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Resistant starch

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159997/sporulation-capability-and-amylosome-conservation-among-diverse-human-colonic-and-rumen-isolates-of-the-keystone-starch-degrader-ruminococcus-bromii
#1
Indrani Mukhopadhya, Sarah Morais, Jenny Laverde-Gomez, Paul O Sheridan, Alan W Walker, William Kelly, Athol V Klieve, Diane Ouwerkerk, Sylvia H Duncan, Petra Louis, Nicole Koropatkin, Darrell Cockburn, Ryan Kibler, Philip J Cooper, Carlos Sandoval, Emmanuelle Crost, Nathalie Juge, Edward A Bayer, Harry J Flint
Ruminococcus bromii is a dominant member of the human colonic microbiota that plays a 'keystone' role in degrading dietary resistant starch. Recent evidence from one strain has uncovered a unique cell surface 'amylosome' complex that organizes starch-degrading enzymes. New genome analysis presented here reveals further features of this complex and shows remarkable conservation of amylosome components between human colonic strains from three different continents and a R. bromii strain from the rumen of Australian cattle...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147700/brown-rice-and-retrograded-brown-rice-alleviate-inflammatory-response-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-dss-induced-colitis-mice
#2
Kemika Praengam, Yuraporn Sahasakul, Piengchai Kupradinun, Siriwan Sakarin, Wanwisa Sanitchua, Anudep Rungsipipat, Kasem Rattanapinyopituk, Pornpimon Angkasekwinai, Khaimuk Changsri, Wuttichai Mhuantong, Sithichoke Tangphatsornruang, Siriporn Tuntipopipat
The present study was aimed to investigate the impacts of brown rice (BR) and retrograded brown rice (R-BR) consumption on colonic health and gut microbiota in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis mice. Thirty two female C57Bl/6Mlac mice were fed with modified AIN 93G diets by replacing cornstarch in the original composition with white rice (WR), BR and R-BR powder. The mice were divided into 4 groups and fed with the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: (1) negative control (WR: diet with WR), (2) positive control (DSS_WR: DSS and diet with WR), (3) DSS_BR: DSS and diet with BR, and (4) DSS_R-BR: DSS and diet with R-BR...
November 17, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146347/effect-of-tea-products-on-the-in-vitro-enzymatic-digestibility-of-starch
#3
Haihua Zhang, Yulan Jiang, Junxian Pan, Yangjun Lv, Jun Liu, Shikang Zhang, Yuejin Zhu
The importance of postprandial hyperglycemia in the treatment of diabetes has been recognized recently. Tea products, such as tea polyphenols (TP), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), matcha, and instant tea, were chosen as constituents of tea-flour food, aimed at regulating the release of glucose from starchy foods in the postprandial period. Six starches were chosen for internal composition analysis and hydrolysis studies in vitro. Corn starch, wheat starch, and lily root flour appeared to have higher resistant starch content, slower digestion profiles, and lower kinetic constants, implying sustained release of glucose in the gastrointestinal tract...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146326/changes-in-molecular-structure-of-chickpea-starch-during-processing-treatments-a-thin-layer-chromatography-study
#4
Yongkang Sun, Hualei Wang, Wei Wang, Bing Hu, Li Zhou, Hong Ye, Xiaoxiong Zeng
To detect the changes in molecular structure of chickpea starch during processing treatments, a thin layer chromatographic method for characterizing the molecular structure of chickpea starch was developed. With this method, the components in chickpea starch could be divided into amylopectin, small linear molecules and large linear molecules, and their contents could be determined. It was found that the degrees of polymerization of the large linear molecules and small linear molecules in chickpea enzyme-resistant starch were about 40 and below 15, respectively...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143605/impact-of-the-7-bp-deletion-in-hvga20ox2-gene-on-agronomic-important-traits-in-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l
#5
Serafima Teplyakova, Marina Lebedeva, Nadezhda Ivanova, Valentina Horeva, Nina Voytsutskaya, Olga Kovaleva, Elena Potokina
BACKGROUND: Alike to Reduced height-1 (Rht-1) genes in wheat and the semi dwarfing (sd-1) gene in rice, the sdw1/denso locus involved in the metabolism of the GA, was designated as the 'Green Revolution' gene in barley. The recent molecular characterization of the candidate gene HvGA20ox2 for sdw1/denso locus allows to estimate the impact of the functional polymorphism of this gene on the variation of agronomically important traits in barley. RESULTS: We investigated the effect of the 7-bp deletion in exon 1 of HvGA20ox2 gene (sdw1...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139580/novel-carbohydrate-binding-modules-in-the-surface-anchored-%C3%AE-amylase-of-eubacterium-rectale-provide-a-molecular-rationale-for-the-range-of-starches-used-by-this-organism-in-the-human-gut
#6
Darrell W Cockburn, Carolyn Suh, Krizia Perez Medina, Rebecca M Duvall, Zdzislaw Wawrzak, Bernard Henrissat, Nicole M Koropatkin
Gut bacteria recognize accessible glycan substrates within a complex environment. Carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) of cell-surface glycoside hydrolases often drive binding to the target substrate. Eubacterium rectale, an important butyrate-producing organism in the gut, consumes a limited range of substrates, including starch. Host consumption of resistant starch increases the abundance of E. rectale in the intestine, likely because it successfully captures the products of resistant starch degradation by other bacteria...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123461/intestinal-absorption-and-factors-influencing-bioavailability-of-magnesium-an-update
#7
REVIEW
Jan Philipp Schuchardt, Andreas Hahn
Background: Information on the bioavailability of the essential mineral Mg2+ is sparse. Objective/Method: Evaluation of the present knowledge on factors influencing the bioavailability and intestinal absorption of Mg2+. Results: Mg2+ is absorbed via a paracellular passive and a transcellular active pathway that involves TRPM6/7 channel proteins. The bioavailability of Mg2+ varies within a broad range, depending on the dose, the food matrix, and enhancing and inhibiting factors...
November 2017: Current Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084178/comparative-morphology-transcription-and-proteomics-study-revealing-the-key-molecular-mechanism-of-camphor-on-the-potato-tuber-sprouting-effect
#8
Li-Qin Li, Xue Zou, Meng-Sheng Deng, Jie Peng, Xue-Li Huang, Xue Lu, Chen-Cheng Fang, Xi-Yao Wang
Sprouting regulation in potato tubers is important for improving commercial value and producing new plants. Camphor shows flexible inhibition of tuber sprouting and prolongs the storage period of potato, but its underlying mechanism remains unknown. The results of the present study suggest that camphor inhibition caused bud growth deformities and necrosis, but after moving to more ventilated conditions, new sprouts grew from the bud eye of the tuber. Subsequently, the sucrose and fructose contents as well as polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were assessed after camphor inhibition...
October 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069329/potential-for-plant-biocontrol-activity-of-isolated-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-bacillus-stratosphericus-strains-against-bacterial-pathogens-acting-through-both-induced-plant-resistance-and-direct-antagonism
#9
Kaliannan Durairaj, Palanivel Velmurugan, Jung-Hee Park, Woo-Suk Chang, Yool-Jin Park, Palaninaicker Senthilkumar, Kyung-Min Choi, Jeong-Ho Lee, Byung-Taek Oh
Phytopathogenic bacteria have caused significant damage to agricultural crops in both controlled and open cultivation practices, imposing heavy losses to farmers. Thereby, the goal of this study was to evaluate Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus stratosphericus isolated from soil has antagonistic activity against bacterial phytopathogens with the potential to control plant diseases. Isolated novel strains of P. aeruginosa and B. stratosphericus showed broad spectrum of antagonistic activity against five bacterial phytopathogens...
October 24, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068034/characterization-of-fecal-fat-composition-and-gut-derived-fecal-microbiota-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats-following-intervention-with-chito-oligosaccharide-and-resistant-starch-complexes
#10
Wenting Shang, Xu Si, Zhongkai Zhou, Ying Li, Padraig Strappe, Chris Blanchard
The current study analyzed the different effects of intervention in high-fat diet fed rats using chito-oligosaccharides (CO group), resistant starch (RS group) and their complexes (CO-RS group), respectively. Properties such as fecal fat composition, gut derived fecal microbiota and fecal metabolites were investigated. The results show that supplementation with CO-RS in the high-fat diet led to the highest level of fecal fat excretion, followed by the CO and RS groups, and its fatty acid composition was characterized by a lower ∑UFA and higher ∑SFA levels...
October 25, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054526/one-step-synthesis-of-starch-silver-nanoparticle-solution-and-its-application-to-antibacterial-paper-coating
#11
Jeyoung Jung, Gownolla Malegowd Raghavendra, Dowan Kim, Jongchul Seo
Antibacterial starch-silver nanoparticles (ST-AgNPs) for use as coating solutions were prepared in a single step by ultrasonicating a mixture of starch, silver nitrate, and distilled water. The starch was used as an eco-friendly and inexpensive reducing agent. UV-vis spectra and transmission electron microscopy indicated that our single-step process was effective for synthesizing starch-based coating solution with AgNPs. Further, the as-prepared coating solution with AgNPs was applied to expand the application of paper for antibacterial packaging...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052457/effects-of-different-heat-moisture-treatments-on-the-physicochemical-properties-of-brown-rice-flour
#12
Sumiko Nakamura, Hisako Okumura, Masayoshi Sugawara, Wataru Noro, Noriyuki Homma, Ken'ichi Ohtsubo
We evaluated the effect of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) on the main chemical components, physical properties, and enzyme activities of two types of brown rice flour: high-amylose Koshinokaori and normal-quality Koshiibuki. Five different HMTs using brown rice (moisture content was 12.0%) were assessed: 0.1 MPa/120 °C for 5 or 10 min, 0.2 MPa/134 °C for 5 or 10 min and 0.3 MPa/144 °C for 10 min. HMT, decreased the α-amylase and lipase activities, and fat acidity, and slightly increased the dietary fiber and resistant starch levels...
October 20, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050596/morphological-structural-and-functional-properties-of-starch-granules-extracted-from-the-tubers-and-seeds-of-sphenostylis-stenocarpa
#13
Paul Malumba, Lynn Doran, Wilfried Zanmenou, Sylvanus Odjo, Joseph Katanga, Christophe Blecker, François Béra
Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Harms, is a legume widely recognized in Africa for its edible starchy tuber and seeds. In the present morphological, structural and functional properties of starch extracted from the tubers and seeds of a same accession of this plant were characterized and compared. With smaller and more angular granules, tuber starch displayed higher resistance toward amylolysis and gelatinization than seed starch. The amylolysis of seed starch resulted in fragmented granules with typical layered structures of growth rings...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042495/impact-of-dietary-resistant-starch-on-the-human-gut-microbiome-metaproteome-and-metabolome
#14
Tanja V Maier, Marianna Lucio, Lang Ho Lee, Nathan C VerBerkmoes, Colin J Brislawn, Jörg Bernhardt, Regina Lamendella, Jason E McDermott, Nathalie Bergeron, Silke S Heinzmann, James T Morton, Antonio González, Gail Ackermann, Rob Knight, Katharina Riedel, Ronald M Krauss, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Janet K Jansson
Diet can influence the composition of the human microbiome, and yet relatively few dietary ingredients have been systematically investigated with respect to their impact on the functional potential of the microbiome. Dietary resistant starch (RS) has been shown to have health benefits, but we lack a mechanistic understanding of the metabolic processes that occur in the gut during digestion of RS. Here, we collected samples during a dietary crossover study with diets containing large or small amounts of RS. We determined the impact of RS on the gut microbiome and metabolic pathways in the gut, using a combination of "omics" approaches, including 16S rRNA gene sequencing, metaproteomics, and metabolomics...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037696/insights-into-the-multi-scale-structure-and-digestibility-of-heat-moisture-treated-rice-starch
#15
Hongwei Wang, Yufan Liu, Ling Chen, Xiaoxi Li, Jun Wang, Fengwei Xie
The digestibility and structural changes of rice starch induced by heat-moisture treatment (HMT) were investigated, and the relationships among the moisture content-starch structure-starch digestibility were revealed. HMT could simultaneously disorder and reassemble the rice starch molecules across multi-scale lengths and convert some fractions of rapidly-digestible starch (RDS) into slowly-digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS). In particular, the HMT rice starch with less than 30% moisture content showed a higher SDS+RS content (25...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037268/probiotics-prebiotics-synbiotics-and-insulin-sensitivity
#16
Y A Kim, J B Keogh, P M Clifton
Animal studies indicate that the composition of gut microbiota may be involved in the progression of insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be a promising approach to improve insulin sensitivity by favourably modifying the composition of the gut microbial community, reducing intestinal endotoxin concentrations and decreasing energy harvest. The aim of the present review was to investigate the effects of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics (a combination of probiotics and prebiotics) on insulin resistance in human clinical trials and to discuss the potential mechanisms whereby probiotics and prebiotics improve glucose metabolism...
October 17, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035602/effect-of-pre-exercise-ingestion-of-modified-amylomaize-starch-on-glycemic-response-while-cycling
#17
Rachel B Parks, Hector F Angus, Douglas S King, Rick Sharp
Amylomaize-7 is classified as a resistant corn starch and is 68% digestible. When modified by partial hydrolysis in ethanol and hydrochloric acid, its digestibility is 92%, yet retains its low glycemic and insulinemic properties. The purpose of this study was to characterize the metabolic response when modified amylomaize-7 or dextrose is consumed in the hour before exercise, and to compare the effect on performance of a brief high-intensity cycling trial. Ten male trained cyclists were given 1 g/kg body mass of dextrose (DEX) or modified amylomaize-7 (AMY-7) or a flavored water placebo (PL) 45 min prior to exercise on a cycle ergometer...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030183/modification-by-%C3%AE-d-glucan-branching-enzyme-lowers-the-in-vitro-digestibility-of-starch-from-different-sources
#18
Yang Li, Junyan Ren, Jia Liu, Lu Sun, Yinglan Wang, Bingjie Liu, Caiming Li, Zhaofeng Li
Granular corn starch, waxy corn starch, potato starch and tapioca starch were modified using the α-D-glucan branching enzyme (1,4-α-D-glucan:1,4-α-D-glucan 6-α-D-(1,4-α-D-glucano)-transferase, GBE, EC 2.4.1.18) from Geobacillus thermoglucosidans. The GBE-catalyzed modification caused a time-dependent increase in the ratios of α-1,6 linkages to total glycosidic linkages, as well as reductions in the average chain length and relative crystallinity. These modifications lowered the in vitro digestibility of the starch...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023067/studies-on-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-pimples
#19
Ajayi Adesola Adetutu, Bibi Oritsewehinmi, Oniha Margaret Ikhiwili, Atolagbe Oluwabunmi Moradeke, Anosike Selina Odochi, Onibokun Elizabeth Adeola
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pimples (acne) are small skin lesions or inflammations of the skin. The most common factor causing acne is the hormonal changes that occur during adolescent and teenage years. Antibiotics are becoming less effective in the treatment of pimples due to increasing concerns of antibiotic resistance. This study was therefore carried out to characterize the isolates from the pimples of Covenant University Students and to determine their antibiotics sensitivity pattern...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022389/the-composition-and-metabolism-of-faecal-microbiota-is-specifically-modulated-by-different-dietary-polysaccharides-and-mucin-an-isothermal-microcalorimetry-study
#20
K Adamberg, K Kolk, M Jaagura, R Vilu, S Adamberg
The metabolic activity of colon microbiota is specifically affected by fibres with various monomer compositions, degree of polymerisation and branching. The supply of a variety of dietary fibres assures the diversity of gut microbial communities considered important for the well-being of the host. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of different oligo- and polysaccharides (galacto- and fructooligosaccharides, resistant starch, levan, inulin, arabinogalactan, xylan, pectin and chitin), and a glycoprotein mucin on the growth and metabolism of faecal microbiota in vitro by using isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC)...
October 12, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
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