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Pediatric heat related illness

Robert P Olympia, Jodi Brady
Approximately 7.6 million high school students in the United States participate in sports. Although most sport-related injuries in adolescents are considered minor emergencies, life-threatening illnesses or injuries may occur, such as sudden cardiac arrest, heat stroke, status asthmaticus and exercise-induced asthma, catastrophic brain injuries, cervical spine injuries, heat- and cold-related illness, blunt chest/abdominal injuries, and extremity fractures resulting in compartment syndrome. Emergency preparedness in athletics involves the identification of and planning for medical services to promote the safety of the athlete, to limit injury, and to provide medical care at the site of practice or competition...
May 2013: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Satyanarayan Hegde, Parthak Prodhan
Despite the absence of clinical safety data, heated, humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHFNC) therapy is increasingly being used as an alternative to positive-pressure ventilation in pediatrics. This use of HHFNC is "off label" because the US Food and Drug Administration's approval for these devices was only for air humidification and not as a modality to provide positive distending pressure. For the first time we describe 3 cases who developed serious air leaks related to HHFNC therapy. The first child was a previously healthy 2-month-old male infant with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis who developed a right pneumothorax on day 5 of his illness at 8 liters per minute (lpm)...
March 2013: Pediatrics
Dan Nemet, Pinchas Fainmesser, Alon Eliakim
In recent years there have been changes in the patterns of pediatric physical activity. Most children are now less physically active, and this fact leads to the emergence of childhood obesity and its complications. On the other hand, there is an increase in the number of children and adolescents participating in organized competitive sports. These changes have led to an increased number of children and adolescents seeking emergency evaluation and treatment due to sports-related injuries. Approximately one third of overall injuries in childhood and adolescence are sports-related injuries...
September 2007: Harefuah
Karen Choong, Desmond Bohn
OBJECTIVE: To examine electrolyte-free water requirements that should be considered when administering maintenance fluids in a critically ill child. We examine some of the difficulties in estimating these requirements, and discuss the controversies with respect to the traditional recommendations. SOURCES: MEDLINE (1966-2007), Embase (1980-2007), and the Cochrane Library, using the terms fluid therapy, hypotonic, isotonic solution, and synonyms or related terms. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The ideal maintenance solution and fluid regimen remains a topic of heated debate in pediatrics...
May 2007: Jornal de Pediatria
Lisa Marie Bernardo, Patricia A Crane, Tener Goodwin Veenema
Pediatric heat-related illnesses are likely to occur during mass gatherings and special events. Because critical care nurses may be called upon to provide care during such events, education in the recognition, treatment, and prevention of these illnesses is essential. This article describes the pathophysiology of heat-related illnesses and their recognition and treatment at mass gatherings and special events. Interventions to prevent heat-related illnesses at these events are discussed.
July 2006: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
Rebecca J Baker, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Miroslav Dostál, Jean A Keller, Jiri Nozicka, Frantisek Kotesovec, Jan Dejmek, Dana Loomis, Radim J Srám
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate how indoor pollution from tobacco and home heating may adversely affect respiratory health in young children. DESIGN: A birth cohort was followed longitudinally for 3 years to determine incidence of lower respiratory illness (LRI). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 452 children born 1994-1996 in two districts in the Czech Republic participated. EVALUATIONS: Indoor combustion exposures were home heating and cooking fuel, mother's smoking during pregnancy, and other adult smokers in the household...
July 2006: Environmental Health Perspectives
Robert K. Pretzlaff
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of fatal rhabdomyolysis secondary to exertional heat stroke and the potential influence of sickle cell trait on the outcome of this case. DESIGN: Descriptive case report. SETTING: Pediatric intensive care unit in an academic children's hospital. MAIN RESULTS: A description of the presentation and clinical course of exertional heatstroke with rhabdomyolysis in an adolescent athlete. The implications of the patient's clinical course and a possible connection to sickle cell trait are also discussed...
July 2002: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
C Banikarim, M R Chacko, S H Kelder
BACKGROUND: Dysmenorrhea is the leading cause of short-term school absenteeism. It is associated with a negative impact on social, academic, and sports activities of many female adolescents. Dysmenorrhea has not previously been described among Hispanic adolescents, the fastest growing minority group in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhea among Hispanic female adolescents; its impact on academic performance, school attendance, and sports and social activities; and its management...
December 2000: Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
(no author information available yet)
For morphologic and physiologic reasons, exercising children do not adapt as effectively as adults when exposed to a high climatic heat stress. This may affect their performance and well-being, as well as increase the risk for heat-related illness. This policy statement summarizes approaches for the prevention of the detrimental effects of children's activity in hot or humid climates, including the prevention of exercise-induced dehydration.
July 2000: Pediatrics
J Smith, R P Wilder
This self-directed learning module highlights new advances in this topic area. It is part of the chapter on musculoskeletal rehabilitation and sports medicine in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation. This article discusses physiatric duties as a team physician, preparticipation physical examinations, ergogenic aids, heat-related illness, pediatric sports injuries, female sports injuries, and sports medicine topics pertinent to geriatric and physically or mentally challenged athletes...
May 1999: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
D L Squire
The primary mechanism for maintaining normal body temperature during physical exercise in the heat is the evaporation of sweat. With profuse sweating, water loss far exceeds electrolyte loss. Rigorous exercise in the heat places the athlete at risk for thermoregulatory dysfunction from dehydration. Because children are inherently less efficient thermoregulators than adults, they are at even greater risk for heat illness. The three primary syndromes of heat illness are heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke...
October 1990: Pediatric Clinics of North America
L A Drwal-Klein, S J Phelps
General principles of thermoregulation, the pathophysiology of fever, controversies concerning the use of antipyretic therapy, and nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments commonly used for antipyresis in the pediatric population are reviewed. Several arguments can be made for not ameliorating the febrile response. Fever is an important diagnostic and prognostic clinical sign that may have beneficial effects for the host. In addition, body temperatures of < or = 41 degrees C (105.8 degrees F) are relatively harmless...
December 1992: Clinical Pharmacy
P Echeverria, N R Blacklow, J L Vollet, C V Ulyangco, G Cukor, V B Soriano, H L DuPont, J H Cross, F Orskov, I Orskov
Of 82 children hospitalized with diarrhea in the Philippines during January-June 1976, 14 (17%) had infections due to a reovirus-like agent as determined by detection of viral particles in stools by electron microscopy (12 [15%] of 82) and/or by a rise in titer of antibody to the serologically related Nebraska calf diarrhea virus (eight [20%] of 39). Escherichia coli producing heat-labile enterotoxin were found in six (7%) of 82 ill children and two (4%) of 49 healthy control children, while E. coli producing heat-stable enterotoxin were isolated from three children with diarrhea and two without gastroenteritis...
September 1978: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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