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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441458/evidence-that-promotion-of-male-circumcision-did-not-lead-to-sexual-risk-compensation-in-prioritized-sub-saharan-countries
#1
Chyun-Fung Shi, Michael Li, Jonathan Dushoff
BACKGROUND: WHO and UNAIDS prioritized 14 eastern and southern African countries with high HIV and low male circumcision prevalence for a voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) scale-up in 2007. Because circumcision provides only partial protection against HIV infection to men, the issue of possible risk compensation in response to VMMC campaigns is of particular concern. In this study, we looked at population-level survey data from the countries prioritized by WHO for a VMMC scale-up...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441434/testing-survey-based-methods-for-rapid-monitoring-of-child-mortality-with-implications-for-summary-birth-history-data
#2
Eoghan Brady, Kenneth Hill
INTRODUCTION: Under-five mortality estimates are increasingly used in low and middle income countries to target interventions and measure performance against global development goals. Two new methods to rapidly estimate under-5 mortality based on Summary Birth Histories (SBH) were described in a previous paper and tested with data available. This analysis tests the methods using data appropriate to each method from 5 countries that lack vital registration systems. SBH data are collected across many countries through censuses and surveys, and indirect methods often rely upon their quality to estimate mortality rates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434124/comparative-outcome-of-pfna-gamma-nails-pccp-medoff-plate-liss-and-dynamic-hip-screws-for-fixation-in-elderly-trochanteric-fractures-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#3
Alisara Arirachakaran, Tanawat Amphansap, Pichaya Thanindratarn, Peerapong Piyapittayanun, Phutsapong Srisawat, Jatupon Kongtharvonskul
The ideal implant for the treatment of an unstable intertrochanteric femoral fracture is still a matter of discussion. The aim of this systematic review is to conduct a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing clinical outcomes between dynamic hip screws (DHS), Medoff sliding plating, percutaneous compression plating (PCCP), proximal femoral nails (PFN), Gamma nails and less invasive stabilization system fixation in femoral trochanteric fractures in the elderly. These clinical outcomes consist of total intra-operative time, intra-operative fluoroscopy time, intra-operative blood loss, blood component transfusion, length of hospital stay, postoperative general complications, wound complications, late complications and reoperation rates...
April 22, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433928/child-disability-and-siblings-healthcare-expenditures-in-a-context-of-child-fostering
#4
REVIEW
Arlette Simo Fotso
Many studies have assessed the impact of disability on healthcare expenditures for the disabled child, but practically none has considered the externalities of a child's disability in terms of healthcare expenditures for his/her siblings. This study therefore seeks to measure the impact of a child's disability on the allocation of healthcare expenditures among children of a household. It uses data from the 2011 Demographic Health and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (DHS-MICS) conducted in Cameroon by the National Statistics Institute (INS), with support from UNFPA, UNICEF, the World Bank and USAID...
April 14, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427337/treatment-seeking-behaviour-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-estimated-using-a-bayesian-model
#5
Victor A Alegana, Jim Wright, Carla Pezzulo, Andrew J Tatem, Peter M Atkinson
BACKGROUND: Seeking treatment in formal healthcare for uncomplicated infections is vital to combating disease in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Healthcare treatment-seeking behaviour varies within and between communities and is modified by socio-economic, demographic, and physical factors. As a result, it remains a challenge to quantify healthcare treatment-seeking behaviour using a metric that is comparable across communities. Here, we present an application for transforming individual categorical responses (actions related to fever) to a continuous probabilistic estimate of fever treatment for one country in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)...
April 20, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417681/proximal-femoral-nail-antirotation-versus-dynamic-hip-screw-fixation-for-treatment-of-osteoporotic-type-31-a1-intertrochanteric-femoral-fractures-in-elderly-patients
#6
Xianshang Zeng, Nan Zhang, Dan Zeng, Lili Zhang, Ping Xu, Lei Cao, Weiguang Yu, Ke Zhan, Xinchao Zhang
Objective To evaluate long-term radiographic and functional outcomes between dynamic hip screw (DHS) and proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA) fixation for treatment of osteoporotic type 31-A1 intertrochanteric femoral fractures (IFFs) among elderly patients Methods A retrospective comparative study was carried out. Follow-up was performed at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively and yearly thereafter. The primary outcome was the radiographic outcome, and the secondary outcome was the functional outcome...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416833/-diagnosis-and-treatment-for-the-basicervical-fractures-of-the-trochanteric-region
#7
T C Zhang, Z S Zhang, F Zhou, Y Tian, H Q Ji, Y Guo, Y Lv, Z W Yang, G J Hou
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the rate of basicervical fractures and document their diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: From January 2005 to May 2016, 28 basicervical fractures of the 832 trochanteric fractures were collected and evaluated. The patients were treated with multiple screws, dynamic hip screw (DHS), intramedullary nail. Via the operation time, postoperative hospitalization, loss of blood duration the operation, hidden blood loss, total blood loss, mean union time and the final follow-up Harris hip score, the characteristics of different internal fixations were compared and analyzed...
April 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406807/community-level-hiv-stigma-as-a-driver-for-hiv-transmission-risk-behaviors-and-sexually-transmitted-diseases-in-sierra-leone-a-population-based-study
#8
J Daniel Kelly, Michael J Reid, Maureen Lahiff, Alexander C Tsai, Sheri D Weiser
INTRODUCTION: While HIV stigma has been identified as an important risk factor for HIV transmission risk behaviors, little is known about the contribution of community-level HIV stigma to HIV transmission risk behaviors and self-reported sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), or how gender may modify associations. METHODS: We pooled data from the 2008 and 2013 Sierra Leone DHS. For HIV stigma, we examined HIV stigmatizing attitudes and HIV disclosure concerns at both individual and community levels...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396949/factors-influencing-radiation-exposure-during-internal-fixation-of-hip-fractures
#9
G A Kelly, F E Rowan, C Hurson
The use of fluoroscopy is of great importance for operative fixation of fractures. Previous studies have shown an increased fluoroscopy time for intramedullary nails and with junior surgeons in comparison with more experienced surgeons. We examined the impact of operation length on fluoroscopy dose, cumulative fluoroscopy time between consultant and registrar surgeons and cumulative fluoroscopy time between dynamic hip screw and intramedullary nailing. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients admitted to our centre over the period of 1 year...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391929/photodegradation-of-17%C3%AE-ethynylestradiol-in-dissolved-humic-substances-solution-kinetics-mechanism-and-estrogenicity-variation
#10
Dong Ren, Bin Huang, Dan Xiong, Huan He, Xiangqi Meng, Xuejun Pan
17α-Ethynylestradiol (EE2) in natural waters may cause adverse effects on organisms due to its high estrogenic potency. Laboratory studies were performed to study the effects of a local humic acid (LHA), fulvic acid (LFA) and Aldrich humic acid (AHA) on the photochemical behavior and estrogenic potency of EE2. Here photolytic experiments demonstrated that pure aqueous EE2 could undergo direct and self-sensitized photodegradation at a global rate of 0.0068hr(-1). Photodegradation rate of EE2 in 5.0mg/L dissolved humic substances (DHS) was determined to be 0...
April 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391407/influence-of-genetic-and-non-genetic-factors-on-phenytoin-induced-severe-cutaneous-adverse-drug-reactions
#11
Kittika Yampayon, Chonlaphat Sukasem, Chanin Limwongse, Yotin Chinvarun, Therdpong Tempark, Ticha Rerkpattanapipat, Pornpimol Kijsanayotin
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of genetic factors including variants in HLA-B and CYP2C genes and non-genetic factors with phenotype-specific phenytoin (PHT)-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) in Thai patients. METHODS: Thirty-six PHT-induced SCAR cases (15 Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and 21 drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS)/drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS)) and 100 PHT-tolerant controls were studied...
April 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387149/characteristics-of-do-organic-matter-and-ammonium-profile-for-practical-scale-dhs-reactor-under-various-organic-load-and-temperature-conditions
#12
Naoki Nomoto, Muntjeer Ali, Komal Jayaswal, Akinori Iguchi, Masashi Hatamoto, Tsutomu Okubo, Masanobu Takahashi, Kengo Kubota, Tadashi Tagawa, Shigeki Uemura, Takashi Yamaguchi, Hideki Harada
Profile analysis of the down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor was conducted under various temperature and organic load conditions to understand the organic removal and nitrification process for sewage treatment. Under high organic load conditions (3.21-7.89 kg-COD m(-3 )day(-1)), dissolved oxygen (DO) on the upper layer of the reactor was affected by organic matter concentration and water temperature, and sometimes reaches around zero. Almost half of the CODCr was removed by the first layer, which could be attributed to the adsorption of organic matter on sponge media...
April 20, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382141/overexpression-of-myc-and-bcl2-predicts-poor-prognosis-in-patients-with-extranodal-nk-t-cell-lymphoma-nasal-type
#13
Jing-Hua Wang, Xi-Wen Bi, Peng-Fei Li, Zhong-Jun Xia, Hui-Qiang Huang, Wen-Qi Jiang, Yu-Jing Zhang, Liang Wang
Background: Recently double-hit lymphoma or double protein expressor lymphoma has been identified as a distinct group of diffuse large B cell lymphoma with poor prognosis. However, the expression status, clinical and prognostic effect of combined overexpression of MYC and BCL2 in extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) are not known. Materials and methods: Paraffin-embedded lymphoma samples from 53 patients with newly diagnosed ENKTL were studied using immunohistochemistry for MYC and BCL2, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for MYC and BCL2 were done on 5 tissue sections with highest percentages of both MYC and BCL2 positive lymphoma cells...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368525/menstrual-cycle-hormone-changes-in-women-traversing-the-menopause-study-of-women-s-health-across-the-nation
#14
Nanette Santoro, Sybil L Crawford, Samar R El Khoudary, Amanda A Allshouse, Sherri-Ann Burnett-Bowie, Joel Finkelstein, Carol Derby, Karen Matthews, Howard M Kravitz, Sioban D Harlow, Gail A Greendale, Ellen B Gold, Rasa Kazlauskaite, Dan McConnell, Genevieve Neal-Perry, Jelena Pavlovic, John Randolph, Gerson Weiss, Hsiang-Yu Chen, Bill Lasley
Context: Menstrual cycle hormone patterns in women approaching menopause are inadequately studied. Objective: To describe day-to-day menstrual cycle hormones in women as they approach menopause from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Daily Hormone Study (DHS). Design: DHS enrollees collected daily urine for one entire menstrual cycle or up to 50 days, whichever came first, annually, up to the final menstrual period (FMP) or for up to 10 years...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368449/genome-wide-sequencing-of-longan-dimocarpus-longan-lour-provides-insights-into-molecular-basis-of-its-polyphenol-rich-characteristics
#15
YuLing Lin, JiuMeng Min, RuiLian Lai, ZhangYan Wu, YuKun Chen, LiLi Yu, ChunZhen Cheng, YuanChun Jin, QiLin Tian, QingFeng Liu, WeiHua Liu, ChengGuang Zhang, LiXia Lin, Yan Hu, DongMin Zhang, MinKyaw Thu, ZiHao Zhang, ShengCai Liu, ChunShui Zhong, XiaoDong Fang, Jian Wang, Huanming Yang, Rajeev K Varshney, Ye Yin, ZhongXiong Lai
Background: Longan ( Dimocarpus longan Lour.), an important subtropical fruit in the family Sapindaceae , is grown in more than ten countries. Longan is an edible drupe fruit and a source of traditional medicine with polyphenol-rich traits. Tree size, alternate bearing, and witches' broom disease still pose serious problems. To gain insights into the genomic basis of longan traits, a draft genome sequence was assembled. Results: The draft genome (about 471.88 Mb) of a China longan cultivar, 'Honghezi', was estimated to contain 31,007 genes and 261...
March 28, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367794/stunting-among-children-under-3-years-of-age-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-spatial-and-temporal-variations-between-1994-and-2011
#16
Emmanuel Barankanira, Nicolas Molinari, Philippe Msellati, Christian Laurent, Kirsten A Bork
OBJECTIVE: To investigate spatial heterogeneity of stunting prevalence among children in Côte d'Ivoire and examine changes in stunting between 1994 and 2011, to assess the impact of the 2002-2011 civil war that led to temporary partitioning of the country. DESIGN: Data from 1994, 1998 and 2011 Côte d'Ivoire Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) were analysed using a geostatistical approach taking into account spatial autocorrelation. Stunting data were interpolated using ordinary kriging; spatial clusters with high and low stunting prevalence were identified using Kulldorff spatial scan statistics...
April 3, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365754/the-impact-of-health-insurance-on-maternal-health-care-utilization-evidence-from-ghana-indonesia-and-rwanda
#17
Wenjuan Wang, Gheda Temsah, Lindsay Mallick
While research has assessed the impact of health insurance on health care utilization, few studies have focused on the effects of health insurance on use of maternal health care. Analyzing nationally representative data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), this study estimates the impact of health insurance status on the use of maternal health services in three countries with relatively high levels of health insurance coverage-Ghana, Indonesia and Rwanda. The analysis uses propensity score matching to adjust for selection bias in health insurance uptake and to assess the effect of health insurance on four measurements of maternal health care utilization: making at least one antenatal care visit; making four or more antenatal care visits; initiating antenatal care within the first trimester and giving birth in a health facility...
April 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365251/country-level-predictors-of-vaccination-coverage-and-inequalities-in-gavi-supported-countries
#18
Catherine Arsenault, Mira Johri, Arijit Nandi, José M Mendoza Rodríguez, Peter M Hansen, Sam Harper
BACKGROUND: Important inequalities in childhood vaccination coverage persist between countries and population groups. Understanding why some countries achieve higher and more equitable levels of coverage is crucial to redress these inequalities. In this study, we explored the country-level determinants of (1) coverage of the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis- (DTP3) containing vaccine and (2) within-country inequalities in DTP3 coverage in 45 countries supported by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance...
March 29, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363513/measuring-iran-s-success-in-achieving-millennium-development-goal-4-a-systematic-analysis-of-under-5-mortality-at-national-and-subnational-levels-from-1990-to-2015
#19
Younes Mohammadi, Mahboubeh Parsaeian, Parinaz Mehdipour, Ardeshir Khosravi, Bagher Larijani, Ali Sheidaei, Anita Mansouri, Amir Kasaeian, Kamran Yazdani, Maziar Moradi-Lake, Elaheh Kazemi, Saeideh Aghamohammadi, Nazila Rezaei, Maryam Chegini, Rosa Haghshenas, Hamidreza Jamshidi, Farnaz Delavari, Mohsen Asadi-Lari, Farshad Farzadfar
BACKGROUND: Child mortality as one of the key Millennium Development Goals (MDG 4-to reduce child mortality by two-thirds from 1990 to 2015), is included in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 3, target 2-to reduce child mortality to fewer than 25 deaths per 1000 livebirths for all countries by 2030), and is a key indicator of the health system in every country. In this study, we aimed to estimate the level and trend of child mortality from 1990 to 2015 in Iran, to assess the progress of the country and its provinces toward these goals...
March 27, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360032/a-multimodality-strategy-for-cardiovascular-risk-assessment-performance-in-two-population-based-cohorts
#20
James A de Lemos, Colby R Ayers, Benjamin D Levine, Christopher R deFilippi, Thomas J Wang, W Gregory Hundley, Jarett D Berry, Stephen L Seliger, Darren K McGuire, Pamela Ouyang, Mark H Drazner, Matthew J Budoff, Philip Greenland, Christie M Ballantyne, Amit Khera
Background -Current strategies for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment among adults without known CVD are limited by suboptimal performance and a narrow focus on only atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD). We hypothesized that a strategy combining promising biomarkers across multiple different testing modalities would improve global and atherosclerotic CVD risk assessment among individuals without known CVD. Methods -We included participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA, n=6621) and Dallas Heart Study (DHS, n=2202) who were free from CVD and underwent measurement of left ventricular hypertrophy by electrocardiogram (ECG-LVH), coronary artery calcium (CAC), N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)...
March 30, 2017: Circulation
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