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Resistant starch

Yuichi Kato, Shih-Hsin Ho, Christopher J Vavricka, Jo-Shu Chang, Tomohisa Hasunuma, Akihiko Kondo
The aim of this study was to improve biomass production of the green microalga Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4 under high salinity conditions. For this purpose, heavy ion beam-coupled mutagenesis and evolutionary engineering were performed using JSC4 as the parent strain. After long-term and continuous cultivation with high salinity, salt-resistant strains that grow well even in the presence of 7% sea salt were successfully obtained. Transcriptional analysis revealed inactivation of starch-to-lipid biosynthesis switching, which resulted in delayed starch degradation and decreased lipid content in the salt-resistant strains...
June 9, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Marta M Moreno, Sara González-Mora, Jaime Villena, Juan A Campos, Carmen Moreno
Polyethylene plastic mulches are widely used in agriculture due to the countless advantages they have. However, the environmental problems associated with their use have led us to look for alternative mulch materials which degrade naturally and quickly, impact the environment less and function satisfactorily. To this end, biodegradable plastics and paper mulches are being used, but aspects related to their degradation should be studied more in-depth. This work provides the deterioration pattern of six biodegradable mulch materials (i...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Xu Chen, Xiao-Wei He, Bin Zhang, Xiong Fu, Jay-Lin Jane, Qiang Huang
This study aimed to understand effects of adding corn oil (CO) and soy protein (SP) to corn starch on the physicochemical properties and digestive rates of annealed starch complex and mechanisms of interactions between corn starch (CS), CO and SP. Binary and ternary blends were prepared using CS mixed with CO (10%, dsb) and/or SP (10%, dsb) and incubated in a water bath at 50°C for 14h. Results showed that more agglomerates of the granules were in the ternary blends. With the addition of CO and/or SP, the CS displayed a decreased pasting temperature, an increased peak viscosity and a decreased enthalpy change of amylose-lipid complex dissociation...
June 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Kamila Kapusniak Jochym, Ewa Nebesny
The objective of this study was to produce soluble enzyme-resistant dextrins by microwave heating of potato starch acidified with small amounts of hydrochloric and citric acids and to characterize their properties. Twenty five samples were initially made and their solubility was determined. Three samples with the highest water solubility were selected for physico-chemical (dextrose equivalent, molecular weight distribution, pasting characteristics, retrogradation tendency), total dietary fiber (TDF) analysis, and stability tests...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Mahdiyar Shahbazi, Ghadir Rajabzadeh, Shahnaz Sotoodeh
Two types of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT and CNT-OH) at different levels (0.1-0.9wt%) were introduced into starch matrix in order to modify its functional properties. The optimum concentration of each nanotube was selected based on results of water solubility, water permeability and mechanical experiments. The physico-mechanical data showed that CNT up to 0.7wt% led to a notable increase in water resistance, water barrier property and tensile strength, whilst regarding CNT-OH, these improvements found at 0...
June 7, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jiaxing Zhou, Chaoying Ma, Shoumin Zhen, Min Cao, Friedich J Zeller, Sai L K Hsam, Yueming Yan
BACKGROUND: Wheat, one of the most important crops, has a detrimental effect on both yield and quality under drought stress. As our preliminary experiment showed that the Chinese Spring wheat-Aegilops longissima chromosome substitution line CS-1S(l) (1B) had a better drought tolerance than CS, the substitution line CS-1S(l)(1B) was used to identify drought stress related proteins by means of a comparative proteome approach in this work. Our present study aimed to explore the gene resources for drought resistance in 1S(l) genome...
December 2016: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Franciele Maria Pelissari, Margarita María Andrade-Mahecha, Paulo José do Amaral Sobral, Florencia Cecilia Menegalli
Cellulose nanofibers were isolated from banana peel using a combination of chemical and mechanical treatments with different number of passages through the high-pressure homogenizer (0, 3, 5, and 7 passages). New nanocomposites were then prepared from a mixed suspension of banana starch and cellulose nanofibers using the casting method and the effect of the addition of these nanofibers on the properties of the resulting nanocomposites was investigated. The cellulose nanofibers homogeneously dispersed in the starch matrix increased the glass transition temperature, due to the strong intermolecular interactions occurring between the starch and cellulose...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Klaus D Wutzke, Kerstin V Schmidek
A resistant starch (RS) mixture (MIX) consisting of fibre of potatoes (FP) and wrinkled pea starch (WPS), and high amylose maize starch (HAMS) were supplemented in adults to evaluate their effects on fat oxidation by means of a (13)CO2-breath test. Sixteen subjects received a regular diet either without or with the supplementation of MIX and HAMS in randomised order. After administration of a [U-(13)C]algal lipid mixture, exhaled air was collected over 14 h in 0.5- and 1-h intervals. The (13)C abundances were measured by nondispersive infrared spectroscopy...
June 2, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Jing Sun, Xiao-Bo Zuo, Sheng Fang, Hua-Neng Xu, Jie Chen, Yue-Cheng Meng, Tao Chen
Effects of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) on the pasting, viscoelastic, and morphological properties of rice starch gel were studied. The addition of CMC increased the peak and trough viscosities, while decreased the final and setback viscosities of rice starch. The peak and trough viscosities of rice starch gel were only little affected by the addition of HPMC. The dynamic viscoelastic result showed that the addition of CMC significantly increased the values of storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″), while reduced the value of tanδ as compared to the control sample...
June 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
Ahmed I El-Batal, Gharieb S El-Sayyad, Abbas El-Ghamry, Kerolos M Agaypi, Mohamed A Elsayed, Mohamed Gobara
Melanin pigment has been deemed as a natural photoprotector with strong hydrophobicity. It allured considerable compatibility with many applications in medicine, food, and nanotechnology. Penicillium chrysogenium has been devoted to the green synthesis of melanin whereby optimizing its culture and environmental conditions. The impacts of alternative economic L-tyrosine natural sources (unprecedented alternate origins) and gamma radiation were pledged for the potential growing of the pigment. Herein, notable increases in melanin yield (6...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Aruna Potukuchi, Uma Addepally, Kirankumar Sindhu, Raghunath Manchala
BACKGROUND: Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) are chronic nutrient-related disorders that occur together and pose a grave burden to society. They are among the most common causes of ageing and death. Obesity and T2D per se accelerate ageing albeit the underlying mechanisms are unclear yet. Also, it is not clear whether or not superimposing T2D on obesity accelerates ageing. Present study validated the hypothesis, 'super-imposing T2D on obesity accelerates ageing' in WNIN/Gr-Ob, the impaired glucose tolerant, obese rat as the model and evaluated probable underlying mechanisms...
June 1, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Huaibo Yuan, Xiping Zhu, Deyi Chen, Wenjuan Wang, Shaohua Meng, Junhui Wang
In this study, the effects of different doses of dual modification-treated (DMT) indica rice resistant starch (IR-RS) on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced early colon cancer in mice were investigated. The investigated factors included body weight, gastrointestinal emptying rate, the number and morphology of aberrant crypt foci (ACFs) and the specific expressions of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and cytochrome c genes. The results demonstrated that DMT IR-RS controlled the increase in the body weights of the mice, increased the gastrointestinal emptying rates and reduced the numbers of ACFs and aberrant crypts...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Youran Li, Jingjing Xu, Liang Zhang, Zhongyang Ding, Zhenghua Gu, Guiyang Shi
Debranching enzymes contribute to the enzymatic production of resistant starch (RS) by reducing substrate molecular weight and increasing amylose yield. In the present study, the action pattern of a thermostable isoamylase-type debranching enzyme on different types of starch was investigated. The molecular weight distribution, glycosidic bond composition and contents of oligosaccharides released were monitored by various liquid chromatography techniques and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). These analyses showed that the isoamylase could specifically and efficiently attack α-1,6-glucosidic linkages at branch points, leaving the amylose favored by other amylolytic enzymes...
May 22, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
Hideo Ohira, Wao Tsutsui, Yoshio Fujioka
Intestinal flora (microbiota) have recently attracted attention among lipid and carbohydrate metabolism researchers. Microbiota metabolize resistant starches and dietary fibers through fermentation and decomposition, and provide short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) to the host. The major SCFAs acetates, propionate and butyrate, have different production ratios and physiological activities. Several receptors for SCFAs have been identified as the G-protein coupled receptor 41/free fatty acid receptor 3 (GPR41/FFAR3), GPR43/FFAR2, GPR109A, and olfactory receptor 78, which are present in intestinal epithelial cells, immune cells, and adipocytes, despite their expression levels differing between tissues and cell types...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Ming-Hsuan Chen, Christine J Bergman, Anna M McClung, Jace D Everette, Rodante E Tabien
Resistant starch (RS), which is not hydrolyzed in the small intestine, has proposed health benefits. We evaluated 40 high amylose rice varieties for RS content in cooked rice and a 1.9-fold difference was found. Some varieties had more than two-fold greater RS content than a US long-grain intermediate-amylose rice. The high amylose varieties were grouped into four classes according to paste viscosity and gelatinization temperature based on genetic variants of the Waxy and Starch Synthase IIa genes, respectively...
November 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Ibrahim O Mohamed, Jobe Babucurr
Effects of date syrup on pasting, rheological, and retrogradation properties of low-amylose rice starch were investigated using three levels of date syrup (starch:syrup 1:1, 1:2, or 1:3). Measurements were carried out using HR-2 Discovery Rheometer equipped with a pasting cell and parallel plate geometry. The pasting measurements showed that the peak viscosity of the control is significantly higher than the samples with date syrup (p < 0.05), while the final viscosity increases with increased date syrup levels...
January 1, 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Shunmugiah V Ramesh, Sarah Williams, Madhu Kappagantu, Neena Mitter, Hanu R Pappu
RNA silencing mechanism functions as a major defense against invading viruses. The caveat in the RNA silencing mechanism is that the effector small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) act on any RNA transcripts with sequence complementarity irrespective of target's origin. A subset of highly expressed viral small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) derived from the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV; Tospovirus: Bunyaviridae) genome was analyzed for their propensity to downregulate the tomato transcriptome. A total of 11898 putative target sites on tomato transcripts were found to exhibit a propensity for down regulation by TSWV-derived vsiRNAs...
May 22, 2017: Virus Research
Kenneth F Raffa, Charles J Mason, Pieruluigi Bonello, Stephen Cook, Nadir Erbilgin, Ken Keefover-Ring, Jennifer G Klutsch, Caterina Villari, Philip A Townsend
Warming climate is allowing tree-killing bark beetles to expand their ranges and access naïve and semi-naïve conifers. Conifers respond to attack using complex mixtures of chemical defenses that can impede beetle success, but beetles exploit some compounds for host location and communication. Outcomes of changing relationships will depend on concentrations and compositions of multiple host compounds, which are largely unknown. We analyzed constitutive and induced chemistries of Dendroctonus ponderosae's primary historical host, Pinus contorta, and P...
May 24, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
Xiaoping Yang, Kwame Oteng Darko, Yanjun Huang, Caimei He, Huansheng Yang, Shanping He, Jianzhong Li, Jian Li, Berthold Hocher, Yulong Yin
Starch is one of the most popular nutritional sources for both human and animals. Due to the variation of its nutritional traits and biochemical specificities, starch has been classified into rapidly digestible, slowly digestible and resistant starch. Resistant starch has its own unique chemical structure, and various forms of resistant starch are commercially available. It has been found being a multiple-functional regulator for treating metabolic dysfunction. Different functions of resistant starch such as modulation of the gut microbiota, gut peptides, circulating growth factors, circulating inflammatory mediators have been characterized by animal studies and clinical trials...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Yajie Wang, Hanguo Xiong, Zhenjiong Wang, Zia-Ud-Din, Lei Chen
In this study, the effect of different durations of acid hydrolysis on the improvement of the properties of starch-based wood adhesive was investigated through a variety of determination methods The improved properties were analyzed using the pasting properties, viscosity, shear performance in dry and wet states, fourier infrared spectrometer, dynamic time sweep, and low filed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Starch hydrolysis improved the viscosity stability, bonding performance, and water resistance of the starch-based wood adhesive...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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