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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542176/measuring-personal-beliefs-and-perceived-norms-about-intimate-partner-violence-population-based-survey-experiment-in-rural-uganda
#1
Alexander C Tsai, Bernard Kakuhikire, Jessica M Perkins, Dagmar Vořechovská, Amy Q McDonough, Elizabeth L Ogburn, Jordan M Downey, David R Bangsberg
BACKGROUND: Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted throughout sub-Saharan Africa indicate there is widespread acceptance of intimate partner violence, contributing to an adverse health risk environment for women. While qualitative studies suggest important limitations in the accuracy of the DHS methods used to elicit attitudes toward intimate partner violence, to date there has been little experimental evidence from sub-Saharan Africa that can be brought to bear on this issue...
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540423/direct-treatment-of-high-strength-soft-drink-wastewater-using-a-down-flow-hanging-sponge-reactor-performance-and-microbial-community-dynamics
#2
Junhui Liao, Curtis Fang, Jimmy Yu, Arun Sathyagal, Eric Willman, Wen-Tso Liu
A stand-alone down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system with a two-stage configuration was operated for 700 days to treat synthetic soft drink wastewater at 3000 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD). Throughout the operation, >90% COD and total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency was obtained by the first stage, and a final effluent of COD <60 mg/L (TOC <20 mg/L) was consistently maintained with the second stage. Lower organic removal efficiency was observed to closely correlate with lower pH, higher volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, and higher suspended solid (SS) in the effluent...
May 24, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539502/limited-service-availability-readiness-and-use-of-facility-based-delivery-care-in-haiti-a-study-linking-health-facility-data-and-population-data
#3
Wenjuan Wang, Michelle Winner, Clara R Burgert-Brucker
BACKGROUND: Understanding the barriers that women in Haiti face to giving birth at a health facility is important for improving coverage of facility delivery and reducing persistently high maternal mortality. We linked health facility survey data and population survey data to assess the role of the obstetric service environment in affecting women's use of facility delivery care. METHODS: Data came from the 2012 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and the 2013 Haiti Service Provision Assessment (SPA) survey...
May 24, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538539/pain-and-analgesia-requirements-with-hip-fracture-surgery
#4
Jamie AʼCourt, Deborah Lees, William Harrison, Thomas Ankers, Mike R Reed
BACKGROUND: Hip hemiarthroplasty and dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation are common procedures performed in trauma units, but there is little information regarding perioperative pain experience with respect to these treatment modalities. PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between pain, analgesia requirements, and type of procedure for hip fracture surgery. METHODS: An analysis was performed on consecutive patients presenting with a hip fracture in 2 hospitals over 2 years...
May 2017: Orthopaedic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533847/predictors-of-delayed-antenatal-care-anc-visits-in-nigeria-secondary-analysis-of-2013-nigeria-demographic-and-health-survey-ndhs
#5
Alhaji Abubakar Aliyu, Tukur Dahiru
INTRODUCTION: Antenatal Care (ANC) is an important component of maternal health and covers a wide range of activities with huge potential benefits for positive pregnancy out comes. However, large proportions of women do initiate ANC early resulting in adverse consequences. METHODS: The study utilized the nationally-representative sample of women of reproductive age interviewed during the 2013 Nigeria DHS. Analysis was restricted to 20, 467 women aged 15-49 years who had a live birth in the five-year period prior to the survey...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532490/prevalence-and-determinants-of-childhood-mortality-in-nigeria
#6
Sanni Yaya, Michael Ekholuenetale, Godson Tudeme, Shah Vaibhav, Ghose Bishwajit, Bernard Kadio
BACKGROUND: Childhood mortality has remained a major challenge to public health amongst families in Nigeria and other developing countries. The menace of incessant childhood mortality has been a major concern and this calls for studies to generate new scientific evidence to determine its prevalence and explore predisposing factors associated with it in Nigeria. METHOD: Data was obtained from Nigeria DHS, 2013. The study outcome variable was the total number of children lost by male partners and female partners respectively who were married...
May 22, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530186/synthesis-and-characterisation-of-neem-leaf-extract-2-3-dehydrosalanol-and-quercetin-dihydrate-mediated-silver-nano-particles-for-therapeutic-applications
#7
Bodaballa Avinash, Ravipati Venu, Tollamadugu N V K V Prasad, Mekapogu Alpha Raj, Kothapalli Srinivasa Rao, Chintamaneni Srilatha
The utility of green silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in veterinary medicine is steadily increasing as they have many therapeutic applications against pathogens and arthropods of livestock. In this study, green AgNPs using neem (N-AgNPs), 2,3-dehydrosalanol (2,3-DHS-AgNPs) and quercetin dihydrate (QDH-AgNPs) were synthesised and characterised. Synthesised compounds were characterised by UV-Vis spectroscopy and the peak absorbance was recorded at 370 nm for neem extract. For N-AgNPs, 2,3-DHS-AgNPs and QDH-AgNPs, the maximum absorbance peaks were at 430, 230 and 220 nm, respectively...
June 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513340/questions-about-cervical-and-breast-cancer-screening-knowledge-practice-and-outcomes-a-review-of-demographic-and-health-surveys
#8
Laura Viens, Doug Perin, Virginia Senkomago, Antonio Neri, Mona Saraiya
United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals and the World Health Organization's Global Monitoring Framework support a strong global commitment to reducing the high burden of cervical and breast cancers among low- and middle-income countries. Strategies include vaccination, screening, and early diagnosis. Population-based surveys, such as those conducted by the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program, can collect the information needed to guide cancer control efforts in a standardized comparable manner...
May 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500818/household-microbial-water-quality-testing-in-a-peruvian-demographic-and-health-survey-evaluation-of-the-compartment-bag-test-for-escherichia-coli
#9
Alice Wang, Lanakila McMahan, Shea Rutstein, Christine Stauber, Jorge Reyes, Mark D Sobsey
AbstractThe Joint Monitoring Program relies on household surveys to classify access to improved water sources instead of measuring microbiological quality. The aim of this research was to pilot a novel test for Escherichia coli quantification of household drinking water in the 2011 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) in Peru. In the Compartment Bag Test (CBT), a 100-mL water sample is supplemented with chromogenic medium to support the growth of E. coli, poured into a bag with compartments, and incubated. A color change indicates E...
April 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499748/rates-of-local-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-thinning-before-and-after-disc-hemorrhage-in-glaucoma
#10
Tadamichi Akagi, Linda M Zangwill, Luke J Saunders, Adeleh Yarmohammadi, Patricia Isabel C Manalastas, Min Hee Suh, Christopher A Girkin, Jeffrey M Liebmann, Robert N Weinreb
PURPOSE: To investigate longitudinal temporal and spatial associations between disc hemorrhage (DH) and rates of local retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning before and after DHs. DESIGN: Longitudinal, observational cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Forty eyes of 37 participants (23 with glaucoma and 17 with suspect glaucoma at baseline) with DH episodes during follow-up from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study and the African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study...
May 9, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497045/high-rate-of-deformed-larvae-among-gynogenetic-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-m-fario-doubled-haploids
#11
Krzysztof Jagiełło, Tomasz Zalewski, Stefan Dobosz, Oliwia Michalik, Konrad Ocalewicz
Mitotic gynogenesis results in the production of fully homozygous individuals in a single generation. Since inbred fish were found to exhibit an increased frequency of body deformations that may affect their survival, the main focus of this research was to evaluate the ratio of individuals with spinal deformities among gynogenetic doubled haploids (DHs) brown trout as compared to nonmanipulated heterozygous individuals. Gynogenetic development was induced by the activation of brown trout eggs by UV-irradiated homologous and heterologous (rainbow trout) spermatozoa...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489904/underreporting-of-high-risk-water-and-sanitation-practices-undermines-progress-on-global-targets
#12
Sridhar Vedachalam, Luke H MacDonald, Solomon Shiferaw, Assefa Seme, Kellogg J Schwab
Water and sanitation indicators under the Millennium Development Goals failed to capture high-risk practices undertaken on a regular basis. In conjunction with local partners, fourteen rounds of household surveys using mobile phones with a customized open-source application were conducted across nine study geographies in Asia and Africa. In addition to the main water and sanitation facilities, interviewees (n = 245,054) identified all water and sanitation options regularly used for at least one season of the year...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484811/cultivation-of-denitrifying-anaerobic-methane-oxidizing-microorganisms-in-a-continuous-flow-sponge-bioreactor
#13
Masashi Hatamoto, Takafumi Sato, Sho Nemoto, Takashi Yamaguchi
Anaerobic treatment of sewage has many advantages; however, the effluent contains high levels of dissolved methane. In this study, we investigated the use of a closed-type downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor for application of the denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) reaction for nitrogen and dissolved methane removal. When using nitrate, the DAMO reaction achieved a denitrification rate of 84.4 g N m(-3) day(-1), which is close to that required for practical application of denitrification to anaerobic sewage treatment...
May 8, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473334/the-efficacy-of-rotational-control-designs-in-promoting-torsional-stability-of-hip-fracture-fixation
#14
J D Gosiewski, T P Holsgrove, H S Gill
OBJECTIVES: Fractures of the proximal femur are a common clinical problem, and a number of orthopaedic devices are available for the treatment of such fractures. The objective of this study was to assess the rotational stability, a common failure predictor, of three different rotational control design philosophies: a screw, a helical blade and a deployable crucifix. METHODS: Devices were compared in terms of the mechanical work (W) required to rotate the implant by 6° in a bone substitute material...
May 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470076/examining-the-influence-of-family-physician-supply-on-district-health-system-performance-in-south-africa-an-ecological-analysis-of-key-health-indicators
#15
Klaus B Von Pressentin, Bob J Mash, Tonya M Esterhuizen
BACKGROUND: The supply of appropriate health workers is a key building block in the World Health Organization's model of effective health systems. Primary care teams are stronger if they contain doctors with postgraduate training in family medicine. The contribution of such family physicians to the performance of primary care systems has not been evaluated in the African context. Family physicians with postgraduate training entered the South African district health system (DHS) from 2011...
April 28, 2017: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464455/a-long-range-acting-dehydratase-domain-as-the-missing-link-for-c17-dehydration-in-iso-migrastatin-biosynthesis
#16
Ben Shen, Bo Zhang, Zhengren Xu, Qihui Teng, Guohui Pan, Ming Ma
The dehydratase domains (DHs) of the iso-migrastatin (iso-MGS) polyketide synthase (PKS) were investigated by systematic inactivation of the DHs in module-6, -9, -10 of MgsF (i.e., DH6, DH9, DH10) and module-11 of MgsG (i.e., DH11) in vivo, followed by structural characterization of the metabolites accumulated by the mutants, and biochemical characterization of DH10 in vitro, using polyketide substrate mimics with varying chain lengths. These studies allowed us to assign the functions for all four DHs, identifying DH10 as the dedicated dehydratase that catalyzes the dehydration of the C17 hydroxy group during iso-MGS biosynthesis...
May 2, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452808/specific-location-of-disc-hemorrhage-is-linked-to-nerve-fiber-layer-defects
#17
Young Cheol Yoo, Joon Mo Kim, Han Seok Park, Chungkwon Yoo, Seong Hee Shim, Yu Sam Won, Ki Ho Park, Robert T Chang
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects and the quadrant and proximal location of disc hemorrhages (DHs) in a large population examined for health screening. METHODS: A total of 168,044 subjects older than 20 years underwent a single screening ophthalmic examination with color fundus photography as part of a comprehensive health screening program. The presence and location of DHs and RNFL defects were assessed. The DH locations were defined according to the quadrant location (inferotemporal, superotemporal, inferonasal, or superonasal) and the most proximal end of DHs relative to the disc center (cup base, cup margin, disc rim, or extrapapillary region)...
June 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449723/determinants-of-modern-contraceptive-use-among-sexually-active-men-in-kenya
#18
Rhoune Ochako, Marleen Temmerman, Mwende Mbondo, Ian Askew
BACKGROUND: Research in Kenya has focussed on family planning from women's perspectives, with the aim of helping reduce the burden of unintended pregnancies. As such, the determinants of modern contraceptive use among sexually active women are well documented. However, the perspectives of men should be considered not only as women's partners, but also as individuals with distinct reproductive histories and desires of their own. This study seeks to understand the determinants of modern contraceptive use among sexually active men, by exploring factors that are correlated with modern contraceptive use...
April 27, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449332/behavioural-disinhibition-in-the-general-population-during-the-antiretroviral-therapy-roll-out-in-sub-saharan-africa-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Eva M Legemate, Jan A C Hontelez, Caspar W N Looman, Sake J De Vlas
OBJECTIVES: Improved life expectancy and reduced transmission probabilities due to ART may result in behavioural disinhibition - i.e. an increase in sexual risk behaviour in response to a perceived lower risk of HIV. We examined trends in sexual risk behaviour in the general population of sub-Saharan African countries 1999 - 2015. METHODS: We systematically reviewed scientific literature of sexual behaviour, and reviewed trends in Demographic and Health Surveys...
April 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449238/exposure-response-relationship-of-neighbourhood-sanitation-and-children-s-diarrhea
#20
Youngmee Tiffany Jung, Wendy Lou, Yu-Ling Cheng
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association of neighbourhood sanitation coverage with under-five children's diarrheal morbidity, and to evaluate its exposure-response relationship. METHODS: We used the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 29 developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, conducted between 2010 and 2014. The primary outcome was 2-week incidence of diarrhea in children under 5 years of age (N=300426). We conducted three-level logistic regression analyses and applied cubic splines to assess the trend between neighbourhood-level coverage of improved household sanitation and diarrheal morbidity...
April 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
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