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Sudden cardiac death

Natalia A Trayanova, Patrick M Boyle, Plamen P Nikolov
The goal of this article is to review advances in computational modeling of the heart, with a focus on recent non-invasive clinical imaging- and simulation-based strategies aimed at improving the diagnosis and treatment of patients with arrhythmias and structural heart disease. Following a brief overview of the field of computational cardiology, we present recent applications of the personalized virtual-heart approach in predicting the optimal targets for infarct-related ventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation ablation, and in determining risk of sudden cardiac death in myocardial infarction patients...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
E Gandjbakhch, E Varlet, G Duthoit, V Fressart, P Charron, C Himbert, C Maupain, C Bordet, F Hidden-Lucet, J Nizard
INTRODUCTION: The prognosis of pregnancy in patients with Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) is poorly documented. The aim of this study is to assess the cardiac risks during pregnancy and the impact of ARVC/D on fetuses/neonates/children. METHODS: We included all ARVC/D women with a history of pregnancy from the ARVC/D Pitié-Salpêtrière registry. Cardiac and obstetrical events having occurred during pregnancy/delivery/post-partum periods and neonatal data/follow-up were collected...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
David J Tester, Leonie C H Wong, Pritha Chanana, Amie Jaye, Jared M Evans, David R FitzPatrick, Margaret J Evans, Peter Fleming, Iona Jeffrey, Marta C Cohen, Jacob Tfelt-Hansen, Michael A Simpson, Elijah R Behr, Michael J Ackerman
BACKGROUND: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a leading cause of postneonatal mortality. Genetic heart diseases (GHDs) underlie some cases of SIDS. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the spectrum and prevalence of GHD-associated mutations as a potential monogenic basis for SIDS. METHODS: A cohort of 419 unrelated SIDS cases (257 male; average age 2.7 ± 1.9 months) underwent whole exome sequencing and a targeted analysis of 90 GHD-susceptibility genes...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Michael Papadakis, Efstathios Papatheodorou, Greg Mellor, Hariharan Raju, Rachel Bastiaenen, Yanushi Wijeyeratne, Sara Wasim, Bode Ensam, Gherardo Finocchiaro, Belinda Gray, Aneil Malhotra, Andrew D'Silva, Nina Edwards, Della Cole, Virginia Attard, Velislav N Batchvarov, Maria Tome-Esteban, Tessa Homfray, Mary N Sheppard, Sanjay Sharma, Elijah R Behr
BACKGROUND: Familial evaluation after a sudden death with negative autopsy (sudden arrhythmic death syndrome; SADS) may identify relatives at risk of fatal arrhythmias. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the impact of systematic ajmaline provocation testing using high right precordial leads (RPLs) on the diagnostic yield of Brugada syndrome (BrS) in a large cohort of SADS families. METHODS: Three hundred three SADS families (911 relatives) underwent evaluation with resting electrocardiogram using conventional and high RPLs, echocardiography, exercise, and 24-h electrocardiogram monitor...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Susanne Röger, Stefanie L Rosenkaimer, Anna Hohneck, Siegfried Lang, Ibrahim El-Battrawy, Boris Rudic, Erol Tülümen, Ksenija Stach, Jürgen Kuschyk, Ibrahim Akin, Martin Borggrefe
BACKGROUND: The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) has emerged as a valuable tool to temporarily protect patients at risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD). The aim of this study was to determine the value of the WCD for therapy optimization of heart failure patients. METHODS: One hundred five consecutive patients that received WCD between 4/2012 and 9/2016 were included in the study. All patients were followed for clinical outcome and echocardiographic parameters during WCD therapy and had continued follow-up after WCD therapy, irrespective of subsequent implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation...
March 15, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Jonathan W Waks, Christopher Hamilton, Saumya Das, Ashkan Ehdaie, Jessica Minnier, Sanjiv Narayan, Mark Niebauer, Merritt Raitt, Christine Tompkins, Niraj Varma, Sumeet Chugh, Larisa G Tereshchenko
PURPOSE: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) improve survival of systolic heart failure (HF) patients who are at risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). We recently showed that electrocardiographic (ECG) global electrical heterogeneity (GEH) is independently associated with SCD in the community-dwelling cohort and developed GEH SCD risk score. The Global Electrical Heterogeneity and Clinical Outcomes (GEHCO) study is a retrospective multicenter cohort designed with two goals: (1) validate an independent association of ECG GEH with sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias and appropriate ICD therapies and (2) validate GEH ECG risk score for prediction of sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias and appropriate ICD therapies in systolic HF patients with primary prevention ICD...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
Motohisa Osaka
There are some reports that sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) shows a characteristic pattern a few hours before the onset of lethal ventricular arrhythmias. If so, it could be possible to predict sudden cardiac death a few hours in advance of its occurrence. Recently, we reported that a previously unidentified V-trough of SNA is a potential precursor of lethal cardiac events by examining 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiograms in which such an event was recorded by chance. In contrast, the chaotic nature of heart rate variability has been noted recently from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics...
2018: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
Claire E Raphael, Mandeep Singh, Malcolm Bell, Daniel Crusan, Ryan J Lennon, Amir Lerman, Abhiram Prasad, Charanjit S Rihal, Bernard J Gersh, Rajiv Gulati
BACKGROUND: Women have higher rates of all-cause mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention. Whether this is because of greater age and comorbidity burden or a sex-specific factor remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively assessed cause-specific long-term mortality after index percutaneous coronary intervention over 3 time periods (1991-1997, 1998-2005, and 2006-2012). Cause of death was determined using telephone interviews, medical records, and death certificates...
March 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
Ali J Marian, Yanli Tan, Lili Li, Jeffrey T Chang, Petros Syrris, Manouchehr Hessabi, Mohammad H Rahbar, James T Willerson, Benjamin Y Cheong, Chia-Ying Liu, Neal S Kleiman, David A Bluemke, Sherif F Nagueh
<u>Rationale:</u> Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic paradigm of cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis are important risk factors for sudden death and morbidity in HCM. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Treatment with anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reverses cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in animal models of HCM. <u>Objective:</u> To determine effect sizes of NAC on indices of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in patients with established HCM...
March 14, 2018: Circulation Research
Gul H Dadlani, Thomas C Edwards, Steven Fishberger, Amos Epelman, Nicholas Erbrich
Electrocardiograms may be used to screen for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children. Many forms of CVD that predispose to sudden cardiac death are associated with T-wave abnormalities in childhood. The T-wave is generated during ventricular repolarization. T-waves on an electrocardiogram typically undergo maturational changes throughout childhood and adolescence. A pediatric practitioner's ability to understand these changes is required to understand abnormal T-waves and recognize potentially life-threatening types of CVD...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Jim T Vehmeijer, Barbara Jm Mulder, Joris R de Groot
Sudden cardiac death (SCD), mainly caused by ventricular arrhythmias, is one of the leading causes of mortality in adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) may prevent SCD, but risk stratification remains challenging. In this review, we will address the current guideline recommendations for ICD implantation in ACHD patients, as well as review a recent study in which the discriminative ability for SCD of these guidelines is evaluated. In this study, the guideline recommendations were applied to patients who died of SCD and living controls...
March 13, 2018: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
M Marin-Gracia, D Cantero-Lozano, E Garces-Anton, A Lopez-Bravo, A Garrido-Fernandez, M P Navarro-Perez, S Santos-Lasaosa, M Garces-Redondo
INTRODUCTION: Lacosamide is an antiepileptic drug whose exact mechanism of action remains unknown. It acts by increasing the slow inactivation of the voltage-dependent sodium channels of the cell membranes. It is indicated in the treatment of focal seizures with or without secondary generalisation and is occasionally used as adjunct treatment in neuropathic pain. Although the most frequent side effects are mild (dizziness, diplopia, blurred vision, headache, tremor, etc.), others such as supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, changes in repolarisation, atrioventricular blocks and even cardiac arrest or sudden death have been reported...
March 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Rafi Sakhi, Dominic A M J Theuns, Rohit E Bhagwandien, Michelle Michels, Arend F L Schinkel, Tamas Szili-Torok, F Zijlstra, Jolien W Roos-Hesselink, Sing-Chien Yap
PURPOSE: In patients with structural heart disease (SHD) or inherited primary arrhythmia syndrome (IPAS), the occurrence of unexplained syncope or palpitations can be worrisome as they are at increased risk of sudden cardiac death. An implantable loop recorder (ILR) can be a useful diagnostic tool. Our purpose was to compare the diagnostic yield, arrhythmia mechanism, and management in patients with SHD, patients with IPAS, and those without heart disease. METHODS: Retrospective single-center study in consecutive patients who underwent an ILR implantation...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
Liselotte C R Hensen, Kathleen Goossens, Tomaz Podlesnikar, Joris I Rotmans, J Wouter Jukema, Victoria Delgado, Jeroen J Bax
BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD) and may benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). However, the risk for ICD-related complications is also high in this population. Therefore, there is an unmet need for accurate risk stratification tools to identify patients with CKD at risk for ventricular arrhythmias (VAs), who may benefit from ICD implantation. The aim of this hypothesis-generating study was to investigate the association between left ventricular (LV) mechanical dispersion and LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) measured using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography and VA and SCD in patients with CKD...
March 10, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Cesare de Gregorio, Dalia Di Nunzio, Gianluca Di Bella
Physical activity comprises all muscular activities that require energy expenditure. Regular sequence of structured and organized exercise with the specific purpose of improving wellness and athletic performance is defined as a sports activity.Exercise can be performed at various levels of intensity and duration. According to the social context and pathways, it can be recreational, occupational, and competitive. Therefore, the training burden varies inherently and the heart adaptation is challenging.Although a general agreement on the fact that sports practice leads to metabolic, functional and physical benefits, there is evidence that some athletes may be subjected to adverse outcomes...
March 13, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jonathan Frigault, Valérie Lafrenière-Bessi, Jean Perron, Élisabeth Bédard, François Philippon, Paul Poirier, Éric Larose, Frédéric Jacques
Diagnosed with peripartum cardiomyopathy 8 years earlier, a 45-year-old female suffered sudden cardiac death. Following resuscitation, the patient was diagnosed with an anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery and underwent a successful coronary repair. The management of a patient with clinical features of cardiomyopathy is reviewed. Anomalous left coronary artery originating from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare but potentially lethal congenital anomaly affecting 1 in 300,000 live births1 ...
March 9, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Babken Asatryan, Argelia Medeiros-Domingo
Inherited primary arrhythmia syndromes are genetically determined disorders of cardiac ion channels or ion channel macromolecular complexes usually associated with a higher risk of sudden cardiac death. These conditions have a very broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from an asymptomatic course to syncope, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, and conduction disturbances, but may produce sudden infant death syndrome and unexplained sudden cardiac death in apparently healthy individuals. During the last 20 years, the evolving knowledge on the genetic basis of inherited arrhythmia syndromes has dramatically reshaped our understanding of these conditions and, consequently, had a great impact on patient care...
March 8, 2018: Cardiology in Review
Shannon N Nees, Jonathan N Flyer, Anjali Chelliah, Jeffrey D Dayton, Lorraine Touchette, David Kalfa, Paul J Chai, Emile A Bacha, Brett R Anderson
OBJECTIVES: Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA) from the opposite sinus of Valsalva is a rare cardiac anomaly associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD). Single-center studies describe surgical repair as safe, although medium- and long-term effects on symptoms and risk of SCD remain unknown. We sought to describe outcomes of surgical repair of AAOCA. METHODS: We reviewed institutional records for patients who underwent AAOCA repair, from 2001 to 2016, at 2 affiliated institutions...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Cristina Basso, Kalliopi Pilichou, Barbara Bauce, Domenico Corrado, Gaetano Thiene
Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC) is an inherited heart muscle disease characterized by myocardial atrophy and fibrofatty replacement of the ventricular myocardium, at risk of sudden cardiac death, particularly in the young and athletes. Because there is no "gold standard" to reach the diagnosis of AC, multiple categories of diagnostic information have been combined, including imaging, electrocardiographic changes, arrhythmias, tissue characterization, and family history. However, the routine use of contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance increasingly revealed left dominant AC, a variant that is not well addressed in the diagnostic criteria and still escapes clinical identification...
April 2018: Heart Failure Clinics
Mengye Li, Karan R Chadda, Gareth D K Matthews, Celia M Marr, Christopher L-H Huang, Kamalan Jeevaratnam
Exercising horses uniquely accommodate 7-8-fold increases in heart rate (HR). The present experiments for the first time analysed the related adaptations in action potential (AP) restitution properties recorded by in vivo telemetric electrocardiography from Thoroughbred horses. The horses were subjected to a period of acceleration from walk to canter. The QRS durations, and QT and TQ intervals yielded AP conduction velocities, AP durations (APDs) and diastolic intervals respectively. From these, indices of active, λ = QT/(QRS duration), and resting, λ0 = TQ/(QRS duration), AP wavelengths were calculated...
2018: PloS One
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