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Heat illness

Ileok Jung, Seo-Young Choi, Hyo-Jung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
Even though dizziness is a common symptom of heat illness, comprehensive evaluation of the vestibular function has not been available in this potentially life-threatening disorder. Three patients developed vertigo about a week after heat exposure. Evaluation showed bilateral impairments of the vestibulo-ocular reflex during head impulses and the signs of vestibulocerebellar dysfunction that included spontaneous downbeat nystagmus, gaze-evoked nystagmus, and positional downbeat nystagmus. Exposure to excessive heat may give rise to delayed vestibulopathy by damaging the vestibulocerebellum...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Andrea Rostás, Ahmed Sabry, Subhamay Ghosh
Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury as a result of inflow obstruction is a major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with liver pathologies and surgery. Heat shock proteins, a family of stress-inducible proteins involved in maintaining cell homeostasis and regulating the immune system play a major role in liver regeneration. They serve as crucial indicators of ischemia-reperfusion injury in human liver and influence liver function and recovery. The primary objectives of this article are to review the potential role of heat shock proteins as a diagnostic marker for liver diseases and therapeutic target in critical illness...
October 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
Osvaldo Marrero, Eric Y Hung, Manfred Hauben
BACKGROUND: Many illnesses demonstrate seasonal and geographic variations. Pharmacovigilance is unique among public health surveillance systems in terms of the clinical diversity of the events under surveillance. Since many pharmacovigilance signal detection methodologies are geared towards looking for increased frequency of spontaneous adverse drug event (ADE) reporting over variable time frames, seasonality of ADEs may have implications for signal detection. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether a set of illnesses that might be expected to display seasonality in general, did so when spontaneously reported as ADEs...
September 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Jillian E Sylvester, Luke N Belval, Douglas J Casa, Francis G O'Connor
Football is recognized as a leading contributor to sports injury secondary to the contact collision nature of the endeavor. While direct deaths from head and spine injury remain a significant contributor to the number of catastrophic injuries, indirect deaths (systemic failure) predominate. Exertional heat stroke has emerged as one of the leading indirect causes of death in high school and collegiate football. This review details for the team physician the unique challenge of exercising in the heat to the football player, and the prevention, diagnosis, management, and return-to-play issues pertinent to exertional heat illnesses...
September 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
Pardeep Kumar, F Matthew Kuhlmann, Kirandeep Bhullar, Hyungjun Yang, Bruce A Vallance, Lijun Xia, Qingwei Luo, James M Fleckenstein
At present, there is no vaccine for enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), an important cause of diarrheal illness. Nevertheless, recent microbial pathogenesis studies have identified a number of molecules produced by ETEC that contribute to its virulence and which provide novel antigenic targets to complement canonical vaccine approaches. EtpA is a secreted two-partner adhesin, that is conserved within the ETEC pathovar. EtpA interacts with the tips of ETEC flagella to promote bacterial adhesion, toxin delivery and intestinal colonization by forming molecular bridges between the bacteria and the epithelial surface...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Yukiyoshi Hyo, Kenji Fukutsuji, Hisaki Fukushima, Tamotsu Harada
Cases of thermal burns of the larynx in infants and in patients with mental illness have been reported, but those in older people are rare. We report two cases of thermal burns of the larynx in older people caused by ingestion of microwave-heated food (meat and potato stew or a bean-jam filled bun). Both patients were users of full dentures. Conservative therapy was effective in one patient, while tracheotomy was performed in the other patient at the time of the initial examination. Hot food is expelled from the mouth as a reflective response, preventing thermal burns of the larynx...
October 6, 2016: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
June T Spector, David K Bonauto, Lianne Sheppard, Tania Busch-Isaksen, Miriam Calkins, Darrin Adams, Max Lieblich, Richard A Fenske
BACKGROUND: Recent research suggests that heat exposure may increase the risk of traumatic injuries. Published heat-related epidemiological studies have relied upon exposure data from individual weather stations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between heat exposure and traumatic injuries in outdoor agricultural workers exposed to ambient heat and internal heat generated by physical activity using modeled ambient exposure data. METHODS: A case-crossover study using time-stratified referent selection among 12,213 outdoor agricultural workers with new Washington State Fund workers' compensation traumatic injury claims between 2000 and 2012 was conducted...
2016: PloS One
JoEllen M Sefton, J S McAdam, David D Pascoe, K R Lohse, Robert L Banda, Corbin B Henault, Andrew R Cherrington, N E Adams
CONTEXT:  Heat injury is a significant threat to military trainees. Different methods of heat mitigation are in use across military units. Mist fans are 1 of several methods used in the hot and humid climate of Fort Benning, Georgia. OBJECTIVES:  To determine if (1) the mist fan or the cooling towel effectively lowered participant core temperature in the humid environment found at Fort Benning and (2) the mist fan or the cooling towel presented additional physiologic or safety benefits or detriments when used in this environment...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
Raul Harari Arjona, Jessika Piñeiros, Marcelo Ayabaca, Florencia Harari Freire
Climate change is a global concern but little is known about its potential health effects in workers from non-industrialized countries. Ecuadorian workers from the coast (hot environments) and Andean region (elevated UV radiation) might be at particular risk of such effects. In the Andean region, measurements of UV index show maximum levels exceeding 11, a level considered being extreme according to the WHO. Also, an increased incidence of skin cancer was reported the last decennium, this being the second most common cancer type in men and women...
July 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Khadiza Khatun, Arif Hasan Khan Robin, Jong-In Park, Chang Kil Kim, Ki-Byung Lim, Min-Bae Kim, Do-Jin Lee, Ill Sup Nou, Mi-Young Chung
The actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) proteins have growth, development, defense-related and growth regulatory functions in plants. The present study used genome-wide analysis to investigate ADF family genes in tomato. Eleven tomato ADF genes were identified and differential expression patterns were found in different organs. SlADF6 was preferentially expressed in roots, suggesting its function in root development. SlADF1, SlADF3 and SlADF10 were predominately expressed in the flowers compared to the other organs and specifically in the stamen compared to other flower parts, indicating their potential roles in pollen development...
2016: Genes
April M Killikelly, Masaru Kanekiyo, Barney S Graham
The lack of a licensed vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can be partly attributed to regulatory hurdles resulting from vaccine enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) subsequent to natural RSV infection that was observed in clinical trials of formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) in antigen-naïve infants. To develop an effective vaccine that does not enhance RSV illness, it is important to understand how formalin and heat inactivation affected the antigenicity and immunogenicity of FI-RSV compared to native virus...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
V Calabrese, J Giordano, M Ruggieri, D Berritta, A Trovato, M L Ontario, R Bianchini, E J Calabrese
In the United States, 1.1-1.5% of children have been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), corresponding to a 30% increase in incidence and prevalence. Social and communication impairments are the main signs and symptoms of ASD, and currently available medications have been ineffective in reducing these core deficits. Observational studies have indicated that children with ASD tend to show improved cognition and behavior after febrile illness, which is associated with alteration of metabolic pathways, leading to cellular stress responses and increased expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps)...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Philip A Smith, Jeffrey Lodwick, Joe Dartt, Jenny R Amani, Kathleen M Fagan
A worker attempting to remove solidified material inside a confined space (storage tank) suffered severe methemoglobinemia and almost died. The tank contained liquid 4,4' -methylene diphenyl diisocyanate monomer that had solidified after an equipment power failure caused excessive heating. Wearing a full-face elastomeric air-purifying respirator and Tyvek® coveralls, the worker used pneumatic air hammers to break up the solid material. After two tank entries totaling slightly less than one hour, the worker complained of headache and dizziness and within two hours of exiting the tank, he was admitted to the hospital in severe respiratory distress...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Michael T Schmeltz, Elisaveta P Petkova, Janet L Gamble
Understanding how heat waves affect morbidity and mortality, as well as the associated economic costs, is essential for characterizing the human health impacts of extreme heat under a changing climate. Only a handful of studies have examined healthcare costs associated with exposures to high temperatures. This research explores costs associated with hospitalizations for heat-related illness (HRI) in the United States using the 2001 to 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Descriptive statistics of patient data for HRI hospitalizations were examined and costs of hospitalizations were reported using the all-payer inpatient cost-to-charge ratio...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Veronica Mardegan, Elena Priante, Elisabetta Lolli, Paola Lago, Eugenio Baraldi
Heated, humidified high-flow delivered by nasal cannulae (HHHFNC) is increasingly used for noninvasive respiratory support in preterm infants and critically ill children due to its perceived effectiveness and ease of use. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that HHHFNC and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) are equally effective as postextubation support in preterm infants. HHHFNC is also used for weaning preterm infants from CPAP. Data on HHHFNC used as the primary support for treating respiratory distress syndrome are conflicting...
September 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Pierre Valois, Patrick Blouin, Claudine Ouellet, Jean-Sébastien Renaud, Diane Bélanger, Pierre Gosselin
INTRODUCTION: As the health consequences of climate change (CC) will likely become more manifest in the future, family physicians have to be knowledgeable about these impacts and the ways in which they can affect their patients. The main aim of this study was to propose a competency framework and questionnaire used to conduct a needs analysis to identify and prioritize family physicians' real educational needs regarding the health impacts of CC. METHODS: A mixed method combining a qualitative interview and a quantitative online questionnaire was used (n = 24 physicians)...
2016: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
Michaela-Diana Fitrolaki, Helen Dimitriou, Maria Venihaki, Marianna Katrinaki, Stavroula Ilia, George Briassoulis
Mammalian heat-shock-protein (HSP) 90α rapidly responses to environmental insults. We examined the hypothesis that not only serum HSP72 but also HSP90α is increased in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), severe-sepsis (SS), and/or sepsis (S) compared to healthy children (H); we assessed HSP90α relation to (a) multiple organ system failure (MOSF) and (b) inflammatory-metabolic response and severity of illness.A total of 65 children with S, SS, or SIRS and 25 H were included. ELISA was used to evaluate extracellular HSP90α and HSP72, chemiluminescence interleukins (ILs), flow-cytometry neutrophil-CD64 (nCD64)-expression...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
David P Eisenman, Holly Wilhalme, Chi-Hong Tseng, Mikhail Chester, Paul English, Stephanie Pincetl, Andrew Fraser, Sitaram Vangala, Satvinder K Dhaliwal
In an extreme heat event, people can go to air-conditioned public facilities if residential air-conditioning is not available. Residences that heat slowly may also mitigate health effects, particularly in neighborhoods with social vulnerability. We explored the contributions of social vulnerability and these infrastructures to heat mortality in Maricopa County and whether these relationships are sensitive to temperature. Using Poisson regression modeling with heat-related mortality as the outcome, we assessed the interaction of increasing temperature with social vulnerability, access to publicly available air conditioned space, home air conditioning and the thermal properties of residences...
September 2016: Health & Place
Daniel J Niven, Kevin B Laupland
Elevation in core body temperature is one of the most frequently detected abnormal signs in patients admitted to adult ICUs, and is associated with increased mortality in select populations of critically ill patients. The definition of an elevated body temperature varies considerably by population and thermometer, and is commonly defined by a temperature of 38.0 °C or greater. Terms such as hyperthermia, pyrexia, and fever are often used interchangeably. However, strictly speaking hyperthermia refers to the elevation in body temperature that occurs without an increase in the hypothalamic set point, such as in response to specific environmental (e...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
B Padalino, S L Raidal, E Hall, P Knight, P Celi, L Jeffcott, G Muscatello
BACKGROUND: Transportation can affect equine health and is a potential source of economic loss to the industry. OBJECTIVES: To identify journey (duration, vehicle, commercial or noncommercial) and horse (sex, age, breed, use, amateur or professional status) characteristics associated with the development of transport-related health problems in horses. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional online survey. METHODS: An online survey was conducted targeting amateur and professional participants in the Australian equine industry; eligible respondents were required to organise horse movements at least monthly...
August 26, 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
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