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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651107/how-seasonality-and-weather-affect-perinatal-health-comparing-the-experiences-of-indigenous-and-non-indigenous-mothers-in-kanungu-district-uganda
#1
Sarah MacVicar, Lea Berrang-Ford, Sherilee Harper, Vivienne Steele, Shuaib Lwasa, Didacus Namanya Bambaiha, Sabastien Twesigomwe, Grace Asaasira, Nancy Ross
Maternal and newborn health disparities and the health impacts of climate change present grand challenges for global health equity, and there remain knowledge gaps in our understanding of how these challenges intersect. This study examines the pathways through which mothers are affected by seasonal and meteorological factors in sub-Saharan Africa in general, and Kanungu District (Uganda), in particular. We conducted a community-based study consisting of focus group discussions with mothers and interviews with health care workers in Kanungu District...
June 19, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639035/mitigation-of-pedestrian-heat-stress-using-parasols-in-a-humid-subtropical-region
#2
Shinichi Watanabe, Jin Ishii
Concerns over heat illness have been an increasing social problem in humid subtropical regions. One measure for avoiding excessive heat stress in hot outdoor environments is the use of parasols or umbrellas. The advantage of parasols is that they are a mobile and inexpensive way to provide personal shade outdoors. The objectives of this study were to compare the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) under parasols and at an unshaded point as a reference, and to quantify the reduction in WBGT from the use of parasols in a humid subtropical region...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628050/arizona-hospital-discharge-and-emergency-department-database-implications-for-occupational-health-surveillance
#3
Philip Harber, Jennifer Ha, Matthew Roach
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the project was to identify trends in emergency department visits and inpatient admissions for occupational injury and disease frequency and describe the financial impact from specific clinical groups known to have occupational risk factors. METHODS: Workers compensation cases among 19 million records in the Arizona statewide hospital discharge database (HDD) were assessed for seven clinical groups from 2008 to 2014, including back, cardiac, carpal tunnel syndrome, heat-related, psychiatric, pulmonary, and trauma...
April 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625272/-research-progress-in-the-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome-caused-by-heat-stroke
#4
Mengmeng Yang, Yu Zhang, Yan Zhao, Hongjun Kang
Heat stroke (HS) is a life-threatening illness characterized by core body temperatures above 40 °C coupled with central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, including delirium, convulsions, and/or coma. Its morbidity has increased dramatically in the past few decades. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is not only the most serious complication of HS, but also the leading cause of deaths. Understanding the pathogenesis, characteristic and advancement pattern of MODS caused by HS will have a profound effect on the clinical treatment, research and mortality decrease...
February 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619306/management-of-viral-oral-ulcers-in-children-using-chinese-herbal-medicine-a-report-of-two-cases
#5
Yi-Chiao Lee, Ting-Hao Wang, Shih-Yu Chen, Hsiang-Ling Lin, Ming-Yen Tsai
OBJECTIVE: Viral oral ulcers are common presentations in pediatric clinics. Although self-limiting, painful ulcerative lesions and inflamed mucosa can decrease oral intake and lead to dehydration. Despite the widespread use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for pediatric upper respiratory disease in Taiwan, there is little evidence for its effectiveness as an antipyretic or in aiding ulcer healing for children with viral oral ulcers. We report two cases of children who presented with viral oral ulcers to illustrate the potential efficacy of CHM treatment in recovery from herpangina (HA) and herpetic gingivostomatitis (HGS)...
June 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605224/effect-of-a-cooling-kit-on-physiology-and-performance-following-exercise-in-the-heat
#6
Cody R Smith, Cory L Butts, J D Adams, Matthew A Tucker, Nicole E Moyen, Matthew S Ganio, Brendon P McDermott
CONTEXT: Exercising in the heat leads to an increase in body temperature that can increase the risk of heat illness or cause detriments in exercise performance. OBJECTIVE: To examine a phase change heat emergency kit (HEK) on thermoregulatory and perceptual responses, and subsequent exercise performance following exercise in the heat. DESIGN: Two randomized crossover trials which consisted of 30 minutes of exercise, 15 minutes of treatment (T1), performance testing (5-10-5 pro-agility test, 1500 m run), and another 15 minutes of treatment (T2) identical to T1...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602832/fumarate-decreases-edema-volume-and-improves-functional-outcome-after-experimental-stroke
#7
Bettina Hjelm Clausen, Louise Lundberg, Minna Yli-Karjanmaa, Nellie Anne Martin, Martina Svensson, Maria Zeiler Alfsen, Simon Bertram Flæng, Kristina Lyngsø, Antonio Boza-Serrano, Helle H Nielsen, Pernille B Hansen, Bente Finsen, Tomas Deierborg, Zsolt Illes, Kate Lykke Lambertsen
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and inflammation exacerbate tissue damage in the brain after ischemic stroke. Dimethyl-fumarate (DMF) and its metabolite monomethyl-fumarate (MMF) are known to stimulate anti-oxidant pathways and modulate inflammatory responses. Considering these dual effects of fumarates, we examined the effect of MMF treatment after ischemic stroke in mice. METHODS: Permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) was performed using adult, male C57BL/6 mice...
June 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591871/-relevance-of-heat-health-actions-plans-for-preventive-public-health-in-germany
#8
Birgit Zielo, Andreas Matzarakis
Background Heat waves are among the extreme weather events and represent a growing health hazard for the population in Europe. According to the current climate studies, the probability of an increase and intensification of heat waves has been increasing for years. Particularly affected by exposure to unusually high heat are people whose organism is already weakened by age or illness. As the share of senior citizens in Germany continues to rise as a result of demographic change, the health effects of heat waves are gaining in importance...
June 7, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586010/resveratrol-protects-against-l-arginine-induced-acute-necrotizing-pancreatitis-in-mice-by-enhancing-sirt1-mediated-deacetylation-of-p53-and-heat-shock-factor-1
#9
Nian Wang, Fen Zhang, Liu Yang, Jiang Zou, Hao Wang, Ke Liu, Meidong Liu, Huali Zhang, Xianzhong Xiao, Kangkai Wang
Acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) is a common severe critical illness with a high mortality rate. Resveratrol, a polyphenol compound derived from various plants such as grape skin, peanut, berry and veratrum, exhibits multiple biological activities, especially potent anti‑inflammatory activity, but its effect on ANP has not yet been fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on L-arginine-induced ANP and the possible mechanisms. A mouse model of ANP was established by 2 hourly intraperitoneal injections of 8% L-arginine (4 g/kg)...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552777/comparison-of-the-toxicity-of-sintered-and-unsintered-indium-tin-oxide-particles-in-murine-macrophage-and-epidermal-cells
#10
Nicole S Olgun, Anna M Morris, Tabatha Lynn Barber, Aleksandr B Stefaniak, Michael L Kashon, Diane Schwegler-Berry, Kristin J Cummings, Stephen S Leonard
Indium-tin oxide (ITO) is used to produce flat panel displays and several other technology products. Composed of 90% indium oxide (In2O3) and 10% tin oxide (SnO2) by weight, ITO is synthesized under conditions of high heat via a process known as sintering. Indium lung disease, a recently recognized occupational illness, is characterized by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, fibrosis, and emphysema. Murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) and epidermal (JB6) cells stably transfected with AP-1 to study tumor promoting potential, were used to differentiate between the toxicological profiles of sintered ITO (SITO) and unsintered mixture (UITO)...
May 25, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552074/heat-and-moisture-exchangers-hmes-and-heated-humidifiers-hhs-in-adult-critically-ill-patients-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
Maria Vargas, Davide Chiumello, Yuda Sutherasan, Lorenzo Ball, Antonio M Esquinas, Paolo Pelosi, Giuseppe Servillo
BACKGROUND: The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials are to evaluate the effects of active heated humidifiers (HHs) and moisture exchangers (HMEs) in preventing artificial airway occlusion and pneumonia, and on mortality in adult critically ill patients. In addition, we planned to perform a meta-regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between the incidence of artificial airway occlusion, pneumonia and mortality and clinical features of adult critically ill patients...
May 29, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531220/highly-conserved-type-1-pili-promote-enterotoxigenic-e-coli-pathogen-host-interactions
#12
Alaullah Sheikh, Rasheduzzaman Rashu, Yasmin Ara Begum, F Matthew Kuhlman, Matthew A Ciorba, Scott J Hultgren, Firdausi Qadri, James M Fleckenstein
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), defined by their elaboration of heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins, are a common cause of diarrheal illness in developing countries. Efficient delivery of these toxins requires ETEC to engage target host enterocytes. This engagement is accomplished using a variety of pathovar-specific and conserved E. coli adhesin molecules as well as plasmid encoded colonization factors. Some of these adhesins undergo significant transcriptional modulation as ETEC encounter intestinal epithelia, perhaps suggesting that they cooperatively facilitate interaction with the host...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509764/environmental-and-physiological-factors-affect-football-head-impact-biomechanics
#13
Jason P Mihalik, Adam Z Sumrall, Susan W Yeargin, Kevin M Guskiewicz, Kevin B King, Scott C Trulock, Edgar W Shields
PURPOSE: Recent anecdotal trends suggest a disproportionate number of head injuries in collegiate football players occur during preseason football camp. In warmer climates, this season also represents the highest risk for heat-related illness among collegiate football players. Since concussion and heat illnesses share many common symptoms, we need 1) to understand if environmental conditions, body temperature, and hydration status affect head impact biomechanics; and 2) to determine if an in-helmet thermistor could provide a valid measure of gastrointestinal temperature...
May 15, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505092/molecular-characterization-and-expression-profiling-of-tomato-grf-transcription-factor-family-genes-in-response-to-abiotic-stresses-and-phytohormones
#14
Khadiza Khatun, Arif Hasan Khan Robin, Jong-In Park, Ujjal Kumar Nath, Chang Kil Kim, Ki-Byung Lim, Ill Sup Nou, Mi-Young Chung
Growth regulating factors (GRFs) are plant-specific transcription factors that are involved in diverse biological and physiological processes, such as growth, development and stress and hormone responses. However, the roles of GRFs in vegetative and reproductive growth, development and stress responses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) have not been extensively explored. In this study, we characterized the 13 SlGRF genes. In silico analysis of protein motif organization, intron-exon distribution, and phylogenetic classification confirmed the presence of GRF proteins in tomato...
May 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489460/a-preliminary-study-in-the-alterations-of-mitochondrial-respiration-in-patients-with-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-measured-in-blood-cells
#15
David H Jang, Matthew Kelly, Kevin Hardy, David S Lambert, Frances S Shofer, David M Eckmann
OBJECTIVES: Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless and odorless gas responsible for poisoning mortality and morbidity in the United States. At this time, there is no reliable method to predict the severity of poisoning or clinical prognosis following CO exposure. Whole blood cells, such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and platelets, have been explored for their potential use to act as sensitive biomarkers for mitochondrial dysfunction which may have a role in CO poisoning. DESIGN: The objective of this study was to measure mitochondrial respiration using intact cells obtained from patients exposed to CO as a potential biomarker for mitochondrial inhibition with results that can be obtained in a time frame useful for guiding clinical care...
July 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484148/plasma-endotoxin-activity-in-eastern-grey-kangaroos-macropus-giganteus-with-lumpy-jaw-disease
#16
Yukari Sotohira, Kazuyuki Suzuki, Marina Otsuka, Masakazu Tsuchiya, Toshio Shimamori, Yasunobu Nishi, Kenji Tsukano, Mitsuhiko Asakawa
Progressive pyogranulomatous osteomyelitis involving the mandible or maxilla of captive macropods, referred to as "Lumpy jaw disease (LJD)", is one of the most significant causes of illness and death in captive macropods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the severity of LJD and plasma endotoxin activity in kangaroos. Plasma samples obtained from moderate (n=24) and severe LJD (n=12), and healthy kangaroos (n=46), were diluted 1:20 in endotoxin-free water and heated to 80°C for 10 min...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452907/in-a-mouse-model-of-sepsis-hepcidin-ablation-ameliorates-anemia-more-effectively-than-iron-and-erythropoietin-treatment
#17
Eeman Khorramian, Eileen Fung, Kristine Chua, Victoria Gabayan, Tomas Ganz, Elizabeta Nemeth, Airie Kim
Intensive Care Unit (ICU) anemia is an extreme version of anemia of inflammation (AI) that occurs commonly in critically ill patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Currently available therapies for ICU anemia have shown inconsistent efficacies in clinical trials. We conducted a systematic study of the effects of early versus delayed iron (Fe) and/or erythropoietin (EPO) therapy in our previously characterized mouse model of ICU anemia based on an injection of heat-killed Brucella abortus (BA)...
April 27, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447137/-climate-change-physical-and-mental-consequences
#18
REVIEW
Maxie Bunz, Hans-Guido Mücke
Climate change has already had a large influence on the human environmental system and directly or indirectly affects physical and mental health. Triggered by extreme meteorological conditions, for example, storms, floods, earth slides and heat periods, the direct consequences range from illnesses to serious accidents with injuries, or in extreme cases fatalities. Indirectly, a changed environment due to climate change affects, amongst other things, the cardiovascular system and respiratory tract, and can also cause allergies and infectious diseases...
April 26, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445399/advances-in-psychiatric-diagnosis-past-present-and-future
#19
EDITORIAL
Carol S North, Alina M Surís
This editorial examines controversies identified by the articles in this special issue, which explore psychopathology in the broad history of the classification of selected psychiatric disorders and syndromes over time through current American criteria. Psychiatric diagnosis has a long history of scientific investigation and application, with periods of rapid change, instability, and heated controversy associated with it. The articles in this issue examine the history of psychiatric nomenclature and explore current and future directions in psychiatric diagnosis through the various versions of accepted diagnostic criteria and accompanying research literature addressing the criteria...
April 26, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436284/exertional-heat-illness-among-secondary-school-athletes
#20
Jill Rodgers, Peggy Slota, Beth Zamboni
Exertional heat illness (EHI) is a leading cause of preventable death among student athletes. While causes and preventative measures for EHI are known, school districts may not be implementing evidence-based practices. This descriptive, exploratory study explored school policies, resources, and practices of coaches in a mid-Atlantic state in the prevention and identification of EHI; 397 responded. Ninety-three percent knew of EHI, but only 52% scheduled acclimatization. Coaches reporting a heat emergency plan (56%) were significantly more likely to follow other evidence-based recommendations: altering equipment ( p < ...
January 1, 2017: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
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