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Jillian L Cordes, Anne Stangl, Shari Krishnaratne, Graeme Hoddinott, Hlengani Mathema, Virginia Bond, Janet Seeley, James R Hargreaves
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Lucy S Tusting, Christian Bottomley, Harry Gibson, Immo Kleinschmidt, Andrew J Tatem, Steve W Lindsay, Peter W Gething
BACKGROUND: Improvements to housing may contribute to malaria control and elimination by reducing house entry by malaria vectors and thus exposure to biting. We tested the hypothesis that the odds of malaria infection are lower in modern, improved housing compared to traditional housing in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed 15 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and 14 Malaria Indicator Surveys (MIS) conducted in 21 countries in SSA between 2008 and 2015 that measured malaria infection by microscopy or rapid diagnostic test (RDT)...
February 2017: PLoS Medicine
Mats Målqvist, Asha Pun, Ashish Kc
AIMS: Postnatal care of the newborn is essential in order to reduce neonatal mortality. Nepal has made great efforts to improve maternal and child health by focusing on accessibility and outreach over the past decades. This study aims to examine trends, over the past decade, in levels and equity of facility delivery rates and the provision of newborn care after home delivery in Nepal. METHODS: Household-level data from the Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) 2006 and 2011 and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS5) from 2014 performed in Nepal was sourced for the study...
March 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Andrew E Teschendorff, Charles E Breeze, Shijie C Zheng, Stephan Beck
BACKGROUND: Intra-sample cellular heterogeneity presents numerous challenges to the identification of biomarkers in large Epigenome-Wide Association Studies (EWAS). While a number of reference-based deconvolution algorithms have emerged, their potential remains underexplored and a comparative evaluation of these algorithms beyond tissues such as blood is still lacking. RESULTS: Here we present a novel framework for reference-based inference, which leverages cell-type specific DNAse Hypersensitive Site (DHS) information from the NIH Epigenomics Roadmap to construct an improved reference DNA methylation database...
February 13, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
Eskil Kreiner, Johannes Waage, Marie Standl, Susanne Brix, Tune H Pers, Alexessander Couto Alves, Nicole M Warrington, Carla Mt Tiesler, Elaine Fuertes, Lude Franke, Joel N Hirschhorn, Alan James, Angela Simpson, Joyce Y Tung, Gerard H Koppelman, Dirkje S Postma, Craig E Pennell, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Adnan Custovic, Nicholas Timpson, Manuel A Ferreira, David P Strachan, John Henderson, David Hinds, Hans Bisgaard, Klaus Bønnelykke
BACKGROUND: The relationship between allergy and autoimmune disorders is complex and poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate commonalities in genetic loci and pathways between allergy and autoimmune diseases to elucidate shared disease mechanisms. METHODS: We meta-analyzed two GWAS on self-reported allergy and sensitization comprising a total of 62,330 individuals. These results were used to calculate enrichment for SNPs previously associated with autoimmune diseases...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Rachel Roche, Robert Bain, Oliver Cumming
BACKGROUND: Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are essential for a healthy and dignified life. International targets to reduce inadequate WASH coverage were set under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 1990-2015) and now the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, 2016-2030). The MDGs called for halving the proportion of the population without access to adequate water and sanitation, whereas the SDGs call for universal access, require the progressive reduction of inequalities, and include hygiene in addition to water and sanitation...
2017: PloS One
Chao Zhang, Yuming Zhou, Yiwei Zhang, Shuo Zhao, Jiasheng Fang, Xiaoli Sheng, Tao Zhang, Hongxing Zhang
High-quality double-shelled TiO2 hollow sphere (DHS-Ti) assembled with TiO2 nanosheets has been synthesized firstly via a simple solvothermal treatment of sSiO2@TiO2. The double-shelled structure shows a high BET surface area up to 417.6 m2g-1. Anatase DHS-Ti of high crystallinity can be obtained without collapse by calcination treatment. Besides, the effects of CTAB concentration, pH and hydrothermal temperature have also been investigated with a series of contrast experiments. A formation mechanism involving the in-situ growth of amorphous TiO2 nanosheets followed by the redeposition of dissolved silica species is proposed...
February 8, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Benedict Oppong Asamoah, Anette Agardh
OBJECTIVE: To achieve universal coverage of reproductive healthcare and drastic reduction in maternal mortality, adequate attention and resources should be given to young women. This study therefore aimed to examine the inequality trends in the use of antenatal care (ANC) services and skilled birth attendance (SBA) within a subgroup of Ghanaian women aged 15-24 years between 2003 and 2014. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study that used data from the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) 2003, 2008 and 2014...
February 7, 2017: BMJ Open
Peter Hangoma, Arild Aakvik, Bjarne Robberstad
BACKGROUND: Child health interventions were drastically scaled up in the period leading up to 2015 as countries aimed at meeting the 2015 target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). MDGs were defined in terms of achieving improvements in average health. Significant improvements in average child health are documented, but evidence also points to rising inequality. It is important to investigate factors that drive the increasing disparities in order to inform the post-2015 development agenda of reducing inequality, as captured in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)...
2017: PloS One
Qingyong Tian, Wei Wu, Jun Liu, Zhaohui Wu, Weijing Yao, Jin Ding, Changzhong Jiang
The development of photocatalysts with superior photoactivity and stability for the degradation of organic dyes is very important for environmental remediation. In this study, we have presented a multidimensional (1D and 2D) structured CdS/ZnIn2S4/RGO photocatalyst with superior photocatalytic performance. The CdS/ZnIn2S4 helical dimensional heterostructures (DHS) were prepared via a facile solvothermal synthesis method to facilitate the epitaxial growth of 2D ZnIn2S4 nanosheets on 1D CdS nanowires. Ultrathin 2D ZnIn2S4 nanosheets have grown uniformly and perpendicular to the surface of 1D CdS nanowires...
February 7, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Na Wang, Leela Parimi, Hong Liu, Furen Zhang
Dapsone is a bactericidal and bacteriostatic against Mycobacterium leprae, a causative agent of leprosy. Dapsone is also applied in a range of medical fields because of its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is a rare yet serious adverse drug reaction (ADR) caused by dapsone involving multiple organs. We performed a systematic review of published articles describing dapsone-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, including all Chinese articles and the latest literature available in online databases published between October 2009 and October 2015...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Tammy Leonard, Colby Ayers, Sandeep R Das, Ian J Neeland, Tiffany M Powell-Wiley
The few available population-based longitudinal studies examining the link between change in neighborhood condition and weight change to date have only examined neighborhood changes generated by residential mobility. Applying a difference-in-difference analytic framework to data from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), a multi-ethnic, population-based cohort in Dallas County, TX, we evaluated the relationship between changes in neighborhood condition and weight change for both movers and non-movers over an approximate seven-year follow-up period...
February 3, 2017: Health & Place
Jae Ho Lee, Sae Woong Park, Young Min Kim, Jeong-Il Oh
Terrabacter carboxydivorans is able to grow aerobically at low concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) as a sole source of carbon and energy. The genes for carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CO-DH) were cloned from T. carboxydivorans and analyzed. The operon encoding T. carboxydivorans CO-DH was composed of three structural genes with the transcriptional order of cutB, cutC and cutA, as well as an additional accessory gene (orf4). Phylogenetic analysis of CutA revealed that T. carboxydivorans CO-DH was classified into a group distinct from previously characterized CO-DHs...
February 1, 2017: Research in Microbiology
Yovitha Sedekia, Rose Nathan, Kathryn Church, Silas Temu, Claudia Hanson, Joanna Schellenberg, Tanya Marchant
BACKGROUND: Currently, family planning metrics derived from nationally-representative household surveys such as the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) categorise women into those desiring to space or limit (permanently stop) births, or according to their age in the case of young women. This conceptualisation potentially ignores a large and growing group of young women who desire to delay a first birth. This study uses household survey data to investigate the characteristics and needs for family planning of women who want to delay their first birth...
January 31, 2017: BMC Public Health
Elina Kiviharju, Sirpa Moisander, Pirjo Tanhuanpää
Possibility to make doubled haploids (DHs) from varying crossing populations is a useful tool for enhancing cultivar breeding, and a source of valuable material for genetic research. Oats is reported to be recalcitrant in anther culture with low response and genotype dependency. However, the best recoveries reported have reached up to 30 green regenerants per 100 isolated anthers, which clearly addresses the potential of this technique. In this chapter, one successful oat anther culture protocol is described in detail...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Philip A Davies, Parminder K Sidhu
Doubled haploids (DHs) are an important tool for the accelerated production of new crop varieties. In oat, DHs were first produced by pollinating oat florets with maize pollen. The resultant embryos spontaneously eliminate the maize chromosomes leaving a haploid complement of oat chromosomes. These embryos can be cultured in vitro using the "embryo rescue" technique to produce haploid plants whose chromosome number can be doubled with colchicine to produce homozygous DH oat plants.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xianshang Zeng, Ke Zhan, Lili Zhang, Dan Zeng, Weiguang Yu, Xinchao Zhang, Mingdong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Conversion to total hip arthroplasty (CTHA) is a relatively common procedure after a failed dynamic hip screw (DHS) or proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA) fixation of intertrochanteric fractures, but there have been far fewer reports specifically describing the long-term results of CTHA after failed treatments of stable intertrochanteric fractures with DHS or PFNA. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical and radiological outcomes of CTHA after failed PFNA or DHS fixations of stable intertrochanteric fractures after a minimum follow-up of 3 years...
January 25, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Saverio Bellizzi, Quique Bassat, Mohamed M Ali, Howard L Sobel, Marleen Temmerman
BACKGROUND: Around 1.5 million annual neonatal deaths occur in the first week of life, and infections represent one of the major causes in developing countries. Neonatal sepsis is often strictly connected to infection of the maternal genital tract during labour. METHODS: The association between signs suggestive of puerperal infection and early neonatal mortality (<7 days of life) was performed using Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data of six countries, conducted between 2010 and 2013...
2017: PloS One
Michael A Beer
We participated in the Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation eQTL challenge to further test computational models of regulatory variant impact and their association with human disease. Our prediction model is based on a discriminative gapped-kmer SVM (gkm-SVM) trained on genome-wide chromatin accessibility data in the cell type of interest. The comparisons with Massively Parallel Reporter Assays (MPRA) in lymphoblasts show that gkm-SVM is among the most accurate prediction models even though all other models used the MPRA data for model training, while gkm-SVM did not...
January 25, 2017: Human Mutation
Benjamin Daniels, Sarah J Lord, Belinda E Kiely, Nehmat Houssami, Philip Haywood, Christine Y Lu, Robyn L Ward, Sallie-Anne Pearson
BACKGROUND: The management of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer (BC) has changed dramatically with the introduction and widespread use of HER2-targeted therapies. However, there is relatively limited real-world information on patterns of use, effectiveness and safety in whole of population cohorts. The research programme detailed in this protocol will generate evidence on the prescribing patterns, safety monitoring and outcomes of patients with BC treated with HER2-targeted therapies in Australia...
January 24, 2017: BMJ Open
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