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Resistant starch

E J Vernon-Carter, J Alvarez-Ramirez, L A Bello-Perez, A Garcia-Hernandez, C Roldan-Cruz, S Garcia-Diaz
Aqueous dispersions of normal and waxy corn starch (3% w/w) were mixed with Tween 80 (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5 and 30 g/100 g of starch), and gelatinized (90 °C, 20 min). Optical microscopy of the gelatinized starch dispersions (GSDx ; x = Tween 80 concentration) revealed that the microstructure was characterized by a continuous phase of leached amylose and amylopectin entangled chains, and a dispersed phase of insoluble remnants, called ghosts, on whose surface small granules were observed, imputed to Tween 80...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ahmed M Youssef, Samah M El-Sayed
Bionanocomposites materials open a chance for the usage of novel, high performance, lightweight, and ecofriendly composite materials making them take place the traditional non-biodegradable plastic packaging materials. Biopolymers like polysaccharides such as chitosan (CS), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), starch and cellophane could be used to resolve environmental hazards owing to their biodegradability and non-toxicity. In addition these advantages, polysaccharides have some disadvantages for example poor mechanical properties and low resistance to water...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Kaja Saikrishna, Ringu Kumari, Kantamaneni Chaitanya, Subhankar Biswas, Pawan G Nayak, Jayesh Mudgal, Anoop Kishore, Krishnadas Nandakumar
In this study, we aimed to develop an experimental animal model for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using a combination of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and high sucrose diet (HSD). Young male Wistar rats (20-30 g) were injected with MSG (2 or 4 mg/g, i.p. for 4 days). These rats were also fed an HSD, while the control group was fed a starch diet (SFD) for 150 days. Parameters assessed periodically were body weight, feed intake, blood glucose level, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests, skeletal muscle glucose uptake, cognitive function tests, and microvascular changes using isolated rat aorta...
2018: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Hairul Abral, Arya Satya Anugrah, Fadli Hafizulhaq, Dian Handayani, Eni Sugiarti, Ahmad Nove Muslimin
This paper characterizes starch based biocomposite reinforced with varied nanofiber fractions, i.e. 35.4, 70.8 and 106.2 μg per 10 g of starch. During preparation, the biocomposite in form of gel was sonicated using an ultrasonic probe at various powers, i.e. 0, 480, 600, 720 watt at 20 kHz for 5 min. The results show that ultrasonication results in a significant improvement in biocomposite properties for each of the nanofiber fractions. The tensile strength, moisture resistance of the 35.4 μg nanofibers biocomposite increase significantly 279, 11% respectively after 600 watt ultrasonication...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Frederick J Warren, Naoki M Fukuma, Deirdre Mikkelsen, Bernadine M Flanagan, Barbara A Williams, Allan T Lisle, Páraic Ó Cuív, Mark Morrison, Michael J Gidley
Starch is a major source of energy in the human diet and is consumed in diverse forms. Resistant starch (RS) escapes small intestinal digestion and is fermented in the colon by the resident microbiota, with beneficial impacts on colonic function and host health, but the impacts of the micro- and nanoscale structure of different physical forms of food starch on the broader microbial community have not been described previously. Here, we use a porcine in vitro fermentation model to establish that starch structure dramatically impacts microbiome composition, including the key amylolytic species, and markedly alters both digestion kinetics and fermentation outcomes...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Xiangyu He, Weiwei Sun, Ting Ge, Chunlong Mu, Weiyun Zhu
High-protein diet could cause an increase in protein fermentation in the large intestine, leading to an increased production of potentially detrimental metabolites. We hypothesized that an increase in corn resistant starch content may attenuate the protein fermentation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of resistant starch on protein fermentation by inocula from large intestine of pigs using in vitro cultivation. Fermentation patterns were analyzed during a 24-h incubation of cecal and colonic digesta with varying corn resistant starch contents, using casein protein as sole nitrogen source...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
Satish C Kalhan
Starch, a major source of carbohydrates in human nutrition, is extensively hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract of children and adults. A small fraction of the ingested starch reaches the cecum and colon where it is fermented by the gut microbiome into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and other products. Recent data in humans and in animal models have demonstrated the extensive effects of short-chain fatty acids on whole body energy metabolism, appetite, insulin resistance, fatty acid oxidation, fat accretion, obesity, and diabetes...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Toshinao Goda, Kazue Honma
Two major α-glucosidase (maltase) genes, sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM), respectively, are expressed in the small intestine. In this review, we have summarized whether jejunal expression of these maltase genes is regulated by dietary manipulations, which may affect carbohydrate availability from the luminal side, through changes in the binding of transcription factors and/or histone code on these genes. Studies using a model of mice fed either a low-starch or a high-starch diet for 7 days, found the mRNA levels of SI, MGAM, and Na-glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) genes in the jejunum to be increased in parallel by feeding a high-starch diet...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
A N El-Hoshoudy, S M Desouky
Starch is a natural biopolymer that subjected to various chemical modifications through different industrial applications. Molecular structure of starch allow its grafting with different vinyl monomers in the presence of crosslinking agents to synthesize cross-linked hydrogels, which used in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications, water shutoff and drag reduction. Application of native starch in the field of petroleum reservoirs as a flooding agent suffer from some limitations concerned with microbial degradation, thermal and salinity resistance under harsh petroleum reservoir conditions...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
B U Metzler-Zebeli, N Canibe, L Montagne, J Freire, P Bosi, J A M Prates, S Tanghe, P Trevisi
Dietary resistant starch (RS) may have prebiotic properties but its effects on fermentation and the microbial population are inconsistent. This meta-analysis aimed to quantify the relationship between RS type 2 (RS2) and intestinal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and pH as well as certain key bacterial taxa for intestinal health in pigs. From the 24 included articles with sufficient information about the animal, and dietary and physiological measurements published between 2000 and 2017, individual sub-data sets for fermentation metabolites, pH, bacterial abundances and apparent total tract digestibility were built and used to parameterize prediction models on the effect of RS2, accounting for inter- and intra-study variability...
May 10, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Gabriele Rocchetti, Gianluca Giuberti, Antonio Gallo, Jamila Bernardi, Adriano Marocco, Luigi Lucini
Interest in using polyphenols as modulators of the activity of starch digestive enzymes is increasing. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the role of phenolic compounds characterising pigmented maize flours in the modulation of in vitro starch digestibility. Flours from three different pigmented maize varieties were evaluated under cooking conditions and compared to common yellow maize (YM). The untargeted metabolomics-based approach comprehensively annotated around 300 phenolic compounds, with a high distribution of anthocyanins and phenolic acids (in free and bound fractions of maize samples) and significant differences across genotypes...
June 2018: Food Research International
Hassan Rahnama, Amir Bahram Moradi, Seyed Hamid Mirrokni, Foad Moradi, Mohammad Reza Shams, Mohammad Hossein Fotokian
In this study, the compositions of transgenic potatoes (TPs) resistant to potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) were compared with those of its non-transgenic (NTP) counterparts. The light inducible promoter, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase led to the expression of Cry1Ab only in the leaves and light-treated tubers of the TPs. No significant differences were found in the moisture, ash, dry weight, total soluble protein, carbohydrate, starch, fiber, ascorbate, cations, anions, fatty acids, and glycoalkaloids contents of TP and NTP...
May 4, 2018: Transgenic Research
Prasanta Baishya, Tarun Kumar Maji
Activated carbon (AC) prepared from Jatropha curcas and graphene oxide (GO) were employed in the preparation of natural polymer based wood starch composites (WSC) through the solution blending technique using water as a solvent. In this study, methyl methacrylate (MMA) was grafted onto the starch polymer and this MMA grafted starch (MMA-g-starch) was cross-linked with the cheap soft wood flour using the citric acid as cross-linker and water as a solvent in the whole process. The prepared GO and AC were characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Raman study...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Chayon Goswami, Yusaku Iwasaki, Toshihiko Yada
Fermentable carbohydrates including dietary fibers and resistant starch produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including acetate, propionate and butyrate, through microbial fermentation in the intestine of rodents and humans. Consumption of fermentable carbohydrate and SCFAs suppress food intake, an effect involving the brain. However, their signaling pathway to the brain remains unclear. Vagal afferents serve to link intestinal information to the brain. In the present study, we explored possible role of vagal afferents in the anorexigenic effect of SCFAs...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Meiyu Xu, Dan He, Hui Teng, Lei Chen, Hongbo Song, Qun Huang
Although a series of physio-biochemical changes of coix seed occur during the storage, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the aging mechanism of coix seed during storage. Proteome patterns of coix seed stored for 1-month, 5-month and 10-month at room temperature were compared using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectra. Thirty-one differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were detected, which involved seven pathways including starch and sucrose metabolism, carbon metabolism, RNA transport, proteasome, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome, and RNA degradation...
September 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Qing Quan Han, Hai Feng Song, Duo Teng Tang, Sheng Zhang
Morphological and physiological responses of Salix plants are different from Populus to nitrogen (N) deficiency. In this study, grafting technology was used in S. rehderiana and P. cathayana to investigate the graft compatibility of Salix and Populus, and whether grafting could improve the resistance to N deficiency in Salicaceae plants. The survival rate, growth, biomass accumulation and allocation, gas exchange parameters and non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) were measured to evaluate the resistance to N deficiency among different grafting combinations...
December 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Xiong Deng, Yue Liu, Xuexin Xu, Dongmiao Liu, Genrui Zhu, Xing Yan, Zhimin Wang, Yueming Yan
In this study, we performed the first comparative proteomic analysis of wheat flag leaves and developing grains in response to drought stress. Drought stress caused a significant decrease in several important physiological and biochemical parameters and grain yield traits, particularly those related to photosynthesis and starch biosynthesis. In contrast, some key indicators related to drought stress were significantly increased, including malondialdehyde, soluble sugar, proline, glycine betaine, abscisic acid content, and peroxidase activity...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
You-Dong Li, Tong-Cheng Xu, Jun-Xia Xiao, Ai-Zhen Zong, Bin Qiu, Min Jia, Li-Na Liu, Wei Liu
Potato starch was treated by microwaving, toughening, and low-temperature aging to prepare resistant starch (RS). The functional properties of the resultant RS were evaluated and the effects of this microwave-toughening treatment (MTT) on the amylose content, RS content, digestive properties, pasting properties, morphological observation, crystal structure, and thermal performance of potato starch were determined. The optimal MTT parameters were microwaving at 300 W for 100 s, toughening at 55 °C for 16 h, and low-temperature aging at 4 °C for 18 h...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Susanna K P Lau, Jade L L Teng, Tsz Ho Chiu, Elaine Chan, Alan K L Tsang, Gianni Panagiotou, Shao-Lun Zhai, Patrick C Y Woo
In Hong Kong, cattle were traditionally raised by farmers as draft animals to plough rice fields. Due to urbanization in the 20th century, they were gradually abandoned and became wild cattle straying in suburban Hong Kong. Recently, these cattle were observed to have become omnivorous by eating leftover barbeque food waste in country parks. Microbiome analysis was performed on fecal samples of the omnivorous cattle using deep sequencing and the resulting microbiome was compared with that of traditional herbivorous cattle in Southern China...
2018: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
V R L Oliveira, F K G Santos, R H L Leite, E M M Aroucha, K N O Silva
Biopolymeric coatings are effective in maintaining the chemical and sensory characteristics of fruits and vegetables because they preserve innumerable nutrients effectively for long periods of storage. Coatings based on cornstarch (3%), cassava starch (2%) and gelatin (5%) were synthesized. Beeswax (BW) was added as a hydrophobic agent in the polymeric network at different concentrations relative to the dry base of biopolymer. The biofilm containing 10% BW presented the best results in the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and the effect of the BW incorporation was also evaluated from surface roughness and SEM...
September 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
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