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Wimonchat Tangamornsuksan, Manupat Lohitnavy
Importance: Dapsone-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is a life-threatening adverse drug reaction. Based on available epidemiologic studies, HLA genotypes may play an important role in DHS. Objective: To assess the association between HLA-B*1301 and dapsone-induced cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADRs). Data Sources: Human studies investigating associations between HLA-B*1301 and dapsone-induced cADRs were systematically searched without language restriction from the inception of each database until September 12, 2017, in PubMed, the Human Genome Epidemiology Network), and the Cochrane Library...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
Sanjay Chauhan, Sayeed Unisa, Beena Joshi, Ragini Kulkarni, Amarjeet Singh, Thilakavathi Subramanian, Ramendra Narayan Chaudhuri, A C Baishya, Shalini Bharat, Anushree Patil, Achhelal Pasi, Dinesh Agarwal
Background: Infertility is a neglected service component in the public health-care system in India. Objectives: This study aims to assess the availability and practices on prevention and management services for infertility in the district health system. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey of selected health facilities and the staff from 12 district hospitals (DHs), 24 community health centers (CHCs), 48 primary health centers (PHCs), and 48 subcenters was conducted using qualitative and quantitative methods...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Miguel Marino, Marcello Pagano
Background: Nationally-representative surveys suggest that females have a higher prevalence of HIV than males in most African countries. Unfortunately, these results are made on the basis of surveys with non-ignorable missing data. This study evaluates the impact that differential survey nonresponse rates between males and females can have on the point estimate of the HIV prevalence ratio of these two classifiers. Methods: We study 29 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 2001 to 2010...
2018: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
Lei Gao, Keliang Wu, Zhenbo Liu, Xuelong Yao, Shenli Yuan, Wenrong Tao, Lizhi Yi, Guanling Yu, Zhenzhen Hou, Dongdong Fan, Yong Tian, Jianqiao Liu, Zi-Jiang Chen, Jiang Liu
The dynamics of the chromatin regulatory landscape during human early embryogenesis remains unknown. Using DNase I hypersensitive site (DHS) sequencing, we report that the chromatin accessibility landscape is gradually established during human early embryogenesis. Interestingly, the DHSs with OCT4 binding motifs are enriched at the timing of zygotic genome activation (ZGA) in humans, but not in mice. Consistently, OCT4 contributes to ZGA in humans, but not in mice. We further find that lower CpG promoters usually establish DHSs at later stages...
February 28, 2018: Cell
Markus Schlee, Florian Rathe, Claudine Bommer, Frank Bröseler, Lucy Kind
BACKGROUND: Patient reported dentin hypersensitivity [DHS] pain is a common finding linked with periodontal disease. This pilot clinical study investigates a novel therapeutic regimen using self-assembling peptide matrix [SAPM] gel (test) and compare it to the use of an 8% arginine and calcium carbonate [ACC] toothpaste (control) for treatment of DHS. METHODS: 50 patients with history of Supportive Periodontal Therapy [SPT] were enrolled in the prospective, randomized monocentric clinical study, of which 45 (test: N = 22; control: N = 23) fulfilled all the study visits...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Sarayu Pai, Renuka Munshi, Chitra Nayak
Dapsone has been part of the World Health Organization multidrug therapy for the treatment of leprosy. While it has been efficacious in the management of leprosy, there are many patients who develop adverse drug reactions to the drug including life-threatening reactions such as dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS). We report a case of a patient who was prescribed dapsone as part of multidrug therapy for leprosy following which she developed DHS. Her condition worsened after tapering the oral steroids given to manage the DHS, and she was detected to have hypothyroidism...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Clara R Burgert-Brucker, Trinadh Dontamsetti, Peter W Gething
Spatially interpolated map surface datasets for key development indicators are being produced and publicly shared using population-based surveys from the USAID-funded Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) Program. Each modeled surface is produced with standardized geostatistical modeling methods. For each indicator, a package is available that includes spatial raster grids of 5 × 5 km pixels for the point estimate surface and an uncertainty surface, along with validation statistics and other model diagnostic data...
February 27, 2018: Studies in Family Planning
Benjamin Amoah, Emanuele Giorgi, Daniel J Heyes, Stef van Burren, Peter John Diggle
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition among children under 5 years of age continues to be a public health challenge in many low- and middle-income countries and can lead to growth stunting. Infectious diseases may also affect child growth, however their actual impact on the latter can be difficult to quantify. In this paper, we analyse data from 20 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in 13 African countries to investigate the relationship between malaria and stunting. Our objective is to make inference on the association between malaria incidence during the first year of life and height-for-age Z-scores (HAZs)...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Jun-Ying Wang, Yong-Hui Gao, Li-Na Qiao, Jian-Liang Zhang, Cheng-Lin Duan-Mu, Ya-Xia Yan, Shu-Ping Chen, Jun-Ling Liu
BACKGROUND: Cumulated evidence reveals that glial cells in the spinal cord play an important role in the development of chronic neuropathic pain and are also complicated in the analgesic effect of EA intervention. But the roles of microgliacytes and astrocytes of spinal cord in the process of EA analgesia remain unknown. METHODS: A total of 120 male Wistar rats were used in the present study. The neuropathic pain model was established by chronic constrictive injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve...
February 21, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Hainan Zhao, Wenli Zhang, Lifen Chen, Lei Wang, Alexandre P Marand, Yufeng Wu, Jiming Jiang
Genomic regions free of nucleosomes are hypersensitive to DNase I digestion. These genomic regions are known as DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) and frequently contain cis-regulatory DNA elements. We developed high-resolution genome-wide DHS maps in maize using a modified DNase-seq technique. Maize DHSs exhibit depletion of nucleosomes and low levels of DNA methylation, and are enriched with conserved non-coding sequences (CNSs). We developed a protoplast-based transient transformation assay to validate the potential enhancer and/or promoter functions associated with DHSs...
February 20, 2018: Plant Physiology
Christine Brückner, Mislav Oreb, Gotthard Kunze, Eckhard Boles, Joanna Tripp
A wide range of commercially relevant aromatic chemicals can be synthesized via the shikimic acid pathway. Thus, this pathway has been the target of diverse metabolic engineering strategies. In the present work, an optimized yeast strain for production of the shikimic acid pathway intermediate 3-dehydroshikimate (3-DHS) was generated, which is a precursor for the production of the valuable compounds cis, cis-muconic acid (CCM) and gallic acid (GA). Production of CCM requires the overexpression of the heterologous enzymes 3-DHS dehydratase AroZ, protocatechuic acid (PCA) decarboxylase AroY and catechol dioxygenase CatA...
February 15, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Xue-Qing Hu, Bin Wei, Ya-Nan Song, Qing Ji, Qi Li, Yun-Quan Luo, Wen-Hai Wang, Shi-Bing Su
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the metabolic profiles of postoperative colorectal cancer (PCRC) patients with different traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes and to discuss the metabolic mechanism under PCRC progression and TCM syndrome classification. METHODS: Fifty healthy controls (HC) and 70 PCRC patients, including 10 Dampness and heat syndrome (DHS), 33 Spleen deficiency syndrome (SDS), 19 Liver and kidney Yin deficiency syndrome (LKYDS) and 8 with non-TCM syndrome (NS) were enrolled...
February 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Mark M Janko, Seth R Irish, Brian J Reich, Marc Peterson, Stephanie M Doctor, Melchior Kashamuka Mwandagalirwa, Joris L Likwela, Antoinette K Tshefu, Steven R Meshnick, Michael E Emch
Background: The relationship between agriculture, Anopheles mosquitoes, and malaria in Africa is not fully understood, but it is important for malaria control as countries consider expanding agricultural projects to address population growth and food demand. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of agriculture on Anopheles biting behaviour and malaria risk in children in rural areas of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo). Methods: We did a population-based, cross-sectional, spatial study of rural children (<5 years) in the DR Congo...
February 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
C Edson Utazi, Julia Thorley, Victor A Alegana, Matthew J Ferrari, Saki Takahashi, C Jessica E Metcalf, Justin Lessler, Andrew J Tatem
BACKGROUND: The expansion of childhood vaccination programs in low and middle income countries has been a substantial public health success story. Indicators of the performance of intervention programmes such as coverage levels and numbers covered are typically measured through national statistics or at the scale of large regions due to survey design, administrative convenience or operational limitations. These mask heterogeneities and 'coldspots' of low coverage that may allow diseases to persist, even if overall coverage is high...
February 14, 2018: Vaccine
Rocío Ríos-Reina, M Lourdes Morales, Diego L García-González, José M Amigo, Raquel M Callejón
High-quality wine vinegars have been registered in Spain under protected designation of origin (PDO): "Vinagre de Jerez", "Vinagre de Condado de Huelva" and "Vinagre de Montilla-Moriles". The raw material, production and aging processes determine their quality and their aromatic composition. Vinegar volatile profile is usually analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), being necessary a previous extraction step. Thus, three different sampling methods (Headspace solid phase microextraction "HS-SPME", Headspace stir bar sorptive extraction "HSSE" and Dynamic headspace extraction "DHS") were studied for the analysis of the volatile composition of Spanish PDO wine vinegars...
March 2018: Food Research International
Zihan Qin, Mikael A Petersen, Wender L P Bredie
The aim of this study was to characterize the flavor profiles of 14 commercial apple ciders from the United Kingdom and Scandinavian region. The flavor properties were established by sensory profiling and analysis of volatile and non-volatile components, including titratable acidity, pH, residual sugars and organic acids. A total of 72 volatile compounds were identified in the 14 apple ciders using dynamic headspace sampling (DHS) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main volatile compounds found in apple ciders were esters and higher alcohols, followed by aldehydes and fatty acids...
March 2018: Food Research International
Nina B Masters, Abram L Wagner, Bradley F Carlson, Matthew L Boulton
BACKGROUND: Timely administration of recommended vaccines requires children to have multiple vaccines co-administered in the first year of life. The objectives of this study were to estimate the proportion of timely vaccinations and the proportion of co-administered vaccines, and to assess the relationship between vaccine co-administration and vaccine timeliness in Kenyan children. METHODS: Using the 2014 Kenyan Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), we calculated the proportion of children who received co-administered and timely vaccine doses...
March 7, 2018: Vaccine
W Wang, S Zhai, X P Han, Y Cui
Objective: To compare the effect of proximal femoral nail anti-rotation and dynamic hip screw in treating the femoral intertrochanteric fractures in elderly patients. Methods: From June 2011 to June 2014, totally 158 elderly patients of femoral intertrochanteric fracture were treated by surgery, among whom 68 cases were treated with dynamic hip screws (DHS), and 90 patients were treated with proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA). The operative time, hospitalization time, weight-bearing time, fracture-healing time, blood loss and the hip function score after the operation were compared between the two groups by using the t test; and the incidence of the postoperative complication was compared between the two groups by using the Chi square test...
January 30, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
P P A Oliveira, R R S Corte, S L Silva, P H M Rodriguez, L S Sakamoto, A F Pedroso, R R Tullio, A Berndt
This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of four levels of intensification of grazing systems: 1) degraded pasture - DP; 2) irrigated pasture with high stocking rate - IHS; 3) dryland pasture with high stocking rate - DHS; 4) dryland pasture with moderate stocking rate - DMS; on growth, muscle development and meat quality of Nellore steers (271±2.2kg of live body weight - BW; 15months old) during two consecutive periods (17 and 15months). The final BW, the average daily BW gain, the hot carcass weight and the dress percentage were greater (P<0...
February 7, 2018: Meat Science
Bright Opoku Ahinkorah, Kwamena Sekyi Dickson, Abdul-Aziz Seidu
Background: Violence against women is a common form of human rights violation, and intimate partner violence (IPV) appears to be the most significant component of violence. The aim of this study was to examine the association between women decision-making capacity and IPV among Women in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study also looked at how socio-demographic factors also influence IPV among Women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: The study made use of pooled data from most recent Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted from January 1, 2010, and December 3, 2016, in 18 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa...
2018: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
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