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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919235/geographical-distribution-of-typhoid-risk-factors-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#1
Jung-Seok Lee, Vijayalaxmi V Mogasale, Vittal Mogasale, Kangsung Lee
BACKGROUND: While the global burden of typhoid fever has been often brought up for attention, the detailed surveillance information has only been available for the limited number of countries. As more efficacious vaccines will be available in the near future, it is essential to understand the geographically diverse patterns of typhoid risk levels and to prioritize the right populations for vaccination to effectively control the disease. METHODS: A composite index called the typhoid risk factor (TRF) index was created based on data with the Global Positioning System (GPS)...
December 5, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912766/non-random-distribution-of-child-undernutrition-in-ethiopia-spatial-analysis-from-the-2011-ethiopia-demographic-and-health-survey
#2
Zewdie Aderaw Alemu, Ahmed Ali Ahmed, Alemayehu Worku Yalew, Belay Simanie Birhanu
BACKGROUND: Child undernutrition showed geographical inequalities due to variations in contextual determinants from area to area which indicates that location is an important factor in child undernutrition. However, there are limited studies on spatial epidemiology of child undernutrition in Ethiopia. This study was aimed to identify the SaTScan spatial clusters of child undernutrition in Ethiopia. METHODS: Nutritional indices of children (0-59 months) with Global Positioning System (GPS) location data were accessed from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) after getting permission from the MEASURES Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) Program...
December 3, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903406/morphology-of-the-posteromedial-fragment-in-pertrochanteric-fractures-a-three-dimensional-computed-tomography-analysis
#3
Gaurav Sharma, Kiran Kumar Gn, Kavin Khatri, Ravijot Singh, Shivanand Gamanagatti, Vijay Sharma
BACKGROUND: In this study we describe the morphology of the posteromedial fragment in pertrochanteric fractures using 3D CT scans and answer two questions 1) Do differences exist between the 3D CT appearances of posteromedial fragments and the depictions made in the AO classification 2) Does the posteromedial fragment affect stability in pertrochanteric fractures, in terms of fracture collapse? METHODS: Preoperative CT scans of eight 31-A1 and fifty 31-A2 fractures were analysed...
November 17, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902919/geographic-distribution-of-point-in-time-access-to-subsidised-dental-services-in-western-australia
#4
Yevgeni Dudko, Estie Kruger, Marc Tennant
Dental Health Services (DHS) is the largest public primary oral healthcare provider in WA. The objective of this study was to calculate probable distance patients are expected to travel to the nearest clinic, gauge utilisation rates and predict the direction of likely changes in future demand for subsidised dental care. Eligible population data was collected from the Department of Human Services and the Australian Bureau of Statistics websites and integrated with the waiting list and the recall list data provided by the DHS...
December 1, 2016: Australian Journal of Primary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902803/alphasim-software-for-breeding-program-simulation
#5
Anne-Michelle Faux, Gregor Gorjanc, R Chris Gaynor, Mara Battagin, Stefan M Edwards, David L Wilson, Sarah J Hearne, Serap Gonen, John M Hickey
This paper describes AlphaSim, a software package for simulating plant and animal breeding programs. AlphaSim enables the simulation of multiple aspects of breeding programs with a high degree of flexibility. AlphaSim simulates breeding programs in a series of steps: (i) simulate haplotype sequences and pedigree; (ii) drop haplotypes into the base generation of the pedigree and select single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN); (iii) assign QTN effects, calculate genetic values, and simulate phenotypes; (iv) drop haplotypes into the burn-in generations; and (v) perform selection and simulate new generations...
November 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878352/perioperative-risks-of-dietary-and-herbal-supplements
#6
Ilana Levy, Samuel Attias, Eran Ben-Arye, Lee Goldstein, Ibrahim Matter, Mostafa Somri, Elad Schiff
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing surgery often use Dietary and Herbal Supplements (DHS). We explored the risk of DHS-drug interactions in the perioperative setting. METHODS: In this cross-sectional prospective study, participants hospitalized for surgery completed a questionnaire regarding DHS use. We used pharmacological databases to assess DHS-drug interactions. We then applied univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to characterize patients at risk for DHS-drug interactions...
November 22, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876090/the-impact-of-household-wealth-on-child-survival-in-ghana
#7
Stella T Lartey, Rasheda Khanam, Shingo Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Improving child health is one of the major policy agendas for most of the governments, especially in the developing countries. These governments have been implementing various strategies such as improving healthcare financing, improving access to health, increasing educational level, and income level of the household to improve child health. Despite all these efforts, under-five and infant mortality rates remain high in many developing nations. Some previous studies examined how economic development or household's economic condition contributes to child survival in developing countries...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859357/postoperative-ambulatory-performance-status-significantly-affects-implant-failure-rate-among-surgical-treatment-strategies-in-patients-with-proximal-femur-metastasis
#8
Shang-Wen Tsai, Po-Kuei Wu, Cheng-Fong Chen, Ming-Chau Chang, Wei-Ming Chen
Surgical treatment strategies for proximal femur metastasis have been reported with mixed results. Little is known about risk factor for implant failure except for longer patient survival. Therefore, we determined whether implant survivorship differed among treatment strategies, as well as risk factors for implant failure. We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive 106 patients with proximal femur metastasis treated with prosthesis replacement (n = 38), intramedullary nail (n = 32), and dynamic hip screw (DHS) (n = 36)...
November 8, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855390/the-role-of-the-ydib-gene-which-encodes-quinate-shikimate-dehydrogenase-in-the-production-of-quinic-dehydroshikimic-and-shikimic-acids-in-a-pts-strain-of-escherichia-coli
#9
Sofía García, Noemí Flores, Ramón De Anda, Georgina Hernández, Guillermo Gosset, Francisco Bolívar, Adelfo Escalante
The culture of engineered Escherichia coli for shikimic acid (SA) production results in the synthesis of quinic acid (QA) and dehydroshikimic acid (DHS), reducing SA yield and impairing downstream processes. The synthesis of QA by quinate/shikimate dehydrogenase (YdiB, ydiB) has been previously proposed; however, the precise role for this enzyme in the production of QA in engineered strains of E. coli for SA production remains unclear. We report the effect of the inactivation or the overexpression of ydiB in E...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837426/the-hiv-epidemic-in-sub-saharan-africa-is-aging-evidence-from-the-demographic-and-health-surveys-in-sub-saharan-africa
#10
Sebastian Vollmer, Kenneth Harttgen, Tobias Alfven, Jude Padayachy, Peter Ghys, Till Bärnighausen
We use the individual-level data from all available Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 27 sub-Saharan African countries conducted between 2003 and 2012 (40 population-based and nationally representative surveys in total) to calculate HIV testing consent rates and HIV prevalence for each country separately, as well as for the pooled sample. The pooled sample comprised of 427,130 individuals. In most countries HIV prevalence in adults aged 45 years and above is higher than in the total population. We further show that over the past decade HIV prevalence has increased in older age groups, while it has decreased in younger ones...
November 11, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832778/inequality-in-the-use-of-maternal-and-child-health-services-in-the-philippines-do-pro-poor-health-policies-result-in-more-equitable-use-of-services
#11
Karlo Paolo P Paredes
BACKGROUND: The Philippines failed to achieve its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) commitment to reduce maternal deaths by three quarters. This, together with the recently launched Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), reinforces the need for the country to keep up in improving reach of maternal and child health (MCH) services. Inequitable use of health services is a risk factor for the differences in health outcomes across socio-economic groups. This study aims to explore the extent of inequities in the use of MCH services in the Philippines after pro-poor national health policy reforms...
November 10, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829489/does-adjusting-for-recall-in-trend-analysis-affect-coverage-estimates-for-maternal-and-child-health-indicators-an-analysis-of-dhs-and-mics-survey-data
#12
Nobubelo K Ngandu, Samuel Manda, Donela Besada, Sarah Rohde, Nicholas P Oliphant, Tanya Doherty
BACKGROUND: The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) are the major data sources in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) for evaluating health service coverage. For certain maternal and child health (MCH) indicators, the two surveys use different recall periods: 5 years for DHS and 2 years for MICS. OBJECTIVE: We explored whether the different recall periods for DHS and MICS affect coverage trend analyses as well as missing data and coverage estimates...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810151/markers-of-muscle-damage-for-comparing-soft-tissue-injury-following-proximal-femur-nail-and-dynamic-hip-screw-operations-for-intertrochanteric-hip-fractures
#13
Yonathan Wagman, Ortal Segal, Israel Dudkiewicz, Ely Steinberg
BACKGROUND: Femoral neck fractures are the most common fractures among the elderly. The two operative approaches used for the treatment of AO/OTA 31 intertrochanteric fractures include an intramedullary device (proximal femoral nail [PFN]) or an extramedullary device (sliding/dynamic hip screw [DHS]). The aim of this study was to provide objective evidence of local soft tissue injury by measuring serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK), a biochemical marker, to quantify muscle damage and inflammation in patients treated by the two approaches...
December 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804155/birth-interval-and-stunting-in-children-under-five-years-of-age-in-peru-1996-2014
#14
M Sobrino, C Gutiérrez, J Alarcón, M Dávila, A J Cunha
BACKGROUND: Examine the evolution of stunting in <5 years of age in Peru and its relationship with birth interval (BI), and associated factors from 1996 to 2014. METHODS: Data were extracted from the National Demographic and Health Survey of Peru (DHS) for the years 1996, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014 on children <5 years of age for stunting (height / age ≤ 2DS). The main independent variable of interest was BI dichotomized by interval between date of last and penultimate birth (≤24 months vs...
November 1, 2016: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798003/medical-claims-based-case-control-study-of-temporal-relationship-between-clinical-visits-for-hand-syndromes-and-subsequent-diabetes-diagnosis-implications-for-identifying-patients-with-undiagnosed-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Wen-Hsuan Hou, Chung-Yi Li, Lu-Hsuan Chen, Liang-Yi Wang, Li-Chieh Kuo, Ken N Kuo, Hsiu-Nien Shen, Chang-Ta Chiu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether a temporal relationship is present between clinical visits for diabetes-related hand syndromes (DHSs) and subsequent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) diagnosis and, accordingly, whether DHSs can be used for identifying patients with undiagnosed T2DM. DESIGN: This study had a case-control design nested within a cohort of 1 million people from the general population, which was followed from 2005 to 2010. The odds of prior clinical visits for DHSs, namely carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), flexor tenosynovitis, limited joint mobility and Dupuytren's disease, were estimated for cases and controls...
October 20, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796418/eukaryotic-community-shift-in-response-to-organic-loading-rate-of-an-aerobic-trickling-filter-down-flow-hanging-sponge-reactor-treating-domestic-sewage
#16
Yuma Miyaoka, Masashi Hatamoto, Takashi Yamaguchi, Kazuaki Syutsubo
In this study, changes in eukaryotic community structure and water quality were investigated in an aerobic trickling filter (down-flow hanging sponge, DHS) treating domestic sewage under different organic loading rates (OLRs). The OLR clearly influenced both sponge pore water quality and relative flagellates and ciliates (free-swimming, carnivorous, crawling, and stalked protozoa) abundances in the retained sludge. Immediately after the OLR was increased from 1.05 to 1.97 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) m(-3) day(-1), COD and NH4(+)-N treatment efficiencies both deteriorated, and relative flagellates and ciliates abundances then increased from 2-8 % to 51-65 % total cells in the middle-bottom part of the DHS reactor...
October 28, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795676/development-of-new-restorer-lines-for-cms-ogura-system-with-the-use-of-resynthesized-oilseed-rape-brassica-napus-l
#17
Laurencja Szała, Katarzyna Sosnowska, Wiesława Popławska, Alina Liersch, Anna Olejnik, Katarzyna Kozłowska, Jan Bocianowski, Teresa Cegielska-Taras
Resynthesized (RS) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is potentially of great interest for hybrid breeding. However, a major problem with the direct use of RS B. napus is the quality of seed oil (high level of erucic acid) and seed meal (high glucosinolate content), which does not comply with double-low quality oilseed rape. Thus, additional developments are needed before RS B. napus can be introduced into breeding practice. In this study, RS oilseed rape was obtained through crosses between B. rapa ssp. chinensis var...
September 2016: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790970/socio-economic-inequity-in-hiv-testing-in-malawi
#18
Sung Wook Kim, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Hassan Haghparast-Bidgoli, Anni-Maria Pulkki-Brännström
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a significant contributor to Malawi's burden of disease. Despite a number of studies describing socio-economic differences in HIV prevalence, there is a paucity of evidence on socio-economic inequity in HIV testing in Malawi. OBJECTIVE: To assess horizontal inequity (HI) in HIV testing in Malawi. DESIGN: Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHSs) 2004 and 2010 in Malawi are used for the analysis...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790531/dynamic-hip-screw-with-trochanteric-stablization-plate-fixation-of-unstable-inter-trochanteric-fractures-a-prospective-study-of-functional-and-radiological-outcomes
#19
Ashwin Shetty, Arjun Ballal, Anand Kumar Sadasivan, Anoop Hegde
INTRODUCTION: Management of unstable intertrochanteric fractures have posed a unique challenge to orthopaedicians over years. Several surgical techniques and implants have been developed for the same. Fractures of the lateral wall have been considered as the major cause of femoral medialization after fixation by Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS). Studies have shown that supplementation of trochanteric stabilization plate reduces the incidence of femoral medialization. AIM: To assess the radiological union and hip function after fixation of unstable intertrochanteric fractures with DHS and Trochanteric Stabilization Plate (TSP)...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787349/reply-to-trends-in-responses-to-dhs-questions-should-not-be-interpreted-as-reflecting-an-increase-in-anticipated-stigma-in-africa
#20
Brian T Chan, Alexander C Tsai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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