reza Tamtaji, Mahmoud Salami, Fereshteh Bahmani, Reza Daneshvar Kakhaki, Elmira Akbari, Maryam Tajabadi-Ebrahimi, Parvaneh Jafari, Zatollah Asemi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: This trial was performed to evaluate the effects of probiotic intake on disability, mental health and metabolic condition in subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted among 60 MS patients. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either a probiotic capsule (n = 30) or placebo containing starch (n = 30) for 12 weeks. Expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scoring and parameters of mental health were recorded at the baseline and 12 weeks after the intervention...
September 16, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Gar Yee Koh, Matthew J Rowling, Kevin L Schalinske, Kelly Grapentine, Yi Ting Loo
We previously demonstrated that feeding of dietary resistant starch (RS) prior to the induction of diabetes delayed the progression of diabetic nephropathy and maintained vitamin D balance in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic (T1D) rats. Here, we examined the impact of RS on kidney function and vitamin D homeostasis following STZ injection. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered STZ and fed a standard diet containing cornstarch or 20, 10, or 5% RS for 4 weeks. T1D rats fed 10 and 20% RS, but not 5% RS, gained more weight than cornstarch-fed rats...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Zhen Ma, Joyce I Boye
Resistant starch (RS) is defined as the fraction of starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine due to either difficult enzyme/starch contact or to the strength of the crystalline regions formed both in native starch and in those retrograded starch. RS occurs naturally in some foods, and some may be generated in others as the results of several processing conditions. A variety of techniques have been employed to obtain structural characteristics of resistant starch such as their crystallinity, structural order, chain length distribution and conformation, helicity, and double helical structures...
September 19, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Nan Hu, Jun Ren, Yingmei Zhang
Insulin resistance contributes to the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, leading to cardiac anomalies. Emerging evidence depicts a pivotal role for mitochondrial injury in oxidative metabolism and insulin resistance. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is one of metabolic enzymes detoxifying aldehydes although its role in insulin resistance remains elusive. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of ALDH2 overexpression on insulin resistance-induced myocardial damage and mechanisms involved with a focus on autophagy...
September 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Richard K Le Leu, Benjamin L Scherer, Mark T Mano, Jean M Winter, Tamsin Lannagan, Richard J Head, Trevor Lockett, Julie M Clarke
O(6)-methyl guanine (O(6)MeG) adducts are major toxic, promutagenic, and procarcinogenic adducts involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. Resistant starch and its colonic metabolite butyrate are known to protect against oncogenesis in the colon. In this study, we hypothesized that a dietary intervention that specifically delivers butyrate to the large bowel (notably butyrylated high-amylose maize starch [HAMSB]) would reduce colonic levels of O(6)MeG in rats shortly after exposure to the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) alkylating agent azoxymethane (AOM) when compared with a low-amylose maize starch (LAMS)...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Lijiao Kan, Shaoping Nie, Jielun Hu, Sunan Wang, Steve W Cui, Yawen Li, Sifan Xu, Yue Wu, Junqiao Wang, Zhouya Bai, Mingyong Xie
Detailed characterization in nutrients and phytochemicals with antioxidant activities of 26 kidney beans was performed. The kidney beans contained high levels of dietary fiber (29.32-46.77%), resistant starch (9.16-18.09%) and protein (22.06-32.63%) but low levels of lipid (1.05-2.83%) and sugars (1.55-9.07%). The monosaccharide composition of soluble fiber was dominated by arabinose, galactose, mannose and galacturonic acid. The ratio of essential amino acid to the total amino acid was ranged from 0.29 to 0...
September 6, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Karima Laleg, Denis Cassan, Cécile Barron, Pichan Prabhasankar, Valérie Micard
Wheat pasta has a compact structure built by a gluten network entrapping starch granules resulting in a low glycemic index, but is nevertheless unsuitable for gluten-intolerant people. High protein gluten-free legume flours, rich in fibers, resistant starch and minerals are thus a good alternative for gluten-free pasta production. In this study, gluten-free pasta was produced exclusively from faba, lentil or black-gram flours. The relationship between their structure, their cooking and Rheological properties and their in-vitro starch digestion was analyzed and compared to cereal gluten-free commercial pasta...
2016: PloS One
Wei Zhang, Yonggang Zhao, Binjie Cui, Hui Wang, Tianzhong Liu
Compared with unicellular microalgae, filamentous algae have high resistance to grazer-predation and low-cost recovery in large-scale production. Green algae, as the most diverse group of algae, included numerous filamentous genera and species. In this study, records of filamentous genera and species in green algae were firstly censused and classified. Then, seven filamentous strains subordinated in different genera were cultivated in bubbled-column to investigate their growth rate and energy molecular (lipid and starch) capacity...
November 2016: Bioresource Technology
Thi Nga Tran, Athanassia Athanassiou, Abdul Basit, Ilker S Bayer
Red beetroot (RB) powder was incorporated into starch-based bio-elastomers to obtain flexible biocomposites with tunable antioxidant properties. Starch granules within the bio-elastomers affected the release of the antioxidant molecule betanin in the RB powder. The bio-elastomers were hydrophobic and resisted dissolution in water, hence the release of betanin was due to diffusion rather than polymer matrix disintegration. Hydrophobicity was maintained even after water immersion. Released betanin demonstrated highly efficient antioxidant scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS(+))...
February 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"