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Heat illness

M Denise Dowd
A child dying of heat injury due to being left unattended in a motor vehicle is a needless tragedy. Each year in the United States an average of 38 children mostly younger than age 2 years die of vehicular hyperthermia, frequently the result of a parental lapse of attention and not intentional neglect. Serious illness results quickly from exposure to rising heat within the passenger compartment, even on days when the temperature is fairly moderate. Prevention is paramount in addressing this problem and can best be accomplished by a combination of technological means, such as passive warning systems, laws that make leaving a child in a car alone illegal, and public education campaigns...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Devesh Vashishtha, William Sieber, Brittany Hailey, Kristen Guirguis, Alexander Gershunov, Wael K Al-Delaimy
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine whether heat waves are associated with increased frequency of clinic visits for ICD-9 codes of illnesses traditionally associated with heat waves. Methods: During 4 years of family medicine clinic data between 2012 and 2016, we identified six heat wave events in San Diego County. For each heat wave event, we selected a control period in the same season that was twice as long. Scheduling a visit on a heat wave day (versus a non-heat wave day) was the primary predictor, and receiving a primary ICD-9 disease code related to heat waves was the outcome...
March 10, 2018: Family Practice
Sutapa Mukhopadhyay, Annie Hirsch, Suze Etienne, Natalia Melnikova, Jennifer Wu, Kanta Sircar, Maureen Orr
BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) is an insidious gas responsible for approximately 21,000 emergency department visits, 2300 hospitalizations, and 500 deaths in the United States annually. We analyzed 10 combined years of data from two Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry acute hazardous substance release surveillance programs to evaluate CO incident-related injuries. METHODS: Seventeen states participated in these programs during 2005-2014. RESULTS: In those 10years, the states identified 1795 CO incidents...
February 13, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Saud Alanazi, Maryam Alnoman, Saeed Banawas, Ryoichi Saito, Mahfuzur R Sarker
C. perfringens type A is the causative agent of C. perfringens type A food poisoning (FP) and non-food-borne (NFB) human gastrointestinal diseases. Due to its ability to form highly heat-resistant spores, it is of great interest to develop strategies alternative to thermal processing to inactivate C. perfrinegens. Thus, in this study we evaluated the inhibitory effects of essential oil constituents (EOCs) (cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), and carvacrol) against germination, outgrowth and vegetative growth of spores of C...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Alana Hansen, Dino Pisaniello, Blesson Varghese, Shelley Rowett, Scott Hanson-Easey, Peng Bi, Monika Nitschke
Heat exposure can be a health hazard for many Australian workers in both outdoor and indoor situations. With many heat-related incidents left unreported, it is often difficult to determine the underlying causal factors. This study aims to provide insights into perceptions of potentially unsafe or uncomfortably hot working conditions that can affect occupational health and safety using information provided by the public and workers to the safety regulator in South Australia (SafeWork SA). Details of complaints regarding heat exposure to the regulator's "Help Centre" were assembled in a dataset and the textual data analysed thematically...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Greg S Bezanson, Timothy C Ells, Lihua Fan, Charles F Forney, Denyse I LeBlanc
Recent bacterial illnesses and outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh and fresh-cut fruit and vegetables emphasize the need to supply produce that is microbiologically safe while retaining its quality and nutrient value. We assessed the capacity of aerated steam to reduce initial levels and control the posttreatment proliferation of a 4-strain mixture of Listeria innocua, a surrogate for L. monocytogenes, and microflora native to the rind of whole cantaloupes. Studies were conducted at the pilot-scale level by passing deliberately contaminated melons through a prototype stainless-steel, continuous-feed heating device...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Yukie Ito, Manabu Akahane, Tomoaki Imamura
Background: In Japan, the demand for emergency transportation for people with heat-related illness has recently increased. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between incidents of heat-related illness and the daily maximum temperature. Methods: The daily maximum temperatures in Japan's 11 districts over the past 10 years were classified into four categories, with cutoff points at the 50th , 75th , 95th , and higher than 95th percentiles...
March 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Valery Muzhikov, Elena Vershinina, Vadim Belenky, Ruslan Muzhikov
According to popular belief, metabolic disorders and imbalances are one of the main factors contributing to various human illnesses. Early diagnosis of these disorders is one of the main methods for preventing serious diseases. The goal of this study was to assess the correlations between main physical indicators and the activity of certain acupuncture channels using the thermal Akabane test based on ancient Chinese diagnostic methods. This test measures the pain thresholds' temperature sensitivity when a point source of heat is applied to the "entrance-exit" points of each channel...
February 2018: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
Rena Pombo, Etta Johnson, Alejandra Gamboa, Bennet Omalu
Manic episodes induced by antidepressant withdrawal are rarely reported. Mirtazapine is a tetracyclic, piperazinoazepine compound and is a noradrenergic, adrenergic, serotonergic, histaminergic, and muscarinic-antagonist antidepressant that is used for the treatment of major depression and other psychiatric illnesses. There are several reported cases of manic/hypomanic episodes induced by mirtazapine withdrawal based on suspected clinical symptoms that were not confirmed by autopsy and toxicology. We present the first reported case of mirtazapine withdrawal-induced mania/hypomania associated with sudden death and confirmed by autopsy and toxicology...
October 2017: Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
Kazuya Kotani, Kayo Ueda, Xerxes Seposo, Shusuke Yasukochi, Hiroko Matsumoto, Masaji Ono, Akiko Honda, Hirohisa Takano
BACKGROUND: The elderly population has been the primary target of intervention to prevent heat-related illnesses. According to the literature, the highest risks have been observed among the elderly in the temperature-mortality relationship. However, findings regarding the temperature-morbidity relationship are inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the association of temperature with ambulance dispatches due to acute illnesses, stratified by age group...
2018: Global Health Action
Hamish McGorm, Llion A Roberts, Jeff S Coombes, Jonathan M Peake
Historically, heat has been used in various clinical and sports rehabilitation settings to treat soft tissue injuries. More recently, interest has emerged in using heat to pre-condition muscle against injury. The aim of this narrative review was to collate information on different types of heat therapy, explain the physiological rationale for heat therapy, and to summarise and evaluate the effects of heat therapy before, during and after muscle injury, immobilisation and strength training. Studies on skeletal muscle cells demonstrate that heat attenuates cellular damage and protein degradation (following in vitro challenges/insults to the cells)...
February 22, 2018: Sports Medicine
Timothy M Wohlfert, Kevin C Miller
Clinical Scenario: Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is a potentially deadly heat illness and poses a significant health risk to athletes; EHS survival rates are near 100% if properly recognized and treated.1 Whole body cold water immersion (CWI) is the most effective method of lowering body core temperature.2 Precooling (PC) with CWI before exercise may prevent severe hyperthermia and/or EHS by increasing the body's overall heat-storage capacity.3 However, PC may also alter athletes' perception of how hot they feel or how hard they are exercising...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Emma M McCall, Fiona Alderdice, Henry L Halliday, Sunita Vohra, Linda Johnston
BACKGROUND: Newborn admission temperature is a strong predictor of outcomes across all gestations. Hypothermia immediately after birth remains a worldwide issue and, if prolonged, is associated with harm. Keeping preterm infants warm is difficult even when recommended routine thermal care guidelines are followed in the delivery room. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of interventions designed for prevention of hypothermia in preterm and/or low birth weight infants applied within 10 minutes after birth in the delivery room, compared with routine thermal care or any other single/combination of intervention(s) also designed for prevention of hypothermia in preterm and/or low birth weight infants applied within 10 minutes after birth in the delivery room...
February 12, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Stephanie Hopp, Francesca Dominici, Jennifer F Bobb
Heat waves have been associated with adverse human health effects, including higher rates of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and these health effects may be exacerbated under continued climate change. However, specific causes of hospitalizations associated with heat waves have not been characterized on a national scale. We systematically estimated the risks of cause-specific hospitalizations during heat waves in a national cohort of 23.7 million Medicare enrollees residing in 1943 U.S. counties during 1999-2010...
February 8, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Chi-An Lee, Ronald Labbé
The role of spices as vehicles of foodborne illness prompted an examination of bacterial spores in these products. Here, we report on the levels and characteristics of spores of Clostridium perfringens associated with 247 U.S. retail spices. Forty-three confirmed isolates from 17% of samples were obtained, present at levels ranging from 3.6 to 2,400/g. Twenty-seven (63%) of C. perfringens isolates were positive for the enterotoxin gene ( cpe). Seven random spice isolates produced enterotoxin at levels of between 4 and 16 ng/mL, compared with three outbreak (control) strains that each produced enterotoxin levels of >1,024 ng/mL...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Darrell E Singer, Celia Byrne, Ligong Chen, Stephanie Shao, Jonathan Goldsmith, David W Niebuhr
Introduction: A number of studies have found an association between sickle cell trait (SCT) and exertional heat illnesses (EHIs) including heat stroke, a potentially fatal condition. The strength of this association varied across studies, limiting the ability to quantify potential benefits of SCT-screening policies for competitive athletics and military service members. We determined the relative rate and attributable risk of developing EHI associated with being SCT positive and the EHI health care utilization...
February 5, 2018: Military Medicine
Noreen Abbas Sherazi, Mirza Zain Baig, Aysha Habib Khan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of Macroprolactin (MaPRL) in patients with increased total prolactin and its clinical and financial impact. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Section of Clinical Chemistry, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from March to May 2015. METHODOLOGY: Patients with high total prolactin were screened by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation for determination of MaPRL...
February 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Payel Acharya, Bethany Boggess, Kai Zhang
Construction workers are at an elevated risk of heat stress, due to the strenuous nature of the work, high temperature work condition, and a changing climate. An increasing number of workers are at risk, as the industry's growth has been fueled by high demand and vast numbers of immigrant workers entering into the U.S., the Middle East and Asia to meet the demand. The risk of heat-related illnesses is increased by the fact that little to no regulations are present and/or enforced to protect these workers. This review recognizes the issues by summarizing epidemiological studies both in the U...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Eleanor Burnett, Umesh Parashar, Jacqueline Tate
Rotavirus is the leading cause of diarrheal death among children < 5 years old worldwide, estimated to have caused ~ 215,000 deaths in 2013. Prior to rotavirus vaccine implementation, > 65% of children had at least one rotavirus diarrhea illness by 5 years of age and rotavirus accounted for > 40% of all-cause diarrhea hospitalizations globally. Two live, oral rotavirus vaccines have been implemented nationally in > 100 countries since 2006 and their use has substantially reduced the burden of severe diarrheal illness in all settings...
January 31, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Bryan Troxell
Bacteria interact with their host through protein secretion systems and surface structures. Pathogenic bacteria encode protein secretion systems that promote the invasion of the host's tissue, the evasion of the host's immune response, the thwarting microbial competitors, and ultimately survival within the host. For motile bacteria, the presence of extracellular flagella provides the host with a structural motif used for activation of the immune system. Within this issue of Virulence, the article "Identification of a novel gene in ROD9 island of Salmonella Enteritidis involved in the alteration of virulence-associated protein expression" describes the contribution of a gene, SEN1005, toward host-pathogen interaction...
January 30, 2018: Virulence
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